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Full text of "Celtic place-names in Aberdeenshire : with a vocabulary of Gaelic words not in dictionaries ; the meaning and etymology of the Gaelic names of places in Aberdeenshire ; written for the Committee of the Carnegie Trust"

CELTIC PLACE-NAMES 



IN ABERDEENSHIRE 



JOHN MILNE, M.A., LL.D. 



Gc 

941.2501 
M63c 
1740468 




REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PJJBU C LIBRARY 



3 1833 00855 4864 



GENEALOGY 

941.2501 

M63C 



CELTIC PLACE-NAMES 



CELTIC PLACE-NAMES 

IN ABERDEENSHIRE 



WITH A VOCABULARY OF GAELIC WORDS 
NOT IN DICTIONARIES 

THE MEANING AND ETYMOLOGY OF THE 

GAELIC NAMES OF PLACES 

IN ABERDEENSHIRE 



WRITTEN FOR THE COMMITTEE OF THE 
CARNEGIE TRUST 

BY 

JOHN MILNE, M.A., LL.D. 

Author of 
" Aberdeen" and " Plaee-Names of the Lothians " 



ABERDEEN 
ABERDEEN DAILY JOURNAL*' OFFICE 

1912 



1740468 

INTRODUCTION. 



The Aim of the Book. 

This book is intended to give the meaning and the ety- 
mology, so far as they can be discovered, of all the Gaelic 
names of the places on the six-inch Ordnance Survey maps 
of Aberdeenshire. Some names have been added from old 
books and maps. It was necessary to examine all the names 
on the Ordnance Survey maps, because many names which 
appear to be Scotch or English prove to be Gaelic in disguise. 
Here are a few disguised names with their original forms 
and true meanings: — Gateside, Gaothach Suidhe, windy 
place; The Ladder, An Leitir, the hillside; Ladysford, Ath 
Leathan, broad ford; Dicken's Well, Tobar Deochan, well 
of drinks; Bull Well, Buaile Bhaile, town at a cattle- 
fold; Tom Anthon, Tom an Chona, hill of the cotton grass; 
Oily Pig, Uileann Pic, turning at a pointed rock in the sea; 
Skirl Naked, Sgeir Naigheachd, rock at which news was 
signalled. 

Spelling. 

The spelling given on the Ordnance Survey maps has 
been followed because it is in general use and because many 
of the Highland names are not found anywhere but on these 
maps, having been first conferred by the officers of the 
survey. The spelling is, however, often inaccurate. There 
are such errors as Derr for Derry, Fiatach for Fiaclach, 
Shenral for Shenval, Beinn a Bhuird for Beinn a' Bhuird, 
Ladie's for Lady's, Stonny Burn for Stony Burn. The 
word ivitter, meaning a surveyor's mark, has been made The 
Witter in a way indicating that it was thought to be the 
name of a place. The word Sqreuchaig, on Sheet 98, is not 
Gaelic, for the letter q is not in the Gaelic alphabet, and it 
is not English otherwise q would have been followed by u. 



vi Introduction. 

There is a want of uniformity in the spelling of names for 
the same objects. On Sheet 105 there are three ways of 
spelling a name meaning " hill of kids." It is made Craig 
Veann, Creag Mheann, and Craig Meann. In West Aber- 
deenshire the names are Gaelic, and they would be under- 
stood by Gaelic-speaking people if spelled in the Gaelic way, 
and this would make it easy to discover the etymology and 
meaning of a name. The names might be spelled phon- 
etically, and this would facilitate their pronunciation by 
those who do not understand Gaelic. Either way has its 
advantage, but some definite plan should be adopted and 
adhered to. In the second edition of the maps changes of 
spelling have been introduced, some of which are not 
improvements. Bunnsach has been made Bunzeach, which 
is equally meaningless and introduces z, a letter not in the 
Gaelic alphabet. The name means " bottom of a howe," 
and it should have been made either Buniochd as a Gaelic 
name, or Buneoch as a Scotch name. Several names are 
not appropriate to the objects near which they are placed. 
Ca means an unmade hill road for droves of cattle. By some 
person ignorant of Gaelic it has been placed on the top of 
hills instead of near roads along the side. Ben Uarn was 
the phonetic way of spelling Ben Bhearn, meaning " moun- 
tain of the gap," and it was appropriate for a mountain 
with two tops and a great gap between them. It has been 
made Ben Iutharn, mountain of hell, to the perplexity of 
those who have a personal knowledge of the mountain. 
In East Aberdeenshire the names had been corrupted 
almost beyond recognition of their original form, hundreds 
of years before the Ordnance Survey was begun, and the 
officers of the survey are not responsible for mistakes in 
Gaelic names in that part of the country. They must, how- 
ever, get the credit of placing on the top of Dunnideer Hill 
a residence for the spurious Pictish king Grig, alias Gregory 
the Great, alias St Cyrus. They seem not to be aware that 
His Majesty the King has a Historiographer who would keep 
them right in matters of this sort if consulted. If Grig 
really was a king he had been in his grave two hundred years 
before the castle of Dunnideer was built. Sheet 19 S.W. 
shows " The Bloody Butts of Lendrum," in Turriff, as the 



Introduction. vii 

site of a conflict between Donald of the Isles and the Thane 
of Buchan in the 11th century. In Aberdeen we know some- 
thing of Donald, for he was the death of a provost of Aber- 
deen at Harlaw in 1411 ; but the Thane of Buchan we never 
heard of. 

Language. 

There are many stone circles round graves in Aberdeen- 
shire without traces of metal tools, and there is none on the 
great sepulchral circles at Stonehenge. Hence w T e may 
infer that these circles were set up before 2000 B.C., when 
the use of metal tools began in Britain. The first inhabitants 
of the British Isles were called Celts by the Greeks, and we 
give the name Celtic to the language which they spoke. 
In process of time the language had broken up into six or 
seven dialects, differing in the pronunciation and the use 
of words. Three of these, called the Gaelic group — spoken 
in England, Scotland, and Ireland — closely resembled one 
another. The Celtic language is still spoken in some parts 
of Scotland. Though it is always called Gaelic the ancient 
languages of England and Ireland had an equal right to the 
name. The names of places in the three countries had been 
given before the language of the Gaelic group began to break 
up, and I have used Gaelic to denote the ancient language 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Originally the names of places in Aberdeenshire had all 
been Gaelic, and the following coast names show that it was 
spoken to the very lip of the sea: — Leak Willie, flat rock 
at a bend in the shore line; Dundarg, red high promontory; 
Hole an Dirkie, hole leading into a cave; Inverallochy, 
mouth of the little burn ; Kirk Lakes, smooth flat rocks near 
a church; Craig Ewen, rock frequented by birds; Baby 
Gowan, cattle-fold; Boddam, ox house; King's Links, head 
of the Links; Nigg, the bay. The names Collyhill, Mor- 
mond, Bowl Boad, Delnadamph, Cam a' Mhaim, show 
resemblance in form and meaning to the Latin words coUis, 
mons, bovile, dama, mamma, and show that Gaelic and 
Latin had a common ancestor. Knockespock. hill of the 
bishop, and others, show that Gaelic was still spoken when 
Christianity was introduced in the twelfth centurv, but there 



viii Introduction. 

is hardly a trace of its earlier introduction by Columba. 
Idlestone, priest's stone or prayer stone, in Kincardineshire, 
indicates that prayers had been made at a stone erected at 
the grave of a Columban priest. 

In East Aberdeenshire there are, of course, many place- 
names of Scotch and English origin, and the number is 
increasing. Sometimes names of Gaelic origin gave place to 
English names because their meaning in Gaelic had been 
lost. Coldhome has been abandoned in the mistaken belief 
that it meant a cold place. The displacement of Gaelic by 
Saxon began in England and the Lothians, and probably 
farther north also, immediately after the departure of the 
Eomans, but there had been a recurrence to Gaelic when 
Scotland north of the Forth became a kingdom. With the 
accession of Malcolm Canmore, Gaelic had begun to give 
place to English. Probably neither he nor his children spoke 
Gaelic. He was brought up in England. His first wife was 
a Norwegian, and his second wife, Margaret, was born in 
Hungary and brought up in England. The language of the 
court in her time had been English, and after her death her 
sons were taken to England and probably never learned 
Gaelic. A lingering fondness for the ancient language of 
the country is shown by place and personal names which 
had originally been Gaelic but having been corrupted into 
English forms had been retranslated into Gaeli^ with no 
resemblance either in meaning or in form to their Gaelic 
originals. The personal name Duncan had originally been 
Chuitail, cattle-fold, which had been corrupted into White- 
hill and subsequently translated into Gaelic by dun, hill, 
and can, white. These had coalesced and produced Duncan. 
There are also some names which though clearly of Gaelic 
origin are not in classical Gaelic form and are probably late. 

Aboriginal Population of Scotland. 

It is impossible to estimate the date at which Scotland 
began to be inhabited. The sculptured stones of the North- 
East bear Christian symbols and must be post-Columban. 
Some of the sepulchral stone circles have cups for making 
meal, which had been formed to propitiate the ghosts of the 



Introduction. * x 

deceased occupants of the graves in the centre of the circles, 
and there are many small cups on the door stone of the circle 
at Sunhoney. These cups had been made with metal 
chisels. They are probably older than the coming of St 
Columba, in 563 a.d., the graves being pagan. But there are 
many circles with no marks of metal tools on the stones, and 
stone ploughshares are sometimes found in the ground 
which bear no traces of metal tools upon them. These carry 
us back some hundreds, perhaps thousands, of years before 
Christ. The same language was spoken originally in Scot- 
land and Ireland, and though the difference between Gaelic 
and Irish is not great, it must have taken a very long time 
to develop. The aboriginal language of England was also 
Gaelic, and many of its place-names are of Gaelic origin. 

The examination of the names for etymological purposes 
has not brought out the least indication of the Pictish 
language which some philologists and etymologists imagine 
has left traces of its existence among Gaelic names. A 
critical examination has been made of what the ancient 
Greek and Eoman writers have put on record regarding the 
people of Scotland and their language during the Eoman 
occupation of Britain ; and it shows that no historian has 
said that there were Picts in Scotland north of the Forth, 
or that there were Scots in Ireland. The origin of the 
Pictish myth is shown in the Appendix to the Introduction. 

Formation of Gaelic Names. 

The name of a place may be a simple noun in the 
nominative, and the noun may be preceded by the article. 

Names may consist of two nouns in apposition and 
therefore in the same case. Horse beast, spring well, flesh 
meat, might be given as English examples of this construc- 
tion, which is not common in Gaelic. 

The commonest form of a Gaelic name is a noun in the 
nominative followed by another in the genitive qualifying 
the first. The qualifying noun is nearly always last, and 
it is accented. 

In East Aberdeenshire, after the meaning of Gaelic 
names had been nearly lost, additions were made to explain 



x Introduction. 

them. These were very often words almost identical in 
meaning with the original name, and they ought to have 
been in apposition to the words which they explained. If 
the addition was a translation into English of the original 
name it agreed with it. Craighill may be given as an 
example of this. If the addition was a Gaelic word it might 
be in the nominative, but the letter h might be inserted 
after the first letter of the addition to show that it qualified 
the first part and was in a dependent position. Lamh-bheinn 
is an example of this. Both parts mean " hill," and both 
are in the nominative, but beinn had been made bheinn to 
show that it was supposed to qualify the first. 

Much more frequently the second part was turned into 
the genitive. This was ungrammatical, and it would not 
have been done unless the meaning of the first part had 
been lost. Hardweird, for Ard Uird, in Aberdeen, is an 
example of this. Ard means hill, and uird means of hill ; 
but both parts together mean hill. 

When a name is made up of one noun qualified by 
another, the second noun may have before it the article. 
Sometimes from the meaning and the spelling of the second 
noun it can be seen that the article had once preceded it 
but had afterwards been omitted. 

When a name is made up of three nouns — the second 
qualifying the first and the third the second — both the second 
and third ought to be in the genitive, but the second is 
usually in the nominative. 

When a name is a compound noun made up of two 
nouns, one in the nominative and the other in the genitive, 
the first may be declined, but the second remains in the 
genitive always. 

Many names are composed of a noun and a qualifying 
adjective agreeing with the noun in gender, number, and 
case. A few short adjectives usually precede the noun, and 
in this case they remain invariably in the nominative form, 
but the nouns may be declined. Wliether the adjective 
precedes or follows its noun it is always accented, and in a 
much corrupted name the position of the accent may help 
to indicate the qualifying word, even when it has been 
transposed from the end to the beginning of the name. 



Introduction. xi 

Aspiration. 

This is an intricate subject, and the difficulty of under- 
standing it is increased by the term being used in two 
different senses. With regard to vowels it means that they 
are to be sounded while the breath is expelled from the 
chest. In Greek, aspiration of an initial vowel is indicated 
by the mark (') above the line. In Latin and English it is 
shown by prefixing the letter h, which in Gaelic is made Ji-. 
The letter li is called the aspirate, and the vowel is said to 
be aspirated. 

For certain purposes the nine consonants b, c, d, f, g, 
m, s, t, cease to have their ordinary normal sound and either 
acquire a second sound or become silent. To indicate that 
they have undergone this change the letter h is affixed to 
them, and they are said to be aspirated, because li is called 
the aspirate when prefixed to a vowel. In Irish, aspiration 
of a consonant is marked by a dot (■) over the letter. When 
a consonant is aspirated no attempt should be made to 
sound h in combination with it, for h is not really a letter 
but simply a mark like the (•) in Irish. 

Bh and mh are both sounded v, which was formerly inter- 
changeable with u and w, and modern corrupt forms of old 
Gaelic names beginning with any of these three letters may 
originally have begun with bh or mh. Hence also in some 
modern names m represents a Gaelic b. The burn name 
Marno represents the Gaelic word bearna, gap, and Ram- 
stone had originally been Clach Eiabhach, grey stone, bh 
having become first mh and then m by dropping the 
aspirate h. 

Ch is sounded h, roughly, with no sound of c, and in 
many corrupt forms it is omitted. Hay and Hythie come 
from chuith, the aspirated form of cuith, a cattle-fold. 

Dh and gh both sound y. In dh the sound of d is not 
heard, but g may be faintly heard in gh before a, o, or u. 
Modern names beginning with y may have begun with gh 
in Gaelic. Clachan Yell was in Gaelic Clachan Glical, white 
stones. 

Ph is sounded as /, and hence in modern names ph may 
be represented by f, as in Blairfowl for Blar Phuill, moor of 
the pool. 



xii Introduction. 

F, having itself the sound of an aspirated letter, cannot 
be further aspirated, but h is added to / to show that it is 
not to be sounded. Sometimes the h is sounded, but not 
often. The name Meenlicht represents Moine Fhliuchach, 
wet moor, fh being silent; but in Old Hangy, for Allt Fhaing, 
burn of the fank, though / has been lost h has been left. 

In sh and th, s and t are silent, but h may be heard. 

The use of the second sound of consonants arose from 
the fact that while in other languages inflexions of nouns, 
adjectives, pronouns, and verbs are made by terminal 
changes Gaelic does not admit of many terminal changes, 
and some changes are made in the body of words and others 
at the beginning. In mor and beag, m and b have their 
normal sound, but the genitives of both begin with the sound 
of v, and if they had been spelled phonetically they would 
have become vor and veg. This would have prevented a 
person who saw them from knowing their original initial 
letters, which are a great help to find their meaning. To 
get over this difficulty m and b were preserved and h was 
inserted after them to show that they had their second 
sound. This ingenious contrivance enabled people to read 
the Gaelic Bible and books with which they were familiar 
without the help of dictionaries, which had not been begun 
to be compiled a hundred years ago. It has its disad- 
vantages, however. A person needs to have a good know- 
ledge of Gaelic grammar before he can make much use of 
a dictionary. He cannot find words unless he knows their 
etymological spelling. It is well for the etymologist of 
place-names that he has only to deal with the second sound 
of the initial consonants of nouns and adjectives, almost 
the only parts of speech which occur in place-names. The 
names in East Aberdeenshire are now much corrupted and 
they are spelled phonetically, so that there may be a great 
difficulty in discovering their original forms. 

The following Rules and the Table give the positions and 
the circumstances in which the initial consonants of the 
nominatives and genitives of nouns and adjectives have the 
second sound, if they are capable of being aspirated. The 
other cases of nouns and adjectives are hardly found in 
names. 



Introduction. 



Rules for Aspiration. 

1. — Proper nouns masculine in the genitive singular, and 
common nouns masculine in the genitive plural, are aspi- 
rated when preceded by another noun. 

2. — Nouns masculine in the genitive singular, and nouns 
feminine in the nominative singular, aspirate adjectives 
following them. 

3. — Masculine nouns of the second declension in the 
genitive singular and in the nominative plural aspirate 
adjectives following them. 

4. — A noun is aspirated if it follows its adjective. 

5. — The article aspirates masculine nouns in the geni- 
tive singular, and feminine nouns in the nominative singular. 

G. — An adjective is aspirated when it follows and qualifies 
a noun aspirated by the article. 

7. — In a compound name made up of two nouns the 
second, if masculine, is aspirated in the genitive singular 
and in the nominative and genitive plural. If feminine, it 
is aspirated in the nominative singular and in the nominative 
and genitive plural. 

8. — In a compound name consisting of two adjectives 
the second is aspirated in all cases. 

9. — In a compound name consisting of a noun and an 
adjective the adjective is always aspirated. 

Table. 



Rule. 


Masculine. 


Feminine. 


Singular. Plural. 


Singular. 


Plural. 






N. G. l N. G. 


N. G. 


N. G. 


1 


Noun . 


X 




X 








2 


Adj. . 


X 






X 






3 


Adj. . 


X 


X 








4 


Noun . 


X X 


X 


X 


X X 


X X 


5 


Noun . 




X 






X 




(5 


Adj. . 




X 






X 






7 


Noun . 


... 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X X 


8 


Adj. . 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X X 


9 


Adj. . 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X X 



When a name is made up of two parts the second is some- 
times aspirated abnormally if it qualifies the first. 



xiv Introduction. 

Interchange of Aspirated Letters. 

The second sounds of aspirated consonants are softer and 
more like vowels than the first, and hence they are liable 
to be mistaken for one another. This happened in Gaelic 
but oftener when Gaelic passed into English or Scotch. 
This was partly because some consonants closely resemble 
one another after aspiration, and partly because in English ' 
and Scotch interchange of aspirated consonants has been 
frequent. As already mentioned, bh and mh are both 
equivalent to v, and hence in writing the words there was a 
risk of using the one combination for the other, and when 
the aspirate was dropped of substituting b for m or m 
for b. 

Dh and gh, being both equivalent to y, were liable to be 
interchanged in writing, and hence also / and g, both in 
writing and in speaking, after the loss of the aspirate h. 
The name Foggymill probably means a mill built of mossy 
sods, and the first part had been foideacli, which passing 
through the forms foidlieach and foiglieach had become 
foigeach and foggy. Gh never has its proper sound in 
English. It has become / in laugh and it is silent in 
daughter. In Scotch gh has usually the sound of ch , as in 
dauchter for daughter. In magh, a maggot under the hide 
of cattle, the true sound of gh is heard, but this word is of 
local usage. 

C is not really heard in ch, and its place has often been 
taken by w or qu, and sometimes by p, which with It is 
equivalent to /. Hence wh becomes / in some parts of 
Scotland, especially in Aberdeenshire. Ch may become dh 
or gh, which are equivalent to y, and thus arose clay in 
Clayfords and Clay stiles, where it represents clach, a stone. 
Ch in Kochford represents gh in ruigh, the side of a hill. 
In Scotch th becomes ch in moch for mothj and in chree for 
three. 

The etymologist must be prepared for finding any 
aspirated letter changed into any other aspirated letter, and 
as a letter may lose the aspirate any aspirable simple letter 
may be changed into any other aspirable letter. 



Introduction. xv 

Interchange of Liquid Letters. 

The liquid letters I, n, r, are often interchanged in the 
combinations cl, en, cr, gl, gn, gr. They are all pro- 
nounced with the point of the tongue at the back of the 
teeth in the lower jaw, and the}- can all be pronounced 
without great change on the position of the body of the 
tongue. This has given rise to many variants of the same 
name. The word cnoc means a hill. In the Highlands it 
still retains its original spelling, but in the Lowlands it has 
normally become knock. In Gaelic cnoc is generally pro- 
nounced crochg, n being changed to r, and final c to chg. 
Both these changes are of frequent occurrence in Gaelic. 
From crochg we have the personal names Crockart, Croker, 
and Crookes, and the place-names Crookmore, Hattoncrook, 
and Crookednook. When r is dropped we get Cook Hill and 
Cookston. From cnoc, by dropping n, we get Cock, Cock- 
law, Cockardy, etc. By change of n to another liquid, I, 
we have the forms Clockhill and Cloak, and by further 
change of final c to g we get Clog, Cloghill, Clognie, and 
Clagan or Claggan. By change of g to d we get Clodhill and 
the plant-name Cloudberry. By substitution of g for initial 
c we have Gloag, Glog, Goach, Goak, Gookhill, and Gowk- 
stone. 

Translation of the Gaelic Termination " an " into 
Scotch and English. 

The termination an added to a Gaelic noun converts it 
into its diminutive. In the genitive an becomes ain. The 
Scotch diminutive termination is ie or y, and in most Gaelic 
names an or ain is represented by ie or y in Scotch names. 
Ardan, Logan, Torran, Ouran, have become Ardie, Logie, 
Torry, Ury. This had been done by dropping final n and 
changing the obscure a into ie or y, because Scotch words 
rarely end in a in spelling. In some cases the final a has 
become o or och in spelling, but the sound of o is not 
distinctly audible in pronunciation. In some words a and 
n have been transposed, and then n has been preserved 
while a has become ie or y, or sometimes ey, as in Bogan, 
Cluan, Cuithan, which have become Bognie, Cluny, Keithny 



xvi Introduction. 

or Keithney. The letter d is inserted unwarrantably in some 
English words after n, as in sound, thunder. This is seen 
in the names Brindy, Findy, Lundy or Lundie, which in 
their simpler form would have been Briny, Finy, Luny or 
Lunie, as representing braonan, finan, lonan. No satisfactory 
etymology has been offered for the name Dundee. Prob- 
ably the second d is intrusive, and the local pronunciation, 
which lays the accent on the first syllable, suggests that 
final ee ought to be ie. This would reduce Dundee to Dunie, 
which would represent dunan, a little hill — an etymology 
appropriate for the place. 

After the meaning of Gaelic names had been forgotten 
the terminations an, ann, eann, unn, etc., were, on passing 
into Scotch, made ie or y though not diminutives. Uileann, 
Gamhann, Pouran, Babhunn, have become Willie, Gownie, 
Powrie, Baby and Bawbee. 

An is also a plural termination and has frequently been 
translated into s, the English plural termination. Cairnan, 
Leacan, Cnapan, have become Cairns, Lakes, Knaps. 
Sometimes s has been added to an instead of being sub- 
stituted for it, making it doubly plural, and, as with the 
diminutive, some names ending in n preceded by a vowel 
have been made to end in s though not plural. Knox (for 
cnocs) represents cnocan, a little hill. 

Another very late terminal form derived from an is ies. 
Bac, peat-moss, became Backies by passing through the 
forms bacan and bade. Cort, circle, became Cortes by 
passing through cortan and cortie. Paties in Patiesmill 
comes from pett, passing through pettan, pettie, and petties. 
The termination ies almost always represents a diminutive 
ending in an with s improperly added. 

Transposition of the Parts of a Name. 

Most Gaelic names consist of a noun in the nominative 
followed by an adjective or a noun in the possessive. On 
passing into Scotch no change was made on the order of the 
parts of the name so long as they retained the Gaelic forms; 
but if the last part was translated it was often put first to 
comply with Scotch and English usage, which puts the 



Introduction. xvii 

qualifying word first. The translation might be right or 
wrong, but a word in the qualifying place in Gaelic was 
usually put into the qualifying place in English. The 
genitive in Gaelic represents the possessive in English, and 
s was frequently added to the first part in the belief that it 
must be in the possessive, unless it was evidently an 
adjective. 

Moine Reidh means level moss, coming from moine, 
moss, and reidli, level. When moine was translated the 
name became in one place Red Moss, and in another Reid's 
Moss. Allt Beag means small burn, coming from allt, burn, 
and beag, small. It has now become Beg's Burn. Kings- 
crown is accented on the last part, which is an indication 
that the order of the parts has not been changed. 
The name was originally Cinn Cruinn, round head, 
from cinn for ceann, head, and cruinn, round. The 
resemblance between cinn and king had led to the 
insertion of s to convert the name to the English 
form which it now bears, though it is quite inap- 
propriate. The history of the common name Lady's 
Bridge illustrates some of the processes referred to. The 
original form of the name had been Ath Leathan, meaning 
broad ford, from ath, ford, and leathan, broad. Ath was 
translated and put last, giving Leathanford. An being 
erroneously supposed to be the diminutive termination, was 
translated into y, giving Leathyford. Th often becomes d 
in Scotch, as in ledder for leather, which gives Leadyford. 
Dropping e and inserting s gives Ladysford. When a bridge 
was erected at the ford it was called Lady's Bridge. Lady's 
retains the accent because it represents an adjective, but 
King's in names seldom has the accent because it repre- 
sents a noun in the nominative. 

Tracing the Etymology of Names. 

In working out the etymology of names an endeavour 
has been made to give the reader every possible help to 
ascertain the meaning of a name and the exact form of the 
word or words entering into its composition. The name has 
been given as on the Ordnance Survey map, but where this 



xviii Introduction. 

differs much from the original form this also is given. Next 
the meaning of the name is given in English. If a name 
consists of only one Gaelic word it is given with its correct 
spelling in Gaelic, followed by its meaning. If the name 
consists of more than one Gaelic word each part with its 
meaning is given separately. If a Gaelic word is a noun 
not in the nominative, or not in the singular, its case and 
number are stated and the nominative singular is given. 
If the noun has its initial consonant aspirated the simple 
form of the nominative is also stated. If the Gaelic word 
is an adjective not in the nominative, or not in the singular 
or not masculine, its case, number, and gender are stated, 
and the simple form of the nominative singular masculine 
is given. The object of this is to enable a student to find in 
a Gaelic dictionary the word he is dealing with, so that he 
can see for himself all its meanings and cognate words, and 
thus be able to judge whether the meaning and etymology 
offered are correct. 

Dictionaries. 

The early Gaelic dictionaries, published in 1825 and 1828, 
were based upon the Gaelic translation of the New Testa- 
ment, published in 1767, the Gaelic translation of the Old 
Testament in four volumes, published 1783-1801, and James 
Macpherson's " Ossian," published in Gaelic in 1818. The 
dictionaries were supplemented from the personal know- 
ledge of their authors; but this, of course, was limited, 
and many words escaped their notice. Some of these have 
since been gathered up, and there are still many to be 
gleaned. 

There are words in the common speech of the country 
where Gaelic is still spoken which cannot be found in 
dictionaries, and still more are found in the place-names. 
Some of these may not be found in literary Gaelic and ought 
not to be admitted into dictionaries without a distinguishing 
mark. In an appendix are given words found in Gaelic 
names of places in Aberdeenshire which are not in Macleod 
and Dewar's dictionary at all, -or not found with the requisite 
meaning. Those of them to which the word Irish is added 
are in O'Eeilly's Irish dictionary. 



Introduction. xix 

Obsolete Customs in Farming. 

Many names signifying cattle-folds refer to a long-extinct 
practice which was formerly universal in the cultivated parts 
of Scotland. From the earliest time at which Scotland had 
been inhabited, down to the suppression of the last Jacobite 
insurrection, it had been customary for the people of a district 
to construct large and substantially walled folds in which 
their cattle — their only wealth — were placed at night to 
prevent them from being stolen or from straying and de- 
stroying growing crops. The fields were not fenced, and the 
cattle roamed over a large area of uncultivated pasture- 
ground in charge of herdsmen who folded and guarded them 
at night. The country began to be divided into parishes 
about 1100, and every parish church had become the nucleus 
of a hamlet; but in pre-Christian times the cattle-fold was 
the most important place in a district, and around it were 
clustered the houses of the farmers and the cottages of the 
agricultural labourers and the grass men, whose duty it was 
to cut grass in the meadows on the burn banks and to make 
hay for food for the live stock in winter. There seem to have 
been no dwelling-houses scattered over the country as at 
present, but all the people had lived at the cattle-fold in 
which they were interested. A very large number of cattle- 
fold names have been preserved, and when we learn that the 
names Gordon, Keith, Hay, Duncan, and many more be- 
sides, mean cattle-fold, we need not wonder at finding 
different families of these names spread all over Scotland, 
since it was the custom in early times to name individuals 
from the place where they lived. After the introduction of 
the feudal system every proprietor of land had provided one 
or more folds for the tenants on his land. Castle Eoy at 
Abernethy is a good specimen of an ancient cattle-fold. It 
is 83 feet long and 53 feet wide, and the walls are 30 feet 
high. x\t two diagonally opposite corners there were towers 
for the accommodation of guardsmen, who could have 
manned the walls to ward off attacks of thieves. It has 
been so long out of use that the purpose for which it had 
been erected is now quite forgotten, and it is called a castle 
as if it had been a proprietor's residence. The poems titled 



xx Introduction. 

Helenore, or the Fortunate Shepherdess," and " Douglas, 
a Tragedy," tell of fierce barbarians from the west who came 
in armed bands and swept the peaceful cultivated vales and 
plains of their flocks and herds. 

Some of the cattle-folds were constructed of stones fused 
together by heat with the aid of salt or seaweed. Such are 
the vitrifactions on Craig Phadrig and those on Tap o' Noth, 
Dumhdeer, and Finhaven. Most of the structures called 
hill forts were cattle-folds. The works on the top of Barra 
Hill and Bennachie and the Barmekins of Echt and Keig 
and the Peel of Lumphanan were cattle-folds. So also were 
some peninsulas along the coast. The still luxuriant grass 
on Downie, to the south of the Bay of Nigg, tells that it had 
long been a cattle-fold, and the castles at Dunnottar, Peter- 
head, and Dundarg had been built to protect cattle-folds. 
The names of some inland castles indicate that they had 
been erected not only as residences for proprietors but also- 
as guardhouses for the folds of the cattle belonging to the 
tenants on their estates. 

A remark in the diary of James Melvill, the eminent 
Scotch reformer, shows that the great cattle-folds were still 
in use shortly after the Keformation in 1560. Writing of 
the state of the parish churches, he says: — "By the in- 
satiable sacrilegious avarice of earls, lords, and gentlemen, 
the kirks lie like sheep- and cattle-folds rather than places 
for Christian congregations to assemble in." They seem to 
have begun to go out of use in the seventeenth century. 
This was caused by the increase of cultivated land and a 
higher style of farming, which led to the abolition of the 
system by which several tenants held a large farm under a 
joint lease and worked it in common. The proportion of rent 
which each tenant paid and the number of oxen which he 
provided for the common plough determined the share which 
he received of the produce of the farm and the part which he 
had to pay of the wages of the common servants on the 
farm. This system came to an end in Scotland after the 
disastrous year 1782. Among the Aberdeenshire names 
there are more than a hundred different forms for cattle- 
folds, and there are also English cattle-fold names of the 
same origin and meaning as the Scotch, which helps to prove 



Introduction . xxi 

that the ancient people of Scotland and England spoke the 
same Celtic language. 

Shiels and Shielings. 

Many names refer to a now extinct custom of migrating 
in summer to distant hills and glens with the whole live 
stock of a farm, except work oxen and a few milk cows. 
Summer pastures are indicated by names beginning with 
airie, airy, arric, hairy, liar, hare, harrow, earl, and early. 
These are corruptions of the Gaelic word airidh meaning a 
shiel or temporary summer residence for persons in charge 
of cattle at summer pasture, and it means also the pasture 
itself, which is called a shieling. When there were milk 
cows among the cattle, mothers of families with their 
children and servants went to the shieling to milk the cows 
and make butter and cheese. If the shieling was not fai 
away the cream was carried home in a jar slung on a 
woman's back, but if it was at a great distance all the dairy 
work had to be done at the shiels. The shiels were huts 
built with mossy sods, and as cows from several farms went 
to the same shieling there was usually a group of huts in 
one place, forming a solitary hamlet. The shiels required 
repairs annually before the summer migration, and this led 
to the construction of permanent underground houses to 
serve as residences and dairies. On the Ordnance Survey 
maps these places are called Earth Houses or Erd Houses. 
They could be constructed only where there were long ice- 
trailed stones to form the roof. The houses had been formed 
by digging a deep trench in the ground. The trench, which 
was sometimes straight and sometimes curved, was lined 
with substantial stone walls at the sides and ends and covered 
with long stones left on the surface of the ground by the 
ice-sheet of the glacial epoch. The length of the stones 
determined the width of the house ; but the walls could be 
slightly inclined inwards, so that the houses were wider at 
the floor than at the roof. Above the roof-stones was laid a 
tbick coat of earth covered with turf, and when the hole in 
the roof which served as a door was covered with turf there 
was no outward indication of the house underground. Such 



xx ii Introduction. 

houses are of various dimensions but a common size is six 
to eight feet wide, six feet high, and twenty feet or upwards 
in length. In some houses there is a low-roofed chamber 
entered by a square hole in the side, three or four feet up 
from the floor. The chamber might have been used for 
holding dairy produce or as a sleeping-place. There is 
seldom a hole in the inner end of a house to let out smoke, 
and perhaps the underground houses had been chiefly used 
as dairies. In holes in the walls, or on the floor, or in places 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the houses, various 
stone articles have been found which give a clue to the time 
when they were in use. Stuck into the wall of one was 
found a small slab with a cup-like hollow on one side. This 
had been filled with dry grain, which had been pounded with 
a pestle and made into meal. Such cups are found on rocks 
and on the underside of the covers of stone-lined graves. 
Some are seen on one of the stones of megalithic circles 
round graves, cists, and urns. Whorls, three or four ounces 
in weight, found at underground houses, would have been 
usef ul in keeping tight a few threads each in a simple upright 
loom, or in spinning yarn without a wheel. 

Near the sites of shiels and underground houses have been 
found many stone balls with knobs and grooves upon them. 
Probably a ball had been attached to a rope by thongs of 
cowhide let into the grooves, and the rope and ball had 
been used to catch domestic animals which would not allow 
a person to get hold of them. In sketches of carvings and 
paintings on Egyptian tombs showing rural scenes we see 
this use of a rope and a ball. In breaking up virgin pasture 
in Argentina single balls are found with a groove round 
them for a cord by which they had been thrown at guanacos 
by Peruvian Indians long ago. They had struck animals 
and had coiled round them but had not brought them to 
the ground, and they had been carried off too far to be 
recovered. 

Kude stone ladles have also been found near the under- 
ground houses. These and ail the other finds indicate that 
the system of summer migration to distant hill pastures 
must have been followed for a very long time. It has been 
unknown in the lowland part of Aberdeenshire for more than 



Introduction. XXU1 

-a hundred years, but in the Highlands old shiels were to be 
seen about 1850. 

The Picts and Scots. 

The language to which the ancient place-names of 
Northern Scotland belong is Gaelic, one of the modern 
representatives of the Celtic language which the natives of 
the British Isles spoke when Julius Caesar came amongst 
them, 55 b.c Other Celtic languages developed from a 
common ancestor with Gaelic are Irish, Manx, Welsh, and 
Cornish. Some philologists have imagined that there was 
in Scotland during the Koman occupation another language 
called Pictish. They think that at that time the Scots 
•occupied Ireland and the Picts Scotland, and that the Picts 
in the eastern slope of Scotland north of the Forth were 
supplanted by Scots from Ireland. This leads them to 
think that there may yet remain in the ancient place-names 
of that part of Scotland some traces of an extinct Pictish 
language. The names of places in Aberdeenshire give no 
support to this idea; and a critical examination of ancient 
Greek and Roman writers shows that it is useless to look 
for Pictish words among Gaelic place-names. No Greek or 
Roman historian says that there were Scots in Ireland or 
Picts in the North-East of Scotland. 

Skene has discussed this subject in " Celtic Scotland," 
and in the Introduction he blames preceding historians for 
not using discrimination in regard to the relative values of 
the statements of ancient authors on the subject. The 
same complaint has to be made against Skene himself. 
If he had examined critically the writings of Greek and 
Roman authors who have treated of ancient Britain and its 
inhabitants he would have seen that some of them wrote 
history and some of them panegyrics. What the historians 
say seems to be true and impartial, but what the panegyrists 
say is palpably inaccurate and exaggerated. 

The historians say that when the Romans came to 
Britain they were informed by the inhabitants that they 
were of the same race as the aborigines of the country, with 
the exception of the coast population, who had come over 



xxiv Introduction. 

from Belgium. The inhabitants tattooed their bodies with 
woad and might therefore have been called Picti or coloured 
people ; but this term is not given to any of them till after 
a period of more than four hundred years, and then only to 
the people north of the Tyne and south of the firths of the 
Forth and the Clyde. 

In the first century after Christ, Augustus, before he 
became emperor, visited Britain and carried some of the 
inhabitants captives to Borne to grace his triumphal entry 
into the city ; and the citizens had then and subsequently 
seen the strangely ornamented faces of the Britons. To- 
wards the end of this century the Bomans invaded Scotland. 
The country on the eastern slope and north of the Forth 
was at that time called Caledonia and its inhabitants 
Caledonian Britons. 

In the second century Ptolemy made tables of latitudes 
and longitudes, from which rude maps could be constructed, 
but as the Bomans had not then gone beyond the Gram- 
pians Ptolemy had no knowledge of the North of Scotland. 
His positions of places are seriously in fault, and the names 
which he gives to many of them are fictitious. None of 
them have any meaning in Gaelic. One has z in it, the 
sound of which is not in the Gaelic language. 

In this century the part of England conquered by the 
Bomans was erected into a province and a row of great 
camps was constructed on the north side of the Tyne to 
protect it. The camps were connected by a great stone 
wall, apparently a later construction than the camps. An 
attempt was made to conquer the South of Scotland, and 
to keep out the Caledonians another line of forts with a 
wall was made from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of 
Clyde. Tattooing the face and body had probably been put 
down within the Boman province as being a sign of defiance, 
but it continued to be practised in Scotland. 

In the beginning of the third century the Britons be- 
tween the two walls were called Maeatae, while those to 
the north of the Scotch wall continued to be called Cale- 
donians. Both peoples were regarded by the historians as 
of the same race, and they acted in concert against the 
Bomans. They both tattooed themselves with instruments 



Introduction. xxv 

made of iron or steel. These they had got from the 
Romans, who got steel from Noricum for making swords, 
surgical instruments, cutting and puncturing tools. The 
inhabitants of Noricum used charcoal in smelting iron and 
thus produced steel without knowing how it was done. 

In this century the Romans advanced beyond the 
Grampians and constructed a fort at Burghead on the 
Moray Firth, evidently with the intention of making a 
permanent settlement there; but the death of Severus in 
211 caused them to relinquish all their settlements in 
Scotland, and for a hundred and fifty years the pages of the 
history of Scotland are blank. 

We next hear of Scotland after the middle of the fourth 
century. The historians have dropped the names Cale- 
donians and Maeatae, and the aggressors of Rornan Britain 
are called Scots and Picts. They are said to have been 
making incessant plundering incursions into the places near 
the English wall and to have kept the Romanised Britons 
in constant terror. When the authentic credible history of 
Scotland begins (about 889) we find the people of the dis- 
trict formerly called Caledonia now termed Scots, and we 
may therefore conclude that Scots is a new name for the 
Caledonians, and Picts for the Maeatae. In what way or 
for what purpose the Romans distinguished the Scots from 
the Picts we are not told. It might have been by their 
clothing, the style of tattooing, the method of making 
attacks — whether by land or by sea — and what they carried 
away with them. A few years ago a bit of red glass with a 
faun carved upon it was found in a small sepulchral cist 
under a cairn at Monquhitter. The engraving was beauti- 
fully done and the bit of glass had been set in a signet ring. 
Though it might have been got by purchase more likely it 
had been taken in a plundering expedition into the north 
of England. 

The Scots and Picts are not represented as being dis- 
tant transmarine nations but as the near neighbours of the 
provincial Britons. Skene, however, says the Scots came 
over from Irerand when making their incursions. No- 
historian says this and the statement is most improbable. 

The might of the Roman empire began to wane and 



^xvi Introduction. 

soldiers were called in from the frontiers to defend the home 
country against attacks of barbarians. A find of gold coins 
at Corbridge on the Tyne in 1908 indicates that before the 
end of the fourth century the garrisons on the Eoman Wall 
had been withdrawn and transferred to the towns. In 410 
the Eoman authority in Britain came to an end, and nothing 
written after that date concerning Eoman Britain is of any 
historical importance, for it can only be a restatement of 
what had been written before the Eomans departed. 

Let us now see what the panegyrists say. There are 
two of them, Claudian and Eumenius. Claudian was a 
poet, who wrote 397-400. In recounting the great deeds of 
the illustrious general Theodosius he says his hero pitched 
his camp among the snows of Caledonia, watered the Ork- 
neys with Saxon blood, warmed Thule with the blood of the 
Picts, and made Ireland weep over heaps of slain Scots. He 
couples places and peoples so as to produce a pleasant 
jingle and to satisfy the metre of his lines, without regard to 
historical or geographical accuracy. 

In " The Praises of Stilicho " he represents Britannia as 
telling what he had done for her. He had freed her from 
the terror of three enemies — the Scots, who inhabited all 
Ireland and came over the sea against her, the Picts, and 
the Saxons, who made attacks along the whole coast — that 
is of the North Sea. She says nothing of the Picts but 
merely gives their name, and we presume that Claudian 
left it to be understood that they were the inhabitants of the 
country north of Hadrian's Wall and made their attacks 
by land. 

The other panegyrist is Eumenius, a prose writer who 
wrote about 310. In 297 Constantius Chlorus, who had 
been created Caesar, recovered Britain which had been lost 
to the Eoman empire by a revolt. For this he was lauded in 
a panegyric by Eumenius, who says that before Caesar's 
arrival among them the Britons had no more formidable 
enemies than the Picts and Hibernians, whom they con- 
quered, but he soon made them yield to the Eoman power. 
But the most important passage in Eumenius as far as 
regards Scotland is in his panegyric upon Constantine, in 
which he says that he is not going to mention the dangers 



Introduction. xxvii 

Constantine underwent in the woods and marshes of the 
Caledonians and other Picts. This is identifying the Cale- 
donians not with the Scots but with the Picts. It may be 
noted that the historians do not mention the Caledonians or 
Caledonia after the death of Severus in 211, and that the 
two panegyrists alone mention them. 

As Claudian is the only authority for putting the Scots in 
Ireland so Eumenius is the only authority for putting Picts 
in Caledonia. 

Following the panegyrists has had a malign influence on 
the history of Scotland. It made Bede (673-735) in his 
ecclesiastical history go out of Scotland for the original home 
of the Scots. Not quite satisfied with Claudian's early seat 
for them in Ireland, he made Scythia their primal home 
and said they were only sojourners in Ireland. It also 
deceived the writer of the life of St Columba and made 
him say that the Scots came from Scotia — meaning Ireland 
— into Britain. But the biographer of St Columba could 
not have been Adamnan, for he was contemporary with 
persons who knew Columba, and he would have known 
something of his great enterprise, which the biographer 
seems not to have done. The " Life of St Columba " was 
probably written a long time after his death. Following the 
panegyrists also gave rise to the compilation of spurious 
lists of kings of the Picts and Scots in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. One of these goes back to Noah ; another, less 
ambitious, goes no further back than the departure of the 
Romans from Britain ; and a third, keeping better within 
the bounds of moderation, begins with Kenneth Mac Alpine; 
but even his date is too early, for the four succeeding kings 
in the list are still called kings of the fictitious Picts. 

None of the chronicles of the Picts and Scots makes a 
good job of transforming the Picts into the Scots. In 
" Celtic Scotland " the curtain falls on the Picts in 877, 
when Constantine, king of the Picts, is reported to have 
fallen in a battle between the Danes and the Scots ! 

Following the historians we identify the Caledonians with 
the aboriginal Britons and the Scots with the Caledonians. 
We restrict the Picts to the area between the two walls and 
are thus quit of the insuperable difficulty of accounting for 



xxviii Introduction. 

the suppression of the Picts and their language in Scotland 
north of the Forth. 

The sum of the matter is that the Pictish story is a myth, 
and that traces of the Pictish language need not be looked 
for in the Celtic place-names of Aberdeenshire. 



APPENDIX. 



The Pictish Question. 

The question is — " Was there in the east of Scotland 
north of the Firth of Forth, within the period of the Pioman 
occupation of Britain, a people called Picts different in race 
and language from the Britons whom Caesar found in the 
country in his two expeditions to Britain in 55 and 54 B.C. ? " 

In discussing the question of the Picts and their language 
it is necessary to attend to three things — (1) What the 
ancient writers meant by the term Picti or Picts ; (2) what 
they have told us about the Picts ; (3) what they have said 
about the Caledonians and Scots, who are usually asso- 
ciated with the Picts. 

We need take notice only of what was written before the 
departure of the Piomans from Britain in 410. Nothing in 
late Roman authors or in Gildas, Bede, Nennius, Adamnan, 
the Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, or modern historians 
is of any importance in this question. It can only be a re- 
statement of what had already been written, or the writers' 
inferences from what they had found in early books. We 
must also use some discrimination in trusting to the ancient 
writers. Some of them wrote history meant to instruct 
posterity, others wrote poetry meant to please and interest 
their readers, and some wrote panegyrics intended to gain 
the favour of the persons whom they belauded. 

Caesar (54 B.C.) sa3 r s that the Britons coloured their 
bodies with woad, and Ovid (a.d. 9) speaks of the green or 
blue coloured Britons ; but it is hard to decide whether they 
meant to say that they stained their whole bodies or 
tattooed upon them figures of animals and designs. Caesar 
says their object was to give them a terrific appearance in 
war. Herodian (238) distinctly says that the Britons 
tattooed their bodies with figures of animals with an iron 
instrument, and that it was done as an ornament. Mackay 
(" Ency. Brit.") says Dion Cassius makes this statement, 
which is a mistake. Jornandes (552) says the Britons made 



xxx Appendix. 

designs on their bodies by means of an iron instrument ; and 
Isodorus (600) makes the ridiculous statement that the 
Scots got their name from the practice of tattooing them- 
selves. Both the two last writers are too late to be con- 
sidered as authorities, but Isodorus evidently thought that 
the name of a tribe had originated in the practice of 
tattooing. It might be inferred from Virgil (" Georg." III. 
24, 25) that he had seen in a triumphal procession in Rome 
captive Britons with tattooed or stained bodies, carrying 
sheets embroidered with a representation of a battle between 
them and the Romans. It is clear that there had been 
something very striking in the appearance of the barbarous 
Britons. 

It seems likely that the ancient Britanni had tattooed 
their bodies with designs and figures of animals for the pur- 
pose of indicating to one another the tribes to which they 
belonged, and that tattooing, being a mark of barbarism 
and hostility to the conquerors, had been put down within 
the Roman province, though it continued to be practised 
north of the Roman Wall in England. Picti had primarily 
meant tattooed and had afterwards been applied first as an 
epithet and secondly as a tribal name for those beyond the 
wall, either to distinguish them from the Romanised Britons 
or from other Britanni who did not tattoo themselves. 

Caesar informs us that the natives of Britain believed 
that they were the aborigines of the island, and that they 
were all of the same race (and spoke the same language), 
except the coast population on the south-east, who had 
come over from Belgium. These statements are not con- 
tradicted by any subsequent reliable historian. Though. 
Tacitus says that after Caesar's second expedition the 
Romans forgot or ignored Britain till the reign of Claudius, 
both Dion Cassius and Servius state that Augustus made an 
expedition into Britain. This is supposed to have been 
in 27 B.C. From Virgil and Horace it would seem that on 
his return to Rome he had obtained a triumph (" Archaeo- 
logia," Vol. XLIV., pp. 65-92). The emperor Claudius 
sent an expedition to Britain (a.d. 43), and in seven years 
England was subdued as far north as the Humber and 
formed into a province, within which tattooing had not 



Appendix. xxxi 

been allowed. In 65 Lucan mentions the Caledonians for 
the first time, but they are not spoken of as a different race 
from the Britons of the south. He calls them Caledonian 
Britons. 

The emperor Vespasian in 78 sent to Britain Agricola as 
governor of the province. His life was written by his son- 
in-law, Tacitus, who, however, was never in Britain and 
shows great ignorance of its early history and geography. 
He is not to be relied upon except in his account of Agricola's 
campaigns. One thing which he makes clear is that the 
Caledonians dwelt on the north side of the Forth, but his 
remarks are so indefinite that Ptolemy placed them on the 
west side of the Moray Firth. In the year 80 Agricola 
entered Scotland, and having conquered new tribes he 
secured his conquests by a line of forts on the isthmus 
between the Forth and the Clyde. In 86 after three cam- 
paigns between the Forth and the Tay in which he did 
not cross the Grampians, Agricola fought a battle with the 
Britons at a place which Tacitus calls Mons Grampius. 
The Britons were defeated and withdrew to the north. 
Tacitus gives a minute account of the battle and a verbatim 
report of the speech of Galgacus, the commander of the 
Britons. The account which Tacitus gives of the battle 
must be fictitious and it damages his character as a trust- 
worthy historian. 

Tacitus says that the language of the Britons did not 
differ much from that of the Gauls. On this subject the 
opinion of Tacitus is of no value. Agricola was recalled by 
Domitian, and after 86 the Roman authority ceased at the 
line of forts. 

In 120 Hadrian began the construction of a vast forti- 
fication between the Tyne and the Solway for the protection 
of the province. It consisted of a series of great camps 
connected by a wall and a ditch. Apparently the camps 
had been constructed and finished before the wall and the 
ditch were begun to be made. 

In 139 a wall made of earth faced with grassy sods laid 
upside down was made between the Forth and the Clyde, 
probably on the line of Agricola's forts. The wall had not 
been so strong as the English wall, but the forts along it 



xxxii Appendix. 

were more numerous. A great trench protected it on the 
north side. The Koman authority was established between 
the two walls and the extended province was afterwards 
divided into two governments. 

Ptolemy, a Greek geographer who flourished about 150, 
constructed lines of longitude and latitude for maps and 
gave the positions of places. By connecting these positions 
rude maps of countries could be formed. He gave a table of 
places for Scotland, but as the Eomans in his time had not 
gone beyond the Grampians a map formed by joining the 
positions of the places has no resemblance to the North of 
Scotland. Moreover, the names of the places are mani- 
festly fictitious. 

In the first .year of the third century, as Xiphiline the 
epitomist of Dion Cassius informs us, the Caledonians and 
the Maeatae became aggressive against the Eomans. The 
only information given regarding the Maeatae is that they 
lived near the Scotch wall, probably on both sides because 
having been made on the narrowest and lowest part of the 
isthmus it had not likely been on the boundary line 
between two tribes. Xiphiline is the only early historian 
who mentions the Maeatae, and we do not know how far 
south their territory extended. They were an amalgamation 
of several tribes, and probably the name Maeatae compre- 
hended all the inhabitants between the two walls and 
also those between the north wall and the hills north 
of the Forth. Severus, hearing of the insurrection, 

advanced into Caledonia and held on till he reached 
almost the extremity of the island. Eecent explorations at 
Burghead on the Moray Firth discovered a Boman fort, 
evidently intended to be permanently held. On his return 
he exacted from the Britons a considerable part of their 
territory, and having completed or restored the earthen 
wall he withdrew to England. Seme parts of the trench 
on the north side of the wall show that it had ultimately 
been abandoned before being completed. The Caledonians 
joined the Maeatae in another revolt and Severus prepared 
to go against them, but he died at York (211) before he 
could set out. 

Herodian, who wrote about 238, also records Severus's 



Appendix. xxxiii 

expedition into Scotland. He says Severus was glad on 
hearing of the insurrection because he hoped to gain a 
trophy from a successful expedition into Britain. He tells 
us that the Britons punctured their bodies with pictured 
forms of every sort of animals, and wore no clothing because 
they wished these to be seen. He mentions this in his 
account of the people whom Severus was going to attack, 
and afterwards he says that he passed beyond the rivers 
and fortresses which defended the Roman territory. Hence 
it may be inferred that tattooing was practised by the 
Britons already known to the Romans, whether also by the 
remote Caledonians or not. The aquatic habits described by 
Herodian would have been particularly appropriate to 
dwellers by the Solway Firth, and in a less degree to those 
on the estuaries of the Forth and Clyde, but not at all to 
the people of Scotland generally. 

After the death of Severus his son Caracalla made peace 
with the Britons and withdrew from Scotland, and then the 
northern wall and its forts had been abandoned. From 211 
till 380 Scotland and its peoples are not mentioned by his- 
torians, and when they are again introduced we find that 
the Caledonians and Maeatae have disappeared and that 
the Scots and Picts have taken their place. These were 
possibly the same peoples under new names for they be- 
haved in the same way — attacking the Romanised Britons 
south of Hadrian's wall. 

Ammianus, a trustworthy authority, writing about 380 
says that ten times in the reign of Constantius (353-361) 
and three times in the reign of Julian (361-363) incursions 
of fierce Scots and Picts laid waste places near the boundary 
and kept in terror the people harassed by attacks and de- 
feats. This implies that there had been previous inroads 
and plunderings and shows that the garrisons on the wall 
had not been maintained in full strength. In the single year 
of Jovian 's reign (363-364) the attacks of the Scots and Picts 
continued and a new enemy, the Saxons, came over from 
the Continent. The Attacotti also are mentioned among the 
invaders but nothing is told of them. Neither do we learn 
anything definite regarding the Picts when Ammianus tells 
us that thev comprehended two nations, the Dicalidones 



xxxiv Appendix. 

and the Vecturiones. If Dicalidones suggests that they were 
the Caledonians on the other hand what Herodian says of 
tattooing applies better to the Maeatae than to the Cale- 
donians and suggests that they were the Picts. 

Of the Scots' place of residence Ammianus tells us no- 
thing, but they did not live near the wall. About 889, when 
the later history of Scotland begins to be genuine, we find 
that the region north of the Forth, formerly occupied by 
Caledonians, was then occupied by Scots, and it is safer to 
infer that they were the representatives of the Caledonians 
rather than of the Picts. 

The incursions of the Picts and Scots continued during 
the reign of Valentinian (364-375), and he sent Theodosius 
to assist the Britons against these cannibals. To prevent 
the incursions he restored the camps along the wall of 
Hadrian and placed guards and outposts along the Scotch 
wall. These precautions indicate that the aggressive parties 
came from the country between the two walls and on the 
north of the Scotch wall. The area between the two walls 
was made a province with the name Valentia, conferred 
in honour of the reigning emperor Valentinian. 

During the reign of Valentinian 's successor Gratian (375- 
383), one of Theodosius's generals, Maximus, excited the 
army in Britain to revolt and got himself proclaimed 
emperor (383). It is recorded of him by Prosper Aquitanus 
that he vigorously restrained the incursions of the Picts and 
Scots. Prosper wrote after the Eomans abandoned Britain 
but his chronicle may be accepted as reliable, because it 
was written at Borne in the year 431, where he might have 
met with persons who had been in Britain before the de- 
parture. Gratian had to go to the Continent to maintain 
his position as emperor, and he took away with him the 
army which guarded the wall. A find of gold coins at Cor- 
bridge in 1908 indicates that the army did not guard the 
wall after 384, and as a consequence the incursions of the 
Picts and Scots were renewed, the country having been 
drained of its young men as well as its defensive army. 
The incursions continued till 396 when Stilicho was ap- 
pointed guardian of the State for the emperor Honorius, 
who was but twelve years old. Stilicho went to Britain, 



Appendix. xxxv 

taking with him a legion, which repelled the invaders and 
garrisoned the north wall. The Britons had a quiet time 
till 403, when Stilicho had to withdraw the legion for the 
urgent service of the empire. Then the barbarians of the 
north renewed their attacks but nothing could be done for 
the Britons. In 409 they were informed by Honorius that 
they must defend themselves, but still the Roman authority 
was maintained. In 410 the Roman rule in Britain entirely 
ceased, and from that time till the advent of Columba in 
563 the history of the North of Scotland is enveloped in 
impenetrable darkness. 

In what has been related there is no indication that the 
part of Scotland north of the Forth was ever occupied by a 
people called Picts. It seems rather that the Picts occupied 
the country between the two walls and that the Scots intro- 
duced to our notice by Ammianus in 380 were the descend- 
ants of the Caledonian Britons who occupied Scotland north 
of the Forth in the time of Agricola and the ancestors of the 
Scots who occupied it in the ninth century. 

We have still to consider what is said by Eumenius and 
Claudian, two panegyrists who mention Britain. Eumenius 
was a prose author who flourished about 300. He wrote a 
panegyric in praise of Constantius Chlorus — styled Caesar — 
for recovering Britain to the Boman empire in 297. For 
seven years it had been separated, having been held by 
usurping emperors. In his panegyric he begins by referring 
to Julius Caesar and says that till he came the Britons had 
no more formidable enemies to contend against than the 
Picti and Hiberni. By Picti he must mean stained or tat- 
tooed people, for no historian had at that time called any 
race or tribe by that name. He also says that Caesar wrote 
home that Britain was so large that it rather comprehended 
the ocean than was surrounded by it. All these statements 
are manifestly inventions of the panegyrist. In another 
panegyric on the emperor Constantine the Great, son of 
Constantius Chlorus, he introduces the emperor's father 
and says he is not to mention what he did in Hibernia, nor 
Thule, nor the Fortunate Isles, nor the woods and marshes 
of the Caledonians and other Picts. Here again Picti must 
mean painted or coloured people, for in 310, the date ascribed 



xxxvi Appendix. 

to the panegyric, the Picts were still unknown to the his- 
torians. As Eumenius does not tell us anything about these 
brave deeds of Constantius and no historian mentions them 
we must remain for ever ignorant of them. It is, however, 
of importance to note that the Pictish myth has no other 
foundation to rest upon than Eumenius's phrase " The 
Caledonians and other Picts." It is known that the Cale- 
donians lived on the north of the Forth, and if they were 
Picts then there were Picts north of the Forth; but there 
is no evidence that Constantius was ever in Scotland. 
Eumenius does not even say that he was though he wished 
to produce the belief that he had been. 

The other panegyrist is the poet Claudian, who flourished 
about 400. In sounding the praises of the Roman general 
Theodosius, who, according to Ammianus, repelled the Picts 
and Scots (368, 369), he says Theodosius tamed the Picts, 
whose appearance justified their name, and in chasing the 
wandering Scots sailed over the Hyperborean seas. In 
another passage he says that Theodosius pitched his camp 
among the snows of Caledonia, watered the Orcades with 
Saxon blood, caused Thule to grow warm with the blood of 
the Picts and made icy Ireland weep over heaps of slain 
Scots. He takes a poet's licence and couples peoples and 
places so as to give a pleasant jingle and satisfy the metre 
of his lines, but he pays no regard to geographical accuracy. 
It is incredible that Theodosius was ever in Thule, Orkney, 
or Ireland. No Eoman soldier ever set a foot in any of 
these places. Yet there is no other contemporary authority 
than Claudian for asserting that in the time of the Roman 
occupation Ireland was the home of the Scots. In a pane- 
gyric on Stilicho, who in 396 repelled the Picts and Scots, 
he represents Britannia as telling what Stilicho had done 
for her. He came to Britain, she said, and led his legion 
against the most remote Britons. It bridled the cruel Scot 
and the tattooed Picts, so that she no longer feared the Scot 
nor the Pict and the Saxon came not to her shores. Instead 
of going to the extremity of Britain Stilicho probably con- 
tented himself with freeing of its invaders the part of 
England south of the Roman wall, and at the most did not 
go beyond the Scotch wall. 



Appendix. xxxvii 

Rejecting as unhistorical the unsupported absurd state- 
ments of the panegyrists and following the contemporary 
Greek and Roman historians we may with confidence con- 
clude that ancient Britain was peopled by a Celtic race all 
speaking the same language ; that the Scots were identical 
with the Caledonians of the north of Scotland; and that the 
Picts were the tattooed inhabitants of the south. No writer 
living within the period of the Roman occupation of Britain 
said that the languages spoken by the Picts and Scots were 
different from that of the Britons. But Bede (673-735), 
writing four hundred .years after the departure of the 
Romans from Britain, says that in his time five nations — 
the Angles, Britons, Scots, Picts, and Latins — each, in its 
own language studied the doctrines of Christianity, and that 
from its use in religious worship Latin was known by all. 
This baseless statement, incredible now, was long accepted 
as true, and during the next four hundred years much 
fictitious Scotch history was written. The Pictish myth had, 
however, dissipated before the death of Henry of Hunt- 
ingdon about 1154. Nobody in his time, he says, knew 
anything about the Picts. 



CELTIC PLACE-NAMES 

IN ABERDEENSHIRE. 



A' Chailleach. The old woman. A', the; chailleach, 
cailleach asp., old woman. This is the name of a stone 
supposed to be like an old woman. 

A' Chioch. The pap. A', the; chioch, cioch asp., pap. 

Aad Braes. Aod, brae. Perhaps aad had originally 
been aodan, plural of aod, and an had become s, which had 
been added to brae. 

Abbey. In Gaelic Abaid, Abbey. 

Abbotshaugh. Haugh once belonging to the abbot of 
Deer. 

Aberarder. Infall of a hill-land burn. Aber, infall; 
ard, hill ; tir, land. 

Aberdeen. Infall of the Den burn. Aber, infall; Dein, 
burn of the valley on the west of the city. The Den burn 
joined the Dee at Point Law before its course was altered 
by man. It was the harbour of the ancient town, and ships 
came up to the end of Market Street. Den is treated in 
Scotch names as if it had been a Gaelic word, and, if so, its 
nom. would have been dein, pronounced den. The form 
Aberdeen is quite recent. 

Aberdon. This was the name for Old Aberdeen prior to 
the suppression of the Catholic form of religion in 1560. 
Aber, infall; Don, river name. See Don. 

Aberdour. Infall of the burn. Aber, infall; dobhair, 
gen. of dobhar, water. 

Abergairn. Infall of the Gairn into the Dee. Aber, 
infall of a river into another or into the sea. See Gairn. 

Abergeldie. Infall of the Geldie into the Dee. Aber f 
infall. See Geldie. 

Abersnithock. Infall of the small burn into the Don. 
Aber, infall; nithaig, gen. of nithag, dim. of nith, burn. 
S is a euphonic insertion. The little burn is now the Burn 
of Blairdaff. See " Collections," p. 585. 

Aboyne. Water. Abhainn, river, water. 

Achadh na Creige. Field of the hill. Achadh, field; 
na, of the; creige, gen. of creag, rock, steep place, hill. 

Achath. Field near a stream or a ford. Achadh, cul- 
tivated land; ath, stream, ford. 



2 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Achorach Burn. Burn of the place where sheep were 
pastured. Achadh, place; chaorach, gen. plural of caora, 
a sheep. Initial A might represent ath, ford. 

Achquath. Place near a main highway. Achadh, 
place; chath, cath asp., road. 

Achronie (for Achadh Bonnach). Place of oozing water. 
Achadh, place; ronnach, dripping. 

Acrestripe. Streamlet from high ground. Ard-thir, 
high land. Ard, high; thir, tir asp., ground; stripe, small 
streamlet on a hillside. 

Adam's Bock, Adam's Tack, Adam's Well, Adamston. 
The first part of these names represents aodann, brae. 

Aden (old forms — Alneden, Aldene, Alden). Probably 
7, was inserted to show that initial a was long. Aden may 
represent aodann, brae. 

Adziel. White brae. Aod, brae; geal, white. Geal is 
probably a translation into Gaelic of the word white, a cor- 
ruption of chuit, cuit asp., cattle-fold. 

Affleck. Place of the stone. Achadh, place ; leac, stone. 
Ch and dh in achadh had both become ph, equivalent to /. 

Affloch. Wet place. Achadh, field, place; fliuch, wet, 
oozy. 

Afforsk. Place of crossing. Achadh, place; chraisg, 
gen. asp. of crasg, crossing. 

Aghaidh Garbh. Bough field. Achadh, field; garbh, 
rough. 

Aikenhead (Cuid Aighean). Pumphal for heifers. Guid, 
fold; aighean, gen. plural of aighe, heifer. Cuid had been 
aspirated and put last. Chuid lost c and became head. 

Aikenshill. Hill where heifers grazed. Aighean. gen. 
plural of aighe, heifer, hind. 

Aiky Brae. It is a mistake to give this name to a 
market stance in the belief that it was formerly covered 
with oak trees. The original Aiky Fair was held in the 
village of Old Deer, and it may have taken its name from 
men wearing in their coat an oak leaf with a gall on it, to 
show loyalty to Charles II. 

Air, Airlie. Shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

Airdlin. Level place on a hill. Lean, level place: aird, 
gen. of ard, hill. The parts of the name had been 
transposed. 

Airyhillock. Shieling hillock. Airidh, shiel. This 
place is near an ancient cattle-fold on the hill of Barra, and 
it might have been the residence of dairywomen. 

Aisirbharr Stripe. Streamlet from the point of a hill. 
Barr, point, top; aisre, gen. of aisir, hill. Barr had been 
asp. when the parts of the name were transposed. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 3 

Aisle, The. An addition to the side of a church. Ala 
{ Latin), wing. The name is also given to a chapel con- 
taining a tomb. 

Aitionn Hill. Juniper hill. Aitionn, etnach, juniper. 
Aldachuie. Burn of the cattle-fold. Allt, burn; a', of 
the; chuith (th silent), gen. asp. of cuith, fold. 

Aldamh. Burn of oxen. Allt, burn; damh, gen. plural 
of damh, ox. 

Aldararie. Same as Allt Darrarie. 

Aldie. Small burn. Alltan, small burn. 

Aldvaid. Burn of the wood. Allt, burn; bhaid, gen. 
asp. of bad, bush. This name is in old maps on the Cairn- 
well road. 

Alehousewells. Wells at an alehouse. But wells 
may be a corruption of bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is 
equivalent to u, v, or w, and bhaile has sometimes become 
well, and sometimes wells. 

Alford (for Ath All). Ford of the river. Ath, ford; 
■all, river. The parts of the name had been transposed 
when ath was translated. 

Allach. Water, burn. 

Allach Bridge. Bridge over Tarland burn. 

Allachaller. Burn of the hill of the shieling. Allach, 
burn; al, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Allachan. Small burn. It is the dim. of allach, burn. 
It occurs in names as allachie, allachy, allochie, ellachie, 
ellachy, allathan, with the meanings of river and small 
stream. 

Allachfern. Burn of the alder. Allach, burn, stream; 
fearna, gen. of fearna, alder. 

ALLAcnROWAN (for Allach Chaorruinn). Burn of the 
rowan. Allach, burn; chaoruinn, gen. asp. of caorunn, 
rowan. This part of the name had been translated, while 
the first part remained a Gaelic word. 

Allachy. Little burn. Allachan, little burn. 

Allalees (for Allach na Lise). Burn of the cattle-fold. 
Allach, burn; na, of the; lise, gen. of lios, cattle-fold, small 
round enclosure of any sort. See Allach. The cattle-fold 
is between two branches of a burn. 

Allalogie. Burn of the little howe. Allach, water; 
lagain, gen. of lagan, little hollow. See Allach. 

Allamuc Burn of the boar. All, burn; a', of the; 
muic, gen. of muc, boar. 

Allan. Stream. Allan is not in Gaelic dictionaries, 
but its meaning is obvious from the names Allanaquoich, 
Allanmore, Water of Allan, Bridge of Allan, Clay of Allan. 



4 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Allan aquoich (for Allan na Cuaiche). Burn of the 
round hollow. Allan, water; na, of the; cuaiche, gen. of 
cuach, cup. 

Allancreich (for Allan na Criche). Burn of the 
boundary. Allan, burn; na, of the (suppressed); criche, gen. 
of crioch, boundary. 

Allanmore. Great burn. Allan, burn; mor, big. 

Allans, North and South. Place near a small burn. 
Allan, small burn. An had erroneously been regarded as a 
plural termination. 

Allansack. Burn of willows. Allan, burn; seileach, 
gen. plural of seileach, willow. Willow in Scotch is saugh 
or sauch, in English sallow, in French, saule, in Latin salix, 
gen. salicis. Willows grow far up the highest mountains in 
Scotland as well as near burns in the Lowlands. 

Allanshill. Hill beside a burn. Allan, small burn. 

Allanstank. Both parts mean flowing water. Allan, 
burn; stank, ditch with running water. 

Allantersie. Cross burn. Allan, small burn; tarsuinn, 
cross. Final ie arose from wrongly regarding inn as a dim. 
termination. 

Allargue. Hill of the hill slope. Al, hill; leirg, gen. 
of learg, slope of a hill. Formerly the name was Allerg, 
which represents the second part of the name closely. 

Allathan (for Allachan). Small stream. Allachan, 
dim. of allach, stream. Ch had been changed to th. 

Allathumpach Burn (for Allan Thomach). Burn of the 
humpy place. Allan, dim. of all, burn; thomach, humpy. 
P is a euphonic insertion. 

Allnaharvy. Burn of the shieling. All, burn; na, of 
the; h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Prob- 
ably the personal name Harvey or Harvy means a resident 
at a shieling. 

Allrick (for Buigh Ail). Slope of the hill. Ruigh, 
slope; ail, gen. of al, hill. The parts of the name had been 
transposed. 

Allt a' Bhealaich Bhuidhe. Burn of the yellow road. 
Allt, burn; a', of the; bhealaich, gen. asp. of bealach, pass, 
road; bhuidhe, gen. of buidhe, yellow. See Bealaich 
Bhuidhe and Moine Bhealaich Bhuidhe. 

Allt a' Bho (for Allt nam Bo). Burn of the cows. 
Allt, burn; nam, of the; bo, gen. piural of bo, cow. 

Allt a' Bhreabair. The weaver's burn. Allt, burn; 
a', oE the; bhreabadair, gen. asp. of breabadair, weaver. 

Allt a' Chaorruinn. Burn of the rowan. Allt, burn; 
a', of the; chaorruinn, gen. asp. of caorunn or caorrunn,. 
rowan. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 5 

Allt a' Chlaiginn. Burn of the skull. Allt, burn; a', 
of the; chlaiginn, gen. asp. of claigionn, skull, skull-shaped 
hill. 

Allt a' Chlair. Burn of the open space. Allt, burn; 
a' , of the; chlair, gen. asp. of clar, open place. 

Allt a' Choire Bhoidheach. Burn of the beautiful 
corry. Allt, burn; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, 
corry; bhoidhich, gen. asp. of boidheach, beautiful. 

Allt a' Choire Chlachaich. Burn of the stony corry. 
Allt, burn; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; 
chlachaich, gen. asp. of clachach, stony. 

Allt a' Choire Dhuibh. Burn of the black corry. Allt, 
burn; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; dhuibh, 
gen. of dubh, black. 

Allt a' Choire Ghuirm. Burn of the green corry. Allt, 
burn; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; ghuirm, 
gen. of gorm, green. 

Allt a' Choire Mhoir. Burn of the great corry. Allt, 
burn; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; mhoir, 
gen. of mor, great. 

Allt a' Choire Odhair. Burn of the dun corry. Allt, 
burn; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; odhair, 
gen. of odhar, dun, dark yellow. 

Allt a' Choire Yaltie. Burn of the corry frequented 
by gregarious animals. Allt, burn; a', of the; choire, gen. 
asp. of coire, corry; ealtaich, gen. of ealtach, frequented by 
gregarious animals. 

Allt a' Chreachainn. Burn of the mountain. Allt, 
burn; a', of the; chreachainn, gen. asp. of creachann, 
mountain. 

Allt a' Chuil Eiabhaich. Burn of the grey back. 
Allt, burn; a', of the; chuil, gen. asp. of cul, back, back 
of a hill; riabhaich, gen. of riabhach, grey. 

Allt a' Chdirn Dheirg. Burn of the red cairn or hill. 
Allt, burn; a', of the; chuirn, gen. asp. of cam, hill, cairn; 
dheirg, gen. of dearg, red. 

Allt a' Gaothain (for Allt a' Ghabhainn). Burn of the 
fold. Allt, burn; a', of the; ghabhainn, gen. asp. of 
gabhann, fold. 

Allt a' Gharbh Coire (for Allt a' Garbh-choire). Burn 
of the rough corry. Allt, burn; a', of the; garbh, rough; 
choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry. 

Allt a' Ghlas-Choire (for Allt a' Glas-choire). Burn of 
the green corry. Allt, burn; a', of the; glas, green; choire, 
gen. asp. of coire, corry. 

Allt a' Mhadaidh. Burn of the fox. Allt, burn; a', 
of the; mhadaidh, gen. asp. of madadh, fox, wolf. 



6 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Allt a' Mhaidh. Burn of the plain. Allt, burn; a', of 
the; mhaidh, gen. asp. of madh, plain. 

Allt a' Mheoir Ghrianaich. Burn of the sunny branch. 
Allt, burn; a', of the; mheoir, gen. asp. of meur, finger, 
branch of a burn; ghrianaich, gen. of grianach, sunny. 

Allt an Aghaidh Mhilis. Burn of the pleasant place. 
Allt, burn; an, of the; achaidh, gen. of achadh, place; 
mhilis, gen. of milis, sweet, pleasant. AgJiaidh is a mistake 
for achaidh. 

Allt an Aitinn. Burn of the juniper. Allt, burn; an, 
of the; aitinn, gen. of aitionn, juniper. 

Allt an Da Chraobh Bheath (for Allt an Da Craoibh- 
bheath). Burn of the two birch trees. Allt, burn; an, of 
the; da, two; craoibh-bheath, gen. of craobh-bheath, birch 
tree. Da takes the singular of a noun. 

Allt an Droighnean. Burn of the sloe • thicket. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; droighnein, thicket of thorns, sloes. 

Allt an Dubh-choire. Burn of the black corry. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; dubh, black; choire, gen. asp. of coire, 
corry. 

Allt an Dubh-ghlinne. Burn of the black glen. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; dubh, black; ghlinne, gen. asp. of gleann, 
glen. 

Allt an Dubh-loch. Burn of the black loch. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; dubh, black; loch, loch. 

Allt an Dubh-lochain. Burn of the black little loch. 
Allt, burn; an, of the; dubh, black; lochain, gen. of lochan, 
little loch. 

Allt an Eas Bhig and Allt an Eas Mhoir. Burn of 
the little waterfall and burn of the big waterfall. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; eas, waterfall, burn; bhig, gen. of beag, 
little ; mhoir, gen. of mor, big. 

Allt an Laoigh. Burn of the calf. Allt, burn; an, of 
the; laoigh, gen. of laogh, calf. Calves had been sent to 
pasture in summer near this burn. 

Allt an Leathaid. Burn of the hillside. Allt, burn; 
an, of the; leathaid, gen. of leathad, hillside. 

Allt an Loch. Burn of the loch. Allt, burn; an, of 
the ; loch, loch. 

Allt an Lochain Uaine. Burn of the green little loch. 
Allt, burn; an, of the; lochain, gen. of lochan, small loch; 
uaine, green. 

Allt an Stuic Ghiubhais. Burn of the fir hill. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; stuic, gen. of stiic, pointed hill; ghiubhais, 
gen. asp. of giubhas, fir-tree. 

Allt an Tuim Bhain. Burn of the white hill. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; tuim, gen. of torn, hill; bhain, gen. of 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. ? 

ban, white. Tom Ban is a late translation into Gaelic of 
white hill, which is a corruption of chuithail, cattle-fold. 

Allt an Uisge. Burn of the water. Allt, burn; an, oi 
the; uisge, water. Perhaps beatha, life, is to be understood 
after uisge, and, if so, the name would mean burn on which 
whisky was made. 

Allt an t-Seilich. Burn of the willow. Allt, burn; 
an t-, of the; seilich, gen. o/ seileach, willow. 

Allt an t-Sionnaich. Burn of the fox. Allt, burn; 
an t-, of the; sionnaich, gen. of sionnach, fox. 

Allt an t-Slugain. Burn of the little slug. Allt, burn; 
an t-, of the; slugain, gen. of slugan, little slug, gorge, 
hollow. 

Allt an t-Sluich Leith. Burn of the grey gorge. 
Allt, burn; an t-, of the; sluichd, gen. of slochd, gorge; 
leith, gen. of Hath, grey. 

Allt an t-Sluichd Mhoir. Burn of the great gorge. 
Allt, burn; an t-, of the; sluichd, gen. of slochd, den, gorge; 
mhoir, gen. of mor, great. 

Allt an t-Sneachda. Burn of the snow. Allt, burn; 
an t-, of the; sneachda, gen. of sneachd, snow. 

Allt Bad a' Choilich. Burn of the bush of the 
streamlet. Allt, burn; bad, bush; a', of the; choilich, gen. 
asp. of coileach, streamlet, hill burn. 

Allt Bad a' Chuirn. Burn of the bush on the hill. 
Allt, burn; bad, bush; a', of the; chuirn, gen. asp. of earn, 
hill. 

Allt Bad a' Mhonaidh. Burn of the thicket on the 
moor. Allt, burn; bad, thicket, grove; a', of the; mhonaidh, 
gen. asp. of monadh, mountain, moor. 

Allt Bad Leana. Burn of the thicket on the plain. 
Allt, burn; bad, thicket; leana, plain. 

Allt Bad Mhic Griogair. Burn of Macgregor's bush. 
Allt, burn; bad, bush, hiding-place; mhic, gen. asp. of mac. 
son; Ghriogair, gen. asp. of Griogair, Gregor. 

Allt Beinn Iutharn. Burn of Beinn Iutharn; which 
see. Allt, burn; beinn, hill; iuthairn, gen. of iutharn, hell. 

Allt Bhronn (for Allt a' Bhraoin). Both parts mean 
burn. Allt, burn; a', of the; bhraoin, gen. asp. of braon, 
mountain burn. 

Allt Boruiche. Burn of mountain grass. Allt, burn; 
borraich, gen. of borrach, mountain grass. 

Allt Cac Dubh. Burn of black mire. The substance 
meant is wet comminuted peat-moss. Allt, burn; caca. 
gen. of cac, filth; dhuibh, gen. of dubh, black. 

Allt Caochain Eoibidh (for Allt Caochain Boibeich). 
Burn of the miry streamlet. Allt, burn; caochain, gen. of 
caochan, streamlet; roibeich, gen. of roibeach, miry. 



8 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Allt Carn a' Mhaim. Burn of the breast-shaped hill. 
Allt, burn; carn, hill; a', of the; mhaim, gen. asp. of mam, 
something in shape like a woman's breast. 

Allt Carn Bhathaich (for Allt Carn a' Bhathaich). 
Burn of the hill of the cow-byre. Allt, burn; carn, hill; a', 
of the; bhathaich, gen. asp. of bathach, cow-byre. 

Allt Chernie (for Allt Carnach). Stony burn. Allt, 
burn; carnach, stony. 

Allt Choire Dhuibh. Burn of the black corry. Allt, 
burn; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; dhuibh, gen. asp. of 
dubh, black. 

Allt Cholige. Burn with a loud, cheerful sound. 
Allt, burn; choilleig, gen. asp. of coilleag, loud, cheerful 
note, rural song. 

Allt Chuil. Burn of the back. Allt, burn; chuil, gen. 
asp. of cul, back, back of a mountain ridge. 

Allt Chuil Biabhaich. See Allt a' Chuil Biabhaich. 

Allt Chuirn Deirg. Burn of the red hill. Chuirn, gen. 
asp. of carn, hill; dheirg, gen. asp. of dearg, red. 

Allt Clach nan Taillear. Burn of the stone of the 
tailors. Allt, burn; clach, stone; nan, of the; taillear, gen. 
plural of taillear, tailor. 

Allt Clais an t-Sabhail. Burn of the hollow of the 
barn. Allt, burn; clais, hollow; an t-, of the; sabhail, gen. 
of sabhal, barn. The name had originally been Allt Clais 
a' Bheirn. Burn of the hollow of the gap in the skyline. 
Bheirn had been supposed to be barn, and had been trans- 
lated into sabhal, barn, after the meaning of the Gaelic 
name had been forgotten. 

Allt Clais Mhadaidh. Burn of the hollow of the fox. 
Allt, burn; clais, hollow; mhadaidh, gen. asp. of madadh, 
fox. 

Allt Clais nam Balgair. Burn of the hollow of the 
foxes. Allt, burn; clais, trench; nam, of the; balgair, gen. 
plural of balgair, fox. 

Allt Coire an Fhir Bhogha. Burn of the corry of the 
archer. Allt, burn; coire, corry; an, of the; fhir-bhogha, 
gen. asp. of fear-bogha, bowman, archer, soldier. 

Allt Coire an t-Sagairt. Burn of the priest's corry. 
Allt, burn; coire, corry; an t-, of the; sagairt, gen. of sagart, 
priest. 

Allt Coire an t-Saighdeir. Burn of the corry of the 
arrower. Allt, burn; an t-, of the; saighdeir, gen. of saigh- 
dear, arrower, soldier. 

Allt Coire an t-Seilich. Burn of the corry of the 
willow copse. Allt, burn; coire, corry; an t-, of the; seilich, 
gen. of seileach, willow copse. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 9 

Allt Coire an t-Slugain. Burn of the corry of the little 
slug. Allt, burn; coire, corry; an t-, of the; slugain, gen. of 
slugan, little gorge. 

Allt Coire Bhearnaist (for Allt a' Choire Bhearnaich). 
Burn of the corry having gaps round the edge. Allt, burn; 
a', of the (suppressed); choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; 
bhearnaich, gen. of bearnach, having gaps. 

Allt Coire Cath nam Fionn. Burn of the corry of the 
way of the Fingalians. Allt, burn; coire, corry; nam, of 
the; Fionn, Fingalians. This name must have been intro- 
duced after the publication of Ossian's poems, or perhaps 
Fionn is a mistake for fin, hill, mountain. 

Allt Coire Chrid (for Allt a' Choire Chreidhmte). Burn 
of the eroded corry. Allt, burn; a', of the (suppressed); 
choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; chreidhmte, past part. asp. 
of creidhm, to erode. 

Allt Coire Domhain. Burn of the deep corry. Allt, 
burn; coire, gen. of coire, corry; dhomhain, gen. asp. of 
domhan, depth. 

Allt Coire Fhearneasg (for Allt a' Choire Fhearnaich). 
Burn of the corry where alders grow. Allt, burn; a', of the; 
choire, coire asp., corry; fhearnaich, gen. of fearnach, 
growing alders. 

Allt Coire Fionn (for Allt Coire an Fhin). Burn of the 
corry of the hill. Allt, burn; coire, corry; an, of the; fhin, 
gen. asp. of fin, hill. 

Allt Coire Ghiubhais (for Allt Coire a' Ghiubhais). 
Burn of the corry of the fir tree. Allt, burn; coire, corry; 
a', of the; ghiubhais, gen. asp. of giubhas, fir tree. 

Allt Coire Loch Kander. Burn of the corry of Loch 
Kander. Allt, burn; coire, corry; loch, loch; canta, lake. 

Allt Coire na Ciche. Burn of the corry of the pap- 
shaped hill. Allt, burn; coire, corry; na, of the; ciche, gen. 
of cioch, woman's breast. 

Allt Coire na Cloiche. Burn of the corry of the stone. 
Allt, burn; coire, corry; na, of the; cloiche, gen. of clach, 
stone. 

Allt Coire na Meanneasg (for Allt Coire na Meannaich). 
Burn of the young kid's corry. Allt, burn; coire, corry; na, 
of the; meannaich, gen. of meannach, place suitable for 
young kids. 

Allt Coire na Saobhaidhe. Burn of Coire na Saob- 
haidhe. Allt, burn. See Coire na Saobhaidhe. 

Allt Coire na Sqreuchaig. Burn of the corry fre- 
quented by jackdaws. Allt, burn; coire, corry; na, of the: 
sgreuchaig, gen. of sgreuchag, jackdaw, screeching. 



io Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Allt Coire nam Freumh. Burn of the tree-root corry. 
Allt, burn; coire, corry; nam, of the; freumh, gen. plural of 
freumh, tree-root. 

Allt Coire nan Imireachan. Burn of the corry of the 
flittings. Allt, burn; nan, of the; coire, corry; imrichean, 
gen. plural of imrich, flitting, migration to shiels in summer. 

Allt Coire Euairidh. Burn of Eoderick's corry. Allt, 
burn; coire, corry; Ruairidh, Roderick. 

Allt Coire Uilleim Mhoir. Burn of the corry of 
William the great. Allt, burn; coire, corry; Uilleim, gen. of 
Uilleam, William; mhoir, gen. of mor, great. 

Allt Connachty. Burn met by another. Allt, burn; 
coinnichte, past part, of coinnich, to meet. 

Allt Connie. Burn of meeting. Allt, burn; coinne, 
gen. of coinne, meeting. 

Allt Coultain. Burn of the little nook. Allt, burn; 
cuiltein, gen. of cuiltean, little nook. 

Allt Craig Meann. Burn of the mountain of kids. 
Allt, burn; creag, mountain; meann, gen. plural of meann, 
kid. 

Allt Creag Phadruig. Burn of Patrick's hill. Allt, 
burn; creag, hill; Phadruig, gen. asp. of Padruig, Patrick. 

Allt Cristie Beag, Allt Cristie Mor. Little swift 
burn, and Big swift burn. Allt, burn; criosda, swift; 
beag, little; mor, big. 

Allt Cul (for Allt Cuil). Back burn. Allt, burn; cuil, 
gen. of cul, back of a hill. 

Allt Dachaidh. Burn at a dwelling-place. Allt, burn; 
dachaidh. dwelling-place. 

Allt Damh. Burn of oxen. Allt, burn; damh, gen. 
plural of damh, ox, stag. Damh may have the gen. plural 
like the nom. sing, or like the nom. plural. 

Allt Darrarie. Burn of loud rattling sounds. Allt, 
burn; dairirich, gen. of dairireach, loud stunning noise, 
rattling of stones. 

Allt Dearg. Red burn. Allt, burn; dearg, red. 

Allt Deas. South burn. Allt, burn; deas, south. 

Allt Deglaven. Burn of the good little hill. Allt, 
burn; degh, good; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, small hill. 
The burn issues from a bit of cultivated ground on a hill 
in Glenbucket. 

Allt Devanach. Slow burn. Allt, burn; diomhanach, 
slow, lazy. 

Allt Dhaidh Beag, Allt Dhaidh Mor. Little burn of 
David, and Big burn of David. Allt, burn; Dhaidh, gen. 
asp. of Daidh, David; beag, little; mor, big. Dhaidh may 
be a mistake for daimh, gen. plural of damh, ox. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. li 

Allt Dobhrain, Allt Dorie, Allt Dourie, Allt 
Dowrie. Burn of flowing water. Allt, burn; dobhrain. 
gen. of dobhran, stream. Bh is equivalent to u, and ain is 
equivalent to ie. Thus the first name would readily have 
assumed the same sound as the other three. 

Allt Domhain. Deep burn. Allt, burn; domhain, gen. 
of domhan, depth. 

Allt Duch (for Allt Dubh). Black burn. Allt, burn; 
dubh. black. Ch had taken the place of bh. 

Allt Duibhre. Gloomy burn. Allt, burn; duibhre, 
gloom . 

Allt Duisgan. Little brawling burn. Duisg, to rouse; 
an, diminutive termination. 

Allt Duxie. Burn of the little hill. Allt, burn: 
dunain, gen. of dunan, small hill. 

Allt Earse (for Allt Aird). Burn of the hill. Allt, 
burn : aird, gen. of ard, hill, height. The sound of s results 
from pronouncing final d forcibly. 

Allt Easain, Alltessan. Burn of the small stream. 
Allt, burn; easain, gen. of easan, small burn, small water- 
fall. 

Allt Fileachaidh (for Allt Feill Achaidb). Burn of the 
market-place. Allt, burn; feill, market; achaidh, gen. of 
achadh, place. Feill is pronounced with a sound like e or 
y at the end, which partly accounts for the mis-spelling of 
the name. 

Allt Fuaranach. Burn receiving many springs. Allt, 
burn; fuaranach, abounding in springs. 

Allt Garbh. Rough burn. Allt, bum ; garbh, rough, 
rushing. 

Allt Geal Charn. Burn of the white hill. Allt, burn: 
geal, white; charn, cam asp., mountain. 

Allt Glas. Green burn. Allt, burn; glas, green, grey. 

Allt Glas-choille. Burn of the green hill. Allt, burn: 
glas, green; choille, gen. asp. of coille, hill. 

Allt Glas-neulach. Burn above which is seen a grey 
cloud. Allt, burn; glas, grey; neulach, cloudy. Vapour 
rises from running streams, and sometimes when it enters 
a cold stratum of air it is condensed and forms a long line 
of cloud above the course of the stream. 

Allt Gille Morair. Burn of the landlord's servant. 
Allt, burn; gille, servant; moraire, gen. of morair, great 
man, landlord. 

Allt Iarnaidh. Burn tinged red with iron oxide. Allt, 
burn: iarnaidh, chalybeate, tasting of iron. 

Allt Leum an Easain. Burn of the leap of the water. 
Allt, burn; leum, leap, fall; an, of the; easain, gen. of 
easan, little burn, small waterfall. In dictionaries eas and 



12 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

easan have only the meanings of waterfalls, but in the 
Lowlands of Scotland they are burns without falls, and so 
also sometimes in the Highlands. 

Allt Liath-choire Mhor. Burn of the big grey corry. 
Allt, burn; liath, grey; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; 
rahoir, gen. of mor, big. 

Allt Loch Vrotachan (for Allt Loch a' Bhrotachaidh). 
Burn of the loch at which cattle fed well. Allt, burn; loch, 
loch; a', of the; bhrotachaidh, gen. asp. of brotachadh, 
feeding, fattening. 

Allt Lochan nan Eun. Burn of the loch of the birds. 
Allt, burn; lochan, small loch; nan, of the; eun, gen. 
plural of eun, bird. 

Allt Meirleach. Burn of the thieves. Allt, burn; 
meirleach, gen. plural of meirleach, thief. This had been a 
burn in which thieves were drowned. 

Allt na Beinne Brice. Burn of the spotted hill. Allt, 
burn; na, of the; beinne, gen. of beinn, hill; brice, gen. fern, 
of breac, spotted. 

Allt na Beithe. Burn of the birch-tree. Allt, burn; 
na, of the; beithe, gen. of beith, birch. 

Allt na Bruaich Kuaidhe. Burn of the red bank. 
Allt, bum; na, of the; bruaich, gen. of bruach, bank; 
ruaidhe, gen. fern, of ruadh, red. 

Allt na Caillich. Burn of the old woman. Allt, 
burn; na, of the; caillich, gen. of cailleach, old woman. 
The original form of the name might have been Alltan 
Coileach, in which both parts mean small burn. 

Allt na Chlaiginn. Burn of the skull. Allt, burn; 
na, of the; chlaiginn, gen. asp. of clagionn, skull, hill shaped 
like a skull. 

Allt na Ciste. Burn of the cist. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; ciste, gen. of ciste, chest, cist, kist. 

Allt na Claise Moire. Burn of the big gorge. Allt, 
burn; na, of the; claise, gen. of dais, trench-like gorge; 
moire, gen. fern, of mor, big. 

Allt na Cloch. Burn of the stone. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; cloiche, gen. of clach, stone. 

Allt na Coille. Burn of the wood. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; coille, wood, hill. 

Allt na Comhnuid. Burn of the dwelling-place. Allt, 
burn; na, of the; comhnuidhe, gen. of comhnuidh, house. 
Probably there had been a shiel in early times on this burn. 

Allt na Connair. Burn of the road. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; conair, road, path. 

Allt na Craige. Burn of the hill. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; craige, gen. of creag, hill. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 13 

Allt na Creige Leith. Burn of the grey hill. Allt, 
burn; na, of the; creige, gen. of creag, hill; leithe, gen. 
fern, of Hath, grey. 

Allt na Duibhre. Gloomy burn. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; duibhre, darkness. 

Allt na Gaobhain, Allt na Gaothain, (for Allt na 
Gabhainn). Burn of the cattle-fold. Allt, burn; na, of the; 
gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Allt na Giubhsaich. Burn of the fir-wood. Allt, burn; 
na, of the; giubhsaicli, gen. of giubhsach, fir-wood. 

Allt na Glaic. Burn of the hollow. Allt, burn; na, 
of the; glaic, gen. of glac, hollow. 

Allt na Greine. Sunny burn. Allt, burn; na, of the; 
greine, gen. of grian, sun. 

Allt na h-Earba. Burn of the roe. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; h (euphonic); earba, gen. of earb, roe. 

Allt na Lairig Ghru (for Allt na Lairige Grue). Burn 
of the gloomy pass. Allt, burn; na, of the; lairige, gen of 
lairig, hillside road, pass; grue, gloomy. The burn of the 
Lairig Ghru is sometimes held to be the infant Dee, though 
it is not the longest or the largest head-water of the river. 

Allt na Leitire Hill Hill of the burn of the hillside. 
Allt, burn; na, of the; leitire, gen. of leitir, hillside. 

Allt na Moine. Moss burn. Allt, burn; na, of the; 
moine, moss. 

Allt na Slaite. Burn of the rod. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; slaite, gen. of slat, rod. At a ford in a burn stems of 
trees are laid in the bottom longitudinally to facilitate 
crossing the stream with horses. Such a crossing-place is 
called Slateford. 

Allt na Tulach. Burn of the hill. Allt, burn; na, of 
the; tulaich, gen. of tulach, hill. 

Allt na Vackie (for Allt a' Bhacain). Burn of the 
peat-moss. Allt, burn; a', of the; bhacain, gen. asp. of 
bacaiyi, small peat-moss 

Allt nan Aighean. Burn of the heifers. Allt, burn; 
nan, of the; aighean, gen. plural of aighe, heifer, fawn, hind. 

Allt nan Caber Burn. Burn with many branches. 
Allt, burn; nan, of the; cabar, gen. plural of cabar, antler, 
branch of a burn. 

Allt nan Clach Geala. Burn of the white stones. 
Allt, burn; nan, of the; clach, gen. plural of clach, stone: 
geala, gen. plural of geal, white. 

Allt nan Leum Esain. Burn of the w r aterfalls. Allt, 
burn; nan, of the; leum, gen. plural of leum, fall; easain. 
gen. of eas, burn, waterfall. 

Allt Phadruig. Patrick's burn. Allt, burn; Phadruig, 
gen. asp. of Padruig, Patrick. 



14 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Allt Phouple (for Allt a' Phubuill). Burn of the tent. 
Allt, burn; a', of the (suppressed); -phubuill, gen. asp. of 
pubull, tent. 

Allt Preas nam Meirleach. Burn of the bush of the 
thieves. Allt, burn; preas, bush; nam, of the; meirleach, 
gen. plural of meirleach, thief, A thieves' bush was a 
lurking place among trees, where robbers watched for 
solitary travellers. 

Allt Eeppachie. Burn of the rough places. Allt, burn; 
ribeacha, plural of ribeach, rough place. 

Allt Roy. Red burn. Allt, burn; ruadh, red. 

Allt Euigh na Cuileige. Burn of the slope of the nook. 
Allt, burn; na, of the; cuileige — mistake for cuilteige, gen. 
of cuilteag, corner, nook. 

Allt Salach. Dirty burn. Allt, burn; salach, dirty. 
Perhaps for Allt Seileach. Burn of the willows. Allt, 
burn; seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

Allt Seileach. Burn of the willows. Allt, burn; 
seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

Allt Slochd a' Bheithe. Burn of the gorge of the 
birch. Allt, burn; slochd, gorge; a', of the; bheithe, gen. 
asp. of beith, birch. 

Allt Slochd Chaimbeil. Burn of Campbell's den. Allt, 
burn; slochd, gorge, den; Chaimbeil, gen. asp. of Caimbeul, 
Campbell. 

Allt Sowan. Burn of sowans. Allt, burn; sughan, 
gen. plural of sughan, juice, drainings from mealy sids. 
The burn may have taken its name from the colour of its 
water after rain, or from receiving water oozing from the 
ground near it. The Scotch word sowans is a corruption of 
sughan, juice. Final s had been added in the belief that 
an represented the plural termination in Gaelic. 

Allt Sron nam Fiadh. Burn of the point of the deer. 
Allt, burn; sron, point; nam, of the; fiadh, gen. plural of 
fiadh, deer. 

Allt Tarsuinn. Cross burn. Allt, burn; tarsuinn, 
cross. 

Allt Thronach. Burn of the ridge. Allt, burn; dron- 
naige, gen. of dronnag, ridge. Allt ends in t, which had 
caused change of d to t in dronnag. 

Allt Tobair Fhuair. Burn of the cold spring. Allt, 
burn; tobair, gen. of tobar, well; fhuair, gen. of fuar, cold. 

Allt Tom a' Bhealuidh. Broomhill burn. Allt, burn; 
torn, hill; a', of the; bhealuidh, gen. asp. of bealuidh, 
broom. 

Allt Ton na Gaoithe. Burn at the back of the wind. 
Allt, burn; ton, backside; na, of the; gaoithe, gen. of gaoth, 
wind. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 15 

Allt Tuileach. Burn full of holes. Allt, burn; tollach, 
full of holes. 

Allt Veannaich. Burn whose banks gave pasture to 
kids. Allt, burn; mheannach, suitable for kids. 

Allt Vitch (for Allt Bheith). Burn of birch trees. Allt, 
burn; bheith, gen. plural of beith, birch tree. Th has become 
tch. 

Alltachlair. Burn of the level ground. Allt, urn; 
a', of the; chlair, gen. asp. of clar, level plain. 

Alltamhait. Burn of the wood. Allt, burn; a', ot the; 
bhaid, gen. asp. of bad, bush, wood. 

Alltan Beal (probably for Alltan Beag). Small 
streamlet. Alltan, small burn; beag, little. 

Alltan Dearg. Bed little burn. Alltan, little burn; 
dearg, red with iron oxide. 

Alltan Mhicheil (for Alltan Bheiceil). Jumping little 
burn. Alltan, little burn; bheiceil, beiceil asp., jumping, 
bobbing. The Alltan Mhicheil is the infant Don. It de- 
scends the steep face of Geal Charn. 

Alltan na Beinne. Little burn from the hill. Alltan, 
little burn; na, of the; beinne, gen. of beinn, hill. 

Alltan Odhar. Dun burn. Alltan, little burn; odhar, 
dun, yellowish grey. The colour refers to the vegetation on 
its banks — Sphagnum moss. 

Alltan Roy. Bed little burn. Alltan, small burn; 
ruadh, red. 

Alltan Seileach. Burn of willows. Alltan, little burn; 
seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

Alltan Sleibh. Little mountain burn. Alltan, little 
burn; sleibh, gen. of sliabh, mountain of great extent. 

Alltan Tarsuinn. Little cross burn. Alltan, small 
burn; tarsuinn, cross. 

Alltcailleach (probably for Allt Coileach). Burn. 
Allt, burn; coileach, hill burn. Both parts mean burn 
and are in apposition, but often the second noun in such 
names is put in the genitive, as if it were governed by the 
first. 

Alltessan Burn. Burn of the small waterfall. Allt, 
burn; easain, gen. of easan, burn, waterfall. 

Alltmore. Big burn. Allt, burn; mor, big. 

Alltnakebbuck Burn. Burn of the erosion. Allt, burn; 
na, of the; caobaidh, gen. of caobadh, biting, eroding by 
running water. 

Alma Cottage. Alma is the name of a stream in the 
Crimea, where a battle was fought in 1854. 

Almanethy Creek (Ahnanethy on the O.S. map). Creek 
at the rock of the little burn. Al, rock; an, of the; nethain, 
"en. of nethan, little stream. 



16 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Altanour. Small burn. Alltan, small burn; our, burn. 

Altanree. Burn of the circle. Alltan, small burn; 
rath, circle. Th being silent was lost, and a became ee. 

Altdachie. Same as Allt Dachaidh. 

Altdargue. Eed burn. Allt, burn; dearg, red. 

Altnacraig. Burn of the hill. Allt, burn; na, of the; 
craige, gen. of creag, hill. 

Altnahasach Burn (for Allt na Chasaich). Burn of the 
steep place. Allt, burn: na, of the; chasaich, gen. asp. of 
casach, ascent. 

Alton (Drumoak) (for Baile Allt). Town on a burn. 
Baile, town (translated and transposed); allt, burn. 

Alton Brae. Brae of a town above a burn (Muchalls 
burn). Allt, burn. 

Alton of Coynach (for Baile Alt). High town. Baile, 
town (translated and transposed); alt, high. See Coynach. 

Altonrea (for Allt an Eeidhe). Burn of the plain. Allt, 
burn; an, of the; reidhe, gen. of reidh, level place. 

Altons. High place. Altan, dim. of alt (Irish), high. 
Final s is due to the belief that an was a plural termination. 

Am Mullach. The summit of a hill. Am, the; mul- 
lach, top, eminence. 

An Car. The winding stream. An, the; car, winding 
stream. Perhaps the name was originally An Carr, the 
rock. An, the; carr, projecting rock, monumental stone. 

An Creagan. The little hill. An, the ; creagan, little 
hill. 

An Diollaid. The saddle. An, the; diollaid, saddle. 

An Garbh Choire. The rough corry. An, the; garbh, 
rough; choire, coire asp., corry. 

An Scarsoch. The hill with a pointed rock like a snout 
on the summit. An, the; sgor, pointed rock; socach, 
snouted. 

An Slugan. The little slug. An, the ; slugan, little 
slug, small ravine. 

An Socach. The snout. An, the ; socach, snout, pointed 
rock on mountain range. 

An t-Sron. The steep projecting point. An t-, the; 
sron, nose, long hill ending in a steep brae. 

Anderson's Wards (for Cuitan Sithean an Treid). 
Small fold on a hill where cattle fed. Cuitan, dim. of cuit, 
fold, ward, enclosure, had erroneously been regarded as a 
plural and made wards and had been put last. Sithean 
(pronounced shean), small hill, had erroneously been re- 
garded as a plural and made sons. An treid (corrupted into 
Ander), of the herd, is composed of an, the, and treid, gen. 
of trend, herd. See Andrewsford. 



Celtic Place-Na7nes in Aberdeenshire. 17 

Andet. The warm place. The original form of the name 
may have been An Teth Achadh, the warm place. An, the ; 
teth, warm; achadh (suppressed), place. 

Andrew sford (for Ath an Treid). Ford of the drove of 
cattle, place where droves crossed a burn. Ath, ford; an, of 
the; treid, gen. of trend, drove. When ath was trans- 
lated into ford it had been placed last. A hill whose name 
in Gaelic was Cam an Treid is now called Cairn Andrew. 

Anetswell (for Aonach Bhaile). High town. Aonach, 
high, far up; bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is equivalent to 
u. v, or w, and hence bhaile frequently became well or wells. 

Angels Burn. Burn, burn of lights. Ainglean, gen. 
plural of aingeal, fire, light. 

Angus Stank. Narrow piece of ground between two 
burns. Aonachadh, space between streams; tana, slender. 

Anguston. If this is not Angus's town it means place 
between two streams. Aonachadh, junction of two rivers, 
space between two branches of a river. 

Annachie, Annochie. Place at the junction of two 
burns. Aonachadh, junction. 

Anne's Park. Enclosed ground. Innis, enclosed graz- 
ing ground; pairc, park. 

Annesley (formerly Achinsley, for Achadh na Innse, 
with ley — Scotch). Field of the enclosed grassy place. 
Achadh, field; na, of the; innse, gen. of innis, island, en- 
closure, cattle-fold; ley, grassy place. 

Annie Fyvie's Knap (for Cnap Innis Chuithain). Knoll 
of the enclosure for a fold. Cnap, knoll; innis, enclosure; 
chuithain, gen. asp. of cuithan, small fold. Ch had become 
ph, equivalent to /; and th had become bh, equivalent to v. 
Ain had been made ie and afterwards also s. 

Annie's Well, Annieswell. Well at a cattle-fold. 
Innis, enclosed area, fold. 

Annisland Park. Enclosure on a hill for a park. Innis, 
enclosure; lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill; pairc, park. 

Ann's Forest. Enclosure for a forest. Innis, enclosure. 

Antshillock. Aonach, height, hillock. 

Apolinaris's Chapel. Chapel supposed to have been 
dedicated to a saint named Apolinaris. The first part of the 
name may be pre-Christian and may represent Poll na 
h-Airidhe. Pot in the Don at the shiel. Poll, pool, pot; 
na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, summer 
residence, shiel. 

Aqueduct. Channel made to convey water. The name 
is frequently given to a channel on arches conveying water 
across a hollow. Aqua (Latin), water; ductum, to lead. 



18 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Aquhadlie (for Achadh Leithe). Field of greyness, or 
grey field. Achadh, place, field; leithe (the silent), grey- 
cess. 

Aquherton. (In the " Register of the Great Seal," 1592, 
Auquhortin.) Field of the small circle. Achadh, field; 
chortain, gen. asp. of cortain, small circle, sepulchral stone 
circle. 

Aquhorsk. Place of the crossing. Achadh, place; 
chraisg, gen. asp. of crasg, crossing. 

Aquhorthies. Field of the small circle. Achadh, field; 
chortain, gen. asp. of corthan, small circle, sepulchral stone 
circle. S had been added because chorthain was supposed 
to be plural. 

Aquhythie. Field of the cattle-fold. Achadh, place, 
field; chuithan, small cattle-fold. 

Arachie Burn (for Allt Arachain). Burn of the small 
field. Allt, burn; arachain, gen of arachan, dim. of arach, 
ploughed field, field of battle. The Gaelic word ar, cultiva- 
tion, is cognate with the Latin word aro, I plough. 

Archballoch (for Bealach Aird). Pass over a hill. 
Bealach, pass; aird, gen. of ard, hill. 

Ard an Damh. Hill of the stag. Ard, hill; an, of the; 
daimh, gen. of damh, stag, ox. 

Ardallie (for Ard Allain). Hill of the burn. Ard, 
height; allain, gen. of allan, water, burn. 

Ardan Breac. Speckled little height. Ardan, small 
height; breac, spotted, dappled. 

Ardarg, Arderg. Bed hill. Ard, hill; dearg, red. 

Ardbeck (for Ardbeag). Little height. Ard, height; 
beag, little. 

Ardbuck. Hill of the he-goat. Ard, hill; buic, gen. of 
boc, he-goat, roe-buck. 

Ardchattan. Hill of the drove roads. Ard, height; 
chatan, gen. plural asp. of cat, hill road. 

Ardconnan, Ardconnon. Hill where Eriophorum vag- 
inatum (cotton grass) grew. Ard, hill; conan, gen. plural 
of cona, catstail grass, cotton grass. 

Ardendraught. Hill of the pulling. Ard, hill; an, of 
the; draghaidh, gen. of draghadh, dragging, pulling. The 
name indicates a place where loads were pulled up a brae 
with difficulty. 

Ardeneret (for Ardan Airidhe). Hill of the shieling. 
Ardan, dim. of ard, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling, 
summer pasture. 

Ardennan (perhaps for Ard Dunan, in which both parts 
mean hill). Ard, hill; dunan, little hill. 

Ardevin (for Ard a' Bheinne). Summit of the hill. Ard, 
height; a', of the; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, bill. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 19 

Ardfork. Oat hill. Ard, hill; choirc, gen. asp. of core, 
oats. 

Ardgallie. Hill of the little rock. Ard, hill; gallain, 
gen. of gallan, small rock. 

Ardganty (for Ard Tigh Gabhainn). Hill of the house 
at a cattle-fold. Ard, hill; tigh, house; gabhainn, gen. of 
gabhann, cattle-fold. Tigh had been put last, but gabhainn 
is the qualifying word. 

Ardgathen. Windy height. Ard, height, hill; gaothan- 
ach, windy. 

Ardgeith. Windy height. Ard, height; gaoith, gen. of 
gaoth, wind. 

Ardgill. White hill. Ard, hill; geal, white. White 
hill is a corruption of chuitail, cattle-fold; and white hill 
had been turned into Gaelic by ardgeal. 

Ardglessie. Hill of the little burn. Ard, height; glaise, 
small burn. 

Ardgowse. Fir-hill. Ard, hill; giuthais, gen. of 
giuthas, fir-tree. 

Ardgrain. Sunny hill. Ard, hill; greine, gen. of grian, 
sun. 

Ardhuncart. Hill of the enclosure. Ard, height, hill; 
luncart, enclosure, circle. L had been aspirated and then 
dropped, while h remained. Luncart is a common word in 
Scotch for a circle of stones for holding a fire for an outdoors 
washing; and it is used as a place name— Luncarty. It is 
the same word as the Irish long-phort, a fortress. 

Ardidacker. Hillock of the messenger. Ardan, height; 
ieachdaire, messenger. 

Ardiebrown (for Ardan Braoin). Hill of the mountain 
burn. Ard, hill; an, of the; braoin, gen. of braon, mountain 
burn. 

Ardieknows (for Ardan Cnapan). Small knoll. Ardan, 
small hill; cnapan, small knoll. Both parts of the name 
have the same meaning. An of ardan became ie, and an of 
cnapan should have also become ie, but being regarded as a 
plural termination it was changed to s. 

Ardiffery (for Ard Dubh Airidhe). Black hill of the 
shieling. Ard, hill; dubh, black; airidhe, gen. of airidh, 
shieling, summer pasture. 

Ardin (for Ard Dun). Hill. Ard, hill; dun, hill. 

Ardiraar. Small hill with level ground on the top. 
Ardan, small hill; reidh, level; ar, land. 

Ardlair, Ardler. High land. Ard, high; lar, land. 

Ardlaw t , Artlaw. Hill. Both parts of the names have 
the same meaning. Ard, hill; lamh, hill. 

Ardlethen. Broad hill. Ard, hill; leathan, broad. 



20 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ardlogie. Hill of the little howe. Ard, height; lagain, 
gen. of lagan, dim. of lag, howe. 

Ardmachron (for Ard Machairain). Hill of the small 
plain. Ard, hill; machairain, gen of machairan, small 
plain. 

Ardmeanach. Middle hill. Ard, hill; meadhonach, 
middle. 

Ardmedden. Hill of the middle, or middle hill. Ard, 
hill; meadhoin, gen. of meadhon, middle. 

Ardmiddle (for Ard Meadhoin). Hill of the middle, 
hill; meadhoin, gen. of meadhon, middle. 

Ardmore. Big hill. Ard, hill; mor, big. 

Ardmurdo (for Ard Mor Dubh). Big black hill. Ard, 
hill; mor, big; dubh, black. 

Ardneidly. Hill with a semi-circular hollow on the side. 
Ard, height, hill; neid, gen. of nead, nest, hollow like a nest; 
leth (th silent), side, half. 

Ardo, Ardoch. Small hill. Ardan, small hill. 

Ardonald (for Ard Donn Allt). Hill of the brown burn. 
Ard, hill; donn, brown; allt, burn. 

Ardoyne. Hill at the burn — Shevock. Ard, height, 
hill; abhann, gen. of abhainn, burn, river. 

Ardtannes. Hill of the ghost. Ard, height; tannais, 
gen. of tannas, apparition. 

Ark Stone. Perhaps Stone believed to commemorate a 
hero. Arc, hero. 

Arks, The. (In Gaelic, Na h-Uircean.) The young 
pigs. Na, the; h (euphonic); uircean, plural of uircean, 
small pig. The Arks are bare round stones on a hilltop. 

Arn Hill. Hill growing alder-trees. Fhearna, fearna 
asp., alder. Fh is silent. 

Arnage (for Aod Fhearna). Brae of alders. Aod, brae; 
fhearna, gen. plural asp. of fearna, alder, arn. Fh is silent 
and had been lost. Aod has become edge in Edgehill and 
Windy Edge. The parts of the name had been transposed. 
In the name Mains of Arnage e has been made h on the 
O.S. map. 

Arngrove. Cluster of alder trees. Fhearna, fearna asp., 
alder-tree, arn (Scotch). 

Arnhall. Farm-town where alders grew. Fhearna, 
fearna, asp., alder-tree; hall (Scotch), farm-kitchen, public 
room in a house. 

Arnhash (for Fhearnach Chas, asp. form of Fearnach 
Cas). Brae growing alders. Fhearnach, abounding in alders ; 
chas, ascent, brae. Fh, being silent, had been lost; ach also 
had been lost, and s of cas had been aspirated. 

Arnhead. Cattle-fold at alder-trees. Fhearna, fearna 
asp., plural of fearna, alder tree; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 21 

cattle -fold. F after aspiration had become silent and had 
been lost, and so also had been c of chuid. 

Arntilly. Pebbly hill. Artan, pebble; tulach, hill. 
The t of artan had been aspirated and had subsequently 
become silent. Am might represent fearna, alder, but 
alders thrive best in wet places. 

Arntilly Craig. Same as Arntilly. Craig, hill. 

Arntilly Hard. Hill of Arntilly. Artan, pebble; 
tulach, hill; ard, height. This is the name of a farm on a 
tableland 700 feet up. 

Arnwood. The wood of alder-trees. Fhearna, fearna 
asp., alder. Fh is silent and had been rmitted. 

Arnybogs (for Fhearnach Bogan). Alder Bog. Fhear- 
nach, growing alders; bogan, bog. An had been made s 
in the mistaken belief that it was a plural termination. 

Arnyburn. Burn of alders. Fhearnach, fearnach asp., 
place of alders. 

Artamford. Pebbly ford. Artan, pebble. 

Arthrath (for Ard Katha). Hill of the circle. Ard, hill; 
ratha, gen. of rath, circle, stone circle round a grave, 
cattle-fold. 

Arthurseat (for Suidhe Ard-Thir). Place on high 
ground. Suidhe, seat, place; ard, high; thir, tir asp., land. 
The parts of the name had been transposed. 

Artloch. Hill of the loch. Ard, height; loch, pool. 

Artrochie (for Ard Troiche). Hill of the little person. 
Ard, hill; troiche, dwarf, fairy. 

Aryburn. Burn near which there had been a shiel. 
Airidh, shiel, shieling. 

Ashalloch, Ashallow. Sheltered place. Asgallach, 
(derivative from asgall, shelter), sheltered place. 

Ashogle (for Aiseag-lach). Place of a ferry. Aiseag, 
ferry; lach, place of. Ais is pronounced ash. 

Ashtown. If this is an English name it means town 
at an ash tree. If it is Gaelic it means water town. Eas, 
water; ton (English), town. 

Ashyfolds (locally Aisyfaulds). Small enclosed mossy 
fields, ploughed and burned to increase their fertility. 

Asleid (for Eas Leoid). River of breadth, or broad river. 
Eas, water, waterfall; leoid, gen. of leud, breadth. 

Asloun. Burn of the meadow. Eas, burn; loin, gen. 
of Ion, meadow, moss, lawn, grassy place. 

Aswanley. Wet grassy field. Achadh, field; sugh- 
anach, wet, watery; ley, grass land. 

Atherb (for Ath Earb). Ford of the roe. Ath, ford; 
earba, gen. of earb, roe. But perhaps the original form had 
been Allt a' Thearbaidh, burn of division. Allt, burn; a', 
of the; thearbaidh, gen. asp. of tearbadh, division. In 



22 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

the " Poll Book," 1696, the name is Aucherb, which means 
place of the roe. Achadh, place; earba, gen of earb, roe. 

Atholhill. Limekiln hill. Ath, kiln; aoil, gen. of aol, 
lime. 

Atnach Wood. Wood in which there are junipers. 
Aitionnach, abounding in junipers. 

Auburn. Both parts mean water. Abh, water, stream; 
burn, flowing water. Auburn is a name imported from 
Goldsmith's " Deserted Village." 

Auchaballa. Field of the town. Achadh, field, a', of 
the; baile, town, village, farm. 

Auchaber (for Achadh Aber). Place of the ford. 
Achadh, field, place; aber, infall of a river, ford, outfall of 
a lake into a river - 

Auchabrack. Field of the hill. Achadh, field; braghad, 
gen. of braigh, hill. 

Auchairn (for Achadh Chairn). Field of the hill. 
Achadh, place; chairn, gen. asp. of cam, hill. 

Auchallater (for Achadh a' Calla-Tire). Place of the 
meadow-land. Achadh, field, place; a', of the; calla, 
meadow; tire [e silent), gen of tir, land. 

Auchanachy. Place between two branches of a burn. 
Achadh, place; aonachaidh, gen. of aonachadh, confluence 
of streams. 

Aucharnie (for Achadh Charnach). Stony field. 
Achadh, place, field; charnach, carnach asp., stony. C of 
charnach had become silent and had been lost. 

Auchavaich. Field of the cow-house. Achadh, field, 
place; bhathaich, gen. asp. of bathaich, cow-house. Bh 
became v, and th being silent was dropped. 

Auchedlie (for Achadh Liath). Grey place. Achadh, 
place; liath, grey. 

Auchelie (for Achadh a' Choille). Place in a wood. 
Achadh, place, field; a', of the: choille, gen. asp. of coille, 
hill, wood. 

Auchencleith. Place of the concealment. Achadh, 
place; an, of the; cleith, concealment. 

Auchencruive. Place where a dead body had been 
found. Achadh, place; an, of the; creubh (bh equivalent 
to v), dead body. 

Auchenhandock. Place of the black head. Achadh, 
place; an, of the; cheann, ceann asp., head; dubh, black. 
The name is descriptive of the place, which rises from the 
Deveron to a hill. 

Auchenten (for Achadh na Taine). Place of the cattle, 
or of the burn. Achadh, place; na, of the; taine, gen. of 
tain, cattle, burn. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 23 

Auchentoul, Auchintoul. Place of the howe. Achadh 
place; an, of the; tuill, gen. of toll, howe, pool. 

Auchentrade. Place of the herd of cattle. Achadh, 
place; an, of the; treid, gen. of trend, drove, herd. 

Auchentumb. Place on a hill. Achadh, place; an, of 
the; tuim, gen of torn, hill. 

Aucheoch. Place in a howe. Achadh, place; iocfed, 
howe. 

Auchernach. Place of sloes. Achadh, place, field; 
airneach, producing sloes. 

Auchinbo (for Achadh na Bo). Place of the cow. 
Achadh, place; na, of the; bo (for hoin, gen. of bo), cow. 

Auchinbradie. Place of judgment. Achadh, place; na, 
of the; 6reaf/i, judgment, Th had been changed to dh in 
passing into Scotch. 

Auchinclech. Same as Auchencleith. 

Auchindarg (for Achadh na Deirge). Place of redness, 
or red place. Achadh, place; na, of the; deirge, redness. 

Auchindellan (for Achadh an Dailain). Field of the 
meadow. Achadh, field; an, of the; dailain, gen. of dailan, 
dim. of dail, meadow. 

_ AuchindixNnie. Place of the little hill. Achadh, place, 
held ; an, of the ; dunain, gen. of dunan, little hill. 

Auchindoir. Place of the grove. Achadh, place; an, of 
the; doire, thicket, clump of trees. 

Auchindroin, Auchindryne. Place of the thorn. Ach- 
adh, place; an, of the; droighinn, gen. of droigheann, thorn, 
hawthorn. 

_ Auchinhove, Auchinhuive, (for Achadh an Chuith). 
Field of the cattle-fold. Achadh, field; an, of the; chuith, 
gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. An had originally been a'\ 
but when c of ch had been lost through softening a' had 
become an. Final th of chuith had become bk— equivalent 
to v. This change is very common in East London at the 
present day, where feather is pronounced fever and mother 
muver. Faobhar (pronounced fa-ver), edge of a tool, has 
become feather in Scotch. 

Auchinleith. Field of the half side. When a burn has 
a hill-face on one side and a flat space on the other the 
flat part is called the half side. Achadh, field, place; na, of 
the; leith, side, half. 

Auchintarph. Place of the bull. Achadh, place; an, of 
the; tairbh, gen. of tarbh, bull. 

Auchintender (for Achadh Taine Airidhe). Place of the 
cattle pasture. _ Achadh, place; na, of the; taine, gen. of 
tain, cattle; airidhe, gen. of airidh, summer pasture among 
hills. D is a needless insertion made after n. 



24 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Auchinyell. Field of the fold. Achadh, field; an, of 
the; ghil, gen. of geal, white. White was a corruption of 
chuith, cuit asp., fold, and it had been turned into Gaelic 
by ghil. 

Auchiries. Place of the shieling. Achadh, place; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh. Final s arises from pronouncing 
dh forcibly. 

Auchlaws. Place on a small hill. Achadh, field, place; 
lamhain, gen. of lamhan, small hill. Mh is equivalent to 
w. An should normally have become ie, but it had been 
made s. 

Auchlee. Grassy place. Achadh, field, place; lee (form 
of lea or ley), grass land. Lee might represent Hath, grey. 

Auchlethen. Broad place. Achadh, place; leathan, 
broad. 

Auchleuchries (for Achadh Fliuch Airidhean). Place 
of the wet pastures. Achadh, place; fliuch, wet; airidhean, 
gen. plural of airidh, hill pasture. The local pronunciation 
of the name is afleuchries. 

Auchleven. Level place. Achadh, field; liomhanach 
(mh sounded v and ach silent), smooth, even. 

Auchlin, Auchline. Place of the pool. Achadh, 
place; linne, pool, waterfall. Or, Place of the swampy 
plain. Achadh, place; lein, gen. of lean, plain, corn-land, 
meadow. 

Auchloon. Wet place. Achadh, place; fhliuchain, gen. 
asp. of fliuchan, wetness. Fh is silent and had been 
dropped; so also had ch, which left liuain, lapsing into loon. 

Auchlossan. Place near a small river. Achadh, place; 
lossan, small river. 

Auchmachar. Place of a level plain. Achadh, place; 
machair, plain, level country. 

Auchmacleddie (for Achadh na Clidhe). Place of the 
assembly. Achadh, place; na, of the; clidhe, gen. of clidh, 
assembly. 

Auchmacoy (for Achadh na Cuith). Place of the cattle- 
fold. Achadh, place; na, of the; cuith (th silent), cattle-fold. 
Qui had at first been pronounced coo-ie. 

Auchmade (for Achadh Moid). Place of the seat of a 
barony court. Achadh, place; moid, gen. of mod, seat of 
a court of justice. 

Auchmaliddie (for Achadh an Leathaid). Place on the 
slope of a hill. Achadh, place; an, of the; leathaid, gen. of 
leathad, side, hill slope. 

Auchmar. Place of the officer of justice. Achadh, 
place ; maoir, gen. of maor, bailiff, messenger of a court. 

Auchmedden (for Achadh Meadhonach). Middle field. 
Achadh, field; meadhonach, middle. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 25 

Auchmenzie. Place reserved for heifers. Achadh, 
place; mangan, gen. plural of mang, heifer, fawn. 

Auchmill, Auchmull. Place on a hill. Achadh, place, 
field; mill, gen. of meall, hill. 

Auchmore. Big field. Achadh, field, place; mor, big. 

Auchmullen. Place of the mill. Achadh, place, field; 
muillinn, gen. of muilleann, mill. 

Auchmunziel. Place of the white hill. Achadh, place; 
munaidh, gen. of munadh, hill; ghil, gen. of geal, white. 
See Whitehill. 

Auchnabo. Field of the cow. Achadh, field; na, of the; 
bo (for boin), gen. of bo, cow. The name indicates a place 
to which cows were sent to graze by themselves. 

Auchnacant. Place of the pool. Achadh, place; na, of 
the; canta, lake, puddle. 

Auchnaclach. Field of the stone. Achadh, field; na, 
of the; cloiche, gen. of clach, stone. 

Auchnacraig Hill. Hill of the field of the mountain. 
Achadh, field; na, of the; craige, gen. of creag, rocky moun- 
tain, hill. 

Auchnafoy, Auchnahoy, (for Achadh an Chuith). Place 
of the fold. Achadh, place; an, of the; chuith, gen. asp. of 
cuith, fold. Ch had become fh; and th, being silent, had 
been lost. In Auchnafoy h had become silent and had 
been lost, and in Auchnahoy / had been silent and had been 
lost. 

Auchnagathee. Place of the windy hill. Achadh, 
place, field; an, of the; gaothach, windy; aill, gen. of aill, 
hill, rocky hill. 

Auchnagatt. Place of the roads. Achadh, place; nan, 
of the; cat, gen. plural of cat, road, drove road. Two im- 
portant roads cross at Auchnagatt. 

Auchnagorth (for Achadh na Corth). Field of the stone 
circle. Achadh, field; na, of the; corth, stone circle. 

Auchnamoon. Place in a moss. Achadh, place; na, of 
the; moine, moss. 

Auchnapady. Field of the hummock. Achadh, field; 
na, of the; paite, gen. of pait, hump. 

Auchnarie. Place of the shieling. Acliadh, place; na, 
of the; airidhe, gen. of airidh, summer pasture among bills. 

Auchnarran, Achnaran (1696). Place on the hill. 
Achadh, place; na, of the; arain, gen. of aran, hill. 

Auchnashag (for Achadh na Aiseig). Place of the ferry. 
Achadh, place; na, of the; aiseig, gen. of aiseag, ferry. 

Auchnashinn. Place on a hill. Achadh, place; an, of 
the; sithein, gen. of sithean (pronounced she an), hill. 

Auchnavaird. Place at a meadow. Achadh, place, 
field; a', of the; bhaird, gen. asp. of bard, meadow. 



26 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Auchnave. Place at a loch. Achadh, place; an, of the; 
abh, water. 

Auchnavenie. Field of the hill. Achadh, field; na, 
of the; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. 

Aucholzie. Place in a wood. Achadh, field, place; 
choille, gen. asp. of coille, wood, forest, hill. 

Auchorie. Place near a stream. Achadh, place ; ourain, 
gen. of ouran, small stream. Ain normally became ie. 

Auchorthie. Place of the stone circle. Achadh, place; 
chortain, gen. asp. of cortan, sepulchral stone circle. 

Auchquhath. Place on a main road. Achadh, place; 
chath, gen. asp. of cath, road. 

Auchravie. Woody place. Achadh, place; chraobhach, 
craobhach asp., woody. 

Auchreddachie. Keddish place. Achadh, place; 
ruadhach, expansion of ruadh, red. 

Auchreddie. Place of levelness, or level place. Achadh, 
place; reidhe, gen. of reidhe, levelness. 

Auchronie. Place rising to a sharp point. Achadh, 
place; roinneach, pointed. 

Auchrora Burn. Bed field burn. Achadh, field; 
ruarach, expansion of ruadh, red. 

Auchry. Place on a slope. Achadh, place; ruigh, slope. 

Auchrynie. Ferny place. Achadh, place; raineach, 
ferny. 

Auchtavan. Small permanent dwelling-place. Achadh, 
place; tamhan, dim. of tamh, residence. 

Auchterellon. Upper island in the Ythan. Uachdar, 
upper; eilean, island. 

Auchterless. Upper circle. Uachdar, upper; lios (o 
silent), circle of stones guarding a grave. 

Auchterlownie (for Uachdar Fhliuchanach). Upper 
wet place. Uachdar, upper; fhliuchanach, abounding in wet 
places. Fh and ch, having become silent, had been dropped. 
Ach had become ie. 

Auchterwhaile (for Uachdar Bhaile). Upper town. 
Uachdar, upper; bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is equivalent 
to u, v, or xv. 

Auchtidonald (for Achadh a' Donn Uillt). Place of the 
brown burn. Achadh, field; a', of the; donn, brown; uillt, 
gen. of allt, burn. 

Auchtydore. Place of the wood. Achadh, place; na, 
of the; doire, wood, grove. 

Auchtygall. Place of the rock. Achadh, place; a', of 
the ; gall (Irish), rock, stone. 

Auchtygills (for Uachdar Chuitan). Upper little fold. 
Uachdar, upper; chuitan, small fold. Chuitan became 
whitean, which was turned into gealan (geal, white; an, 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 27 

dim. termination). An by mistake was made s, and geals 
lapsed into gills. 

Auchtylair. Upper land. Uachdar, upper; lar, land. 

Auld Auchindoir. Burn of Auchindoir. Allt, burn. 
See Auchindoir. 

Aulu Fouchie Burn. Burn of the little fold. Allt, 
burn; chuidan, cuidan asp., small fold. Ch became ph or /, 
th became ch, and an became ie. 

Auld Guid Wife's Cairn. Boundary pile of stones near 
a burn passing a fold. Cairn is earn, pile. Auld is allt, 
burn. Guid is cuid, fold, which had been prefixed to wife's 
to explain it when its meaning had almost been forgotten. 
Wife's represents cuitan, dim. of cuit, fold, which had 
successively been chuitan, ivhiphan, wifan, wife's. Asp. 
c had become asp. w and had afterwards lost the aspirate. 
Asp. t had become asp. p, which is equivalent to /. An had 
become s instead of ie. 

Auld Kirk of Tough. Ancient stone circle round a grave 
in Tough. 

Auld Mill Bay. Mill-burn bay. Allt, burn. 

Auld Warrachie Burn. Burn near which there is a 
cottage. Allt, burn; bharrachaid, gen. asp. of barrachad, 
hut, cottage. Bit is equivalent to w. 

Auld Water. Burn. Allt, burn. Both parts of the 
name have the same meaning. 

Auldenachie (for Alltan a' Chuith). Small burn at a 
fold. Alltan, small burn; a', of the: chuith (th silent), gen. 
asp. of cuith, fold. 

Auldfrushoch Burn. (In Gaelic, Allt Fraochach). 
Burn from a heathery place. Allt, burn; fraochach, 
heathery. Here ch has changed into sh — one asp. letter 
into another. 

Auldgarney. Bough bum. Allt, bum; garbhanach, 
rough. 

Auldlaithers. Burn of the hillside. Allt, burn; leitre, 
gen. of leitir, hillside. 

Auldmad. Burn of the level place. Allt, burn; maidh, 
gen. of madh, a variant of magh, plain, level place among 
hills. 

Auldmaling (for Allt Meallain). Burn of the little hill. 
Allt, burn; meallain, gen. of meallan, little hill. 

Auldmuck. Burn of pigs. Allt, burn; muc, gen. plural 
of muc, pig. Where there were cows on a shieling pigs 
were kept to consume whey and buttermilk. 

Auldton, Auldtown. Old town. Auld might be a 
corruption of allt, burn, and then the name would mean 
burn town. 



28 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Auldyoch (for Allt Iochd). Burn of the howe. Allt, 
burn; iochd, howe, low place. 

Aultan Burn (for Alltan Burn). Small burn. Alltan, 
dim. of allt, burn. 

Aultdavie. Burn of oxen. Allt, burn; damhan, gen. 
plural of damh, ox. Mh is equvalent to u, v, or w. The 
usual gen. plural of damh is like the nom. sing. 

Aultnapaddock (for Allt na Paiteig). Burn of the 
little hump. Allt, burn; paiteig, gen. of paiteag, little 
hump. 

Auquhadlie. Grey field. Achadh, place, field; Hath, 
grey. 

Auquharney. Same as Acharnie. 

Auquhorthies (for Achadh a' Chorthain). Place of the 
small stone circle. Achadh, place; a', of the (suppressed); 
chorthain, gen. asp. of corthan, for cortan, small stone 
circle. Ain had been translated both by ie and s, having 
been regarded first as a dim. and secondly as a plural 
termination. 

Aven. Kiver. Abhainn, river. 

Avendow. Black water. Abhainn, water; diibh, black. 

Avenue. Approach to a house. Latin through French. 
Ad, to; venire, to come. 

Aver Hill. Goat hill. Eibhir, castrated goat. 

Avochie (for Abh a' Chuith). Water of the fold. Abh, 
water, stream; a', of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. 
Final th is almost always silent. 

Ba' Hill. Hill on which there was a byre for cows at 
summer pasture. Ba'iche, cow-byre. 

Ba Muir. Muir of the cow-byre. See Ba' Hill. 

Baad Brae. Wooded brae. Bad, thicket, wood. 

Baads (for Badan). Thicket, small bushy place. An in 
badan is a dim. termination, being singular, but it had been 
represented by s in the belief that it was plural. 

Baby Gowan. Both parts mean a cattle-fold. Babh- 
unn, fold where cows were milked; gabhann, cattle-fold. In 
babhunn bh lost the aspirate, and unn, being supposed to 
be the dim. termination, was changed to y. In gabhann, 
bh was equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Back Bog. Moss bog. Bac, peat-moss; bog, bog. 

Back Burn, Backburn. Moss burn, or burn on the 
north or remote side of a hill. Bac, peat-moss. 

Back Drum. Moss hill. Bac, moss; druim, long ridge. 

Back Moss, Backmoss. Both parts of the name mean 
the same thing. Bac, peat-moss. 

Back of Mare. This name may mean moss at the 
edge of the sea. Bac, moss; mara, gen. of muir, sea. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 2& 

Back Styles. Back entrance. Styles means the pillars 
of a gate. 

Back Well. Moss well. Bac, peat-moss. 

Backcammie Burn. Burn of the moss at a bend in the 
boundary between Aberdeen and Forfar. Bac, peat-moss; 
camaidh, gen. of camadh, crook, bend. 

Backfold. Moss fold. Bac, peat-moss. 

Backfolds. Folds for sheep or cattle on the north side 
of a hill. 

Backgarrach. Dirty little moss. Bac, moss; garrach, 
small and dirty. 

Backgreens. Green places in a moss. Bac, peat-moss. 

Backiescroft. Croft at a small peat-moss. Bacan, 
small moss. An, the dim. termination, had been made 
first ie and subsequently s. 

Backley. Mossy ley growing grass. Bac, peat-moss. 

Backstone. Moss stone. Bac, peat-moss. 

Backstrath. Back valley. Srath, alluvial river valley. 

Backstripes. Small moss burns. Bac, moss. 

Backwall, Back Wall, (for Bhaile Bac). Town of the 
moss. Bhaile, baile asp., town; bac, peat-moss. 

Backward, Backwaird. Enclosed field for beasts on 
the north or remote side of a hill. Ward, place of protection 
for live stock. 

Backweird. Moss of the hill. Bac, moss; uird, gen. of 
ard, hill. 

Bad an Teachdaire. Bush of the messenger. Bad, 
bushy place; an, of the; teachdaire, messenger. There are 
rocks on the summit of the Bad, on which signals by fire 
could be made. 

Bad Leana. Bushy plain. Bad, bush; leana, level 
ground. 

Bad Mhic Griogair. See Allt Bad Mhic Griogair. 

Bad na Ban (for Bad nam Ban). Bush of the women. 
Bad, bush, wood; nam, of the; ban, gen. plural of ban, 
woman. The name would have been appropriate for a 
wooded place in which there was a hut for women in charge 
of cows at hill-pasture in summer. 

Bad na Beinne. Wood of the hill. Bad, bush, grove; 
na, of the; beinne, gen. of beinn, hill. 

Bad na Cuaiche. Bushy cup-shaped hollow. Bad r 
bush; na, of the; cuaiche, gen. of cuach, cup. 

Bad na Imireach. Thicket of the migration. Bad, 
thicket; na, of the; imriche, gen. of imrich, migration. 

Bad na Moin, Bad na Moine. Thicket of the moor. 
Bad, wood, clump of trees; na, of the; moine, moor. 

Bad na Muic Bushy place to which swine were sent 



30 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

to feed, away from cultivated ground. Bad, bush, place of 
small trees; na, of the; muic, gen. of muc, sow. 

Bad nan Cuileag. Wood of the flies. As the wood is 
within a deep bend of a hill road, the name should perhaps 
be Bad na Cuilteige, wood of the nook. Bad, wood, bushy 
place; na, of the; cuilteige, gen. of ciiilteag, nook. 

Bad nan Dearcag. Place where small berries grow. 
Bad, bush; nan, of the; dearcag, gen. plural of dearcag, 
little berry, cranberry, blaeberry. 

Badanseanach, Burn of. Burn of the little hilly bushy 
^lace. Badan, dim. of bad, bush; sitheanach (th silent), 
hilly. 

Baddoch (for Badach). Place where there are clumps 
of trees. Badach, abounding in groves or small groups of 
trees. 

Badanhall Burn (for Bad an Choill Burn). Burn of 
the bush on the hill. Bad, bushy place ; an, of the ; choill, 
gen. asp. of coill, hill. C in choill is silent, and hoill be- 
comes sometimes hole and sometimes hall. 

Badenlea Hill (for Bad an Liath Choill). Thicket on 
the grey hill. Bad, bush; an, of the; liath, grey; choill, 
gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Badens. Small wood. Badan, thicket, small group of 
trees. An, the dim. termination, had been supposed to be 
plural, wherefore s was affixed to Badan. 

Badenscoth (for Bad an Eas Cuith). Bush of the 
burn at a fold. Bad, bush; an, of the; eas, burn; cuith, 
fold. Bush means in Scotch a few trees. Burns says that 
when he visited the famous Bush of Traquair it consisted of 
eight or nine birch trees. 

Badenshilloch (for Bad an Seilich). Bush of the willow. 
Bad, bush; an, of the; seilich, gen. of seileach, willow. 

Badenshore. Bush of the wild pea. Bad, thicket; an, 
of the; siorr, vetches, wild pea. 

Badanstone (for Baile Badain). Town at a bushy place. 
Baile, town; badain, gen. of badan, small bushy place. 
Town had become ton, and this had been corrupted into 
stone. 

Badentyre. Bushy place of the land. Bad, bush; an, 
of the; tire, gen. of tir, land. 

Badenyon (for Badan Iain). John's town. Badan, 
house with trees round it, bushy place, grove; Iain, John. 

Baderonach (for Badan Eoinneach). Eough bushy 
place. Badan, thicket, bushy place; roinneach, shaggy, 
rough. 

Badgers' Hill. In Gaelic this name might have been 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 31 

Tom nam Broc. Tom, hill; nam, of the; broc, gen. plural 
of broc, badger. 

Badiebath. Grove of birch trees. Badan, clump of 
trees; beath, gen. plural of beath, birch tree. 

Badiechell. Wood of the hill. Bad, bush, thicket, 
wood; a', of the; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Badifoor. Shrubby place where there is grass. Badan, 
small bushy place; feoir, gen. of feur, grass. 

Badilaughter (for Badan Lamh-thire). Thicket of the 
hill land. Badan, thicket; lamh-thire, gen of lamh-thir, hill 
land. 

Badingair Hill (for Coille Badain Ghairbh). Hill of 
the rough bush. Coill, hill; badai?i, gen. of badan, bush; 
ghairbh, gen. of garbh, rough. 

Baditimmer (for Badan Tuim Airidhe). Thicket of the 
hill of the shieling. Badan, thicket; tuim, gen. of torn, 
hillock; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

. Badlean Burn. Burn of the level wooded plain. Bad, 
grove ; lean, level ground. 

Badnabein. Bush of the hill. Bad, bush, wood; na. of 
the; beinne, gen. of beinn, hill. 

Badnacauner. Bushy place on a level plain on a shiel- 
ing. Bad, bush; na, of the; cabhain-airidhe, gen. of 
cabhan-airidlie, plain on a shieling. Bh is equivalent to u. 

Badnachraskie. Thicket of the crossing. Badan, 
grove; na, of the; chrasgain, gen. asp. of crasgan, little 
crossing. 

Badnagoach. Bushy place on a hill. Bad, bush; an, 
of the; chnuic, gen. asp. of cnoc, hill. Goach is pronounced 
with the vocal organs in nearly the same positions as for 
cnoc. 

Badnayarrib (for Bad na h-Earba). Thicket of the roe. 
Bad, wood, thicket; na, of the; h (euphonic); earba, gen. of 
earb, roe. 

Badnyrieves (for Badan Bathain). Bush at a small 
circle. Badan, dim. of bad, thicket (a and n transposed); 
rathain, gen. of rathan, small circle of stones round a grave, 
small cattle-fold. Ain had been thought to be a plural 
termination and had been changed to s. 

Badochurn (for Bad a' Chuirn). Bush of the hill. 
Bad, bush, bushy place; a', of the; chuirn, gen. asp. of 
cam, hill. 

Badychark (for Badan Fare). Clump of oaks. Badan, 
clump; fare, gen. plural of fare, oak. 

Badythrochar Well (for Tobar Badan Cnoc Airidhe). 
Well of the thicket on the hill of the shieling. Tobar, well; 
badan, dim. of bad, bush; cnoc, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, 



32 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

shieling. Cnoc had become croc, and both the first and the 
last letters had been asp. Then initial ch had been made th. 

Baggageford. Ford at a bushy place. Badach, bushy. 

Bagra (for Beag Bath). Small circle. Beag, small; 
rath, circle of stones round a grave, fold for cattle or sheep. 

Bahill. Same as Ba' Hill. 

Baikie Burn. Burn of the moss. Bacain, gen. of bacan, 
dim. of bac, peat-moss. 

Baikiehill. Hill of the small peat-moss. Bacain, gen. 
of bacan, dim. of bac, peat-moss. 

Baikiehowe (for Toll Bacain). Howe of the moss. Toll, 
howe (translated); bacain, gen. of bacan, dim. of bac, peat- 
moss. Ain became ie in Scotch. 

Baile na Coil. Town of the wood. Baile, town; na, of 
the; colli, gen. of colli, wood, hill. 

Bailiff's Skelly (for Baoghail Sgeilg). Bock of danger. 
Baoghall {gh silent), gen. of baoghal, danger; sgeilg, rock. 
The parts of the name had been transposed when baoghail 
became bailiffs. 

Baillie's Lair. Town land. Baile, town; lair, for lar, 
land (transposed). 

Bailliesward. Town at an enclosure for cattle. Baile, 
town; ward, enclosure. 

Baine Slack. Milk slack. Balnne, milk; slochd, slack, 
gorge (transposed). Cows had been milked at this hollow. 

Bainshole. White hill. Ban, white; choill, colli asp., 
hill. Coill is asp. because its adjective precedes it. In 
choill c is silent and it had been dropped. S had been in- 
serted to make Bain possessive. See Whitehill. 

Bairnie. Gap. Bearna, gap, cleft, deep gorge between 
hills. 

Bairnie Hill. Hill with a gap. Bearna, gap, low place 
in the horizon. 

Bairnies Bocks. Bocks with a gap in them. Bearnas, 
gap. 

Bairn's Hill. Hill with a gap in it. JBearnas, gap. 
From bearnas come also Barns, Barnes, Bairns, Bairnies, 
Birness, Birns, and Burns. 

Bairnsdale. Field in a gap or long hollow. Bearnas, 
gap in a hillside, long hollow in level ground. 

Bakebare. Point of land projecting into the Dee at a 
bend. Bac, crook; barra, gen. of barr, point. 

Balbithan. Town of birches. Baile, town; belthan, 
gen. plural of belth, birch-tree. 

Balblair. Town in an open moor. Baile, town; blair, 
gen. of blar, open plain, moor. 

Balblyth. Warm town. Baile, town; blath, warm. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 33 

Balcairn. Town of the hill. Baile, town; cairn, gen. 
of cam, hill. 

Balohellach, Balachailach. Town of the kiln. Baile, 
town; a', of the; chealaich, gen. asp. of cealach, limekiln, 
kiln for drying oats, smith's forge. 

Balchers (for Baile Chroise). Farm-town at cross-roads. 
Baile, town; chroise, gen. asp. of crois, cross. 

Balchimmy. Town of combing wool. Baile, town; 
ciomaidh, gen. of ciomadh, combing wool. 

Balcraig. Hill town. Baile, town; craige, gen. of 
creag, hill, rock. 

Baldyfash (for Baile a' Chais). Town on the brae. 
Baile, town; a', of the; chais, gen. asp. of cas, ascent. D is 
an intrusion. Ch had become ph, equivalent to /. 8 after i 
sounds sh. 

Baldyvin. Town on the hill. Baile, town; a', of the; 
bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. D is an intrusion and y 
represents a'. 

Balearn (for Baile Fhearna). Town at the alder. Baile, 
town; fhearna (fh silent), alder, arn. 

Balfextaig. Nettle town. Baile, town; feanntaige, 
gen. of feanntag, nettle. 

Balfiddy (for Baile a' Chuidh). Town of the cattle-fold. 
Baile, town; a', of the; chuidh, gen. asp. of cuidh, cattle- 
fold. In Aberdeenshire ch frequently became ph or / in 
passing into Scotch. 

Balfluig. Wet town. Baile, town; fluich, wet. 

Balfour. Town of grass. Baile, town; feoir, gen. of 
feur, grass. 

Balgairn. Town on the Gairn Burn. Baile, town. See 
Gatrx. 

Balgavexy. Town at a cattle-fold. Baile, town; gab- 
haiyin, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. Ai and nn had been 
transposed. This had frequently taken place, and hence 
many names end in nay, ney, nie, or ny. Bh is equivalent 
to u, v, or w. 

Balgosie. Town of the fir-wood. Baile, town; giuth- 
saich, gen. of giuthsach, fir-forest. 

Balgove. Town of the smith. Baile, town; gobhainn, 
gen. of gobha, smith. Gobhainn is also the gen. of gob- 
hann, a cattle-fold. 

Balgowax. Town of the cattle-fold. Baile, town; 
gabhainn, gen. of gabhann. cattle-fold. Bh is equivalent to 
u, v, or w. 

Balgowxie (for Baile Gabhainn). Town of the cattle- 
fold. Baile, town; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 
Ai and nn had been transposed. Bh is equivalent to u, v, 
or w. See Balgavexy. 

c 



34 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Balgreen, Balgrennie. Sunny town. Baile, town; 
greine, gen. of grian, sun. 

Balhaggardy. Town with a yard for hay and stacks of 
corn. Baile, town; haggard, cornyard. Haggard is the 
common term in Ireland for an enclosed yard for stacks of 
hay and corn. Much hay was needed in Scotland in ancient 
times for winter food for cattle. 

Balhandy. Town at a fank. Baile, town; fhangain, 
gen. asp. of fangan, small fank. F had been aspirated, then 
it had been dropped, leaving the aspirating h. D had been 
inserted for euphony, and ain had become y. 

Balhennie, Balhinny. Town of assembly. Baile, town; 
ehoinne, gen. asp. of coinne, meeting. 

Balintuim. Town at the hillock. Baile, town; an, of 
the; titim, gen. of torn, hillock, knoll. 

Ballabeg (for Bhaile Beag). Small town. Baile, town; 
beag, small. 

Ballachlaggan. Pass of the little howe. Bealach, 
pass, road; lagain, gen. of lagan, little howe. 

Ballamore. Big town. Baile, town; mor, big. 

Ballater. Town at the hillside. Baile, town; leitire, 
gen. of leitir, hillside. The accent ought to be on the 
syllable lei; but doubling the I of baile had thrown it upon 
the first syllable. 

Ballaterich (common form Ballaterach). Town on 
a hillside. Baile, town; leitrach, gen. of leitir, hillside. In 
the " Eegister of the Great Seal " the name is Balnatrich. 
Town on the river side. Baile, town; na, of the; traighe, 
gen. of traigh, river side. This is probably the original form, 
though both are appropriate. 

Ballhill. Town of the hill. Baile, town. 

Baluntober. Town at the well. Baile, town; an, of 
the ; tobair, gen. of tobar, well. Tobar often became tipper. 

Balloch. Pass between hills. Bealach, pass, moun- 
tain gorge. 

Ballochan. Pioad by a burn side. Bealach, way; 
abhunn, gen. of abhainn, river. 

Ballochbuie. Yellow road. Bealach, hill road; buidhe, 
yellow. On the Ordnance Survey maps there are mistakes 
in the use of bealach, a hill road, and bealaidh, broom. To 
determine which should be used the circumstances of soil, 
altitude, and convenience in travel have to be attended to. 
Here bealach, a road, is selected because a yellow road 
means one in which the subsoil appears yellow, as dis- 
tinguished from a black, mossy, unsafe route. 

Ballochburn. Burn of the pass. Bealaich, gen. of 
bealach, pass over or between hills. 



1740468 

Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 35 

Ballochduie. Black road. Bcalach, hill road; dubh, 
black. 

Ballogie. Town in a little howe. Baile, town; lagain, 
gen. of lagan, howe. 

Balmacassie. Town at a brae. Baile, town; casaich, 
gen. of casach, ascent. 

Balmannocks. Middle town. Baile, farm-town; mea- 
dhonach, middle. Aspirated d is silent. Final s is super- 
fluous. 

Balmaud. Town which was the seat of a barony court. 
Baile, town; moid, gen. of mod, court of justice. 

Balmedie. Town in the middle. Baile, town; mead- 
hoin, gen. of meadhon, middle. Oin of meadhoin had been 
regarded as the dim. termination, and it had been turned 
into ie, the Scotch dim. termination. 

Balmellie. Town of the little hill. Baile, town; mel- 
Jain, gen. of meallan, dim. of meall, hill. 

Balmenach. Middle town. Baile, town; meadhonach, 
middle. The dh is silent. 

Balmoor, Balmuir. Town of the moor or muir. Baile, 
town; muir (Scotch), moor. 

Balmoral. Big town. Baile, town; moral, majestic, 
large. Moral might represent mor, big, and aill, gen. of aill, 
hill. 

Balmore. Big town Baile, town; mor, big. 

Balnaan. Town at the river. Baile, town; na, of the; 
■abhunn, gen. of abhainn, river. 

Balnaboth. Town at a mansion. Baile, town, farm- 
town; na, of the; both, house, mansion. 

Balnacoil. Town of the wood. Baile, town; na, of the; 
coill, wood, hill. Same as Baile na Coil. 

Balnacraig. Town of the hill. Baile, town; na, of the; 
craige, gen of crcag, hill, rock, cliff. 

Balnacroft. Town at a level grassy place. Baile, 
town; na, of the; croite, gen. of croit, croft. 

Balnagarth. Town of the enclosure. Baile, town; na, 
of the; garth, enclosed space, stone circle round a grave, 
island in a river, fold, garden. Garth is the same as gorth. 

Balnagowan (for Baile na Gabhainn). Town of the 
cattle-fold. Baile, town; na, of the; gabhainn, gen. of 
gabhann, cattle-fold, pumphal. 

Balnagower. Town of the goats. Baile, town; na, for 
nan, of the; gobhar, gen. plural of gobhar, goat. 

Balnahard. Hill town. Baile, farm-town; na, of the; 
h (euphonic); ard, height, hill. 

Balnakelly. Town of the hill. Baile, town; na, of 
the; coille, hill. 



36 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Balnakettle (for Baile na Cuitail). Town at the- 
cattle-fold. Baile, town; na, of the; cuitail, cattle-fold. 

Balnalan. Town of the green plain. Baile, town; na, 
of the; ailein, gen. of ailean, green plain. 

Balnamoon. Town of the moor. Baile, town; na, of 
the; mona, gen. of moine, moor. 

Balnault. Town at the burn. Baile, town; na, of the; 
uillt, gen. of allt, burn. 

Balno, Balnoe. New town. Baile, town; nomlia, new 
(mh silent). 

Baloch Quarry. Quarry at the pass between Glen 
Nochty and Glenbucket. Bealach, pass, road between two 
hills. ' 

Balquhain. Town of assembly. Baile, town; choinne, 
gen. asp. of coinne, meeting. There is at Balquhain a stone 
circle round a grave, which had been a place appointed for 
meetings because it had been well known. 

Balquharn. Town of the hill. Baile, town; chairn, 
gen. asp. of earn, hill. 

Balquhindachy. Town of the place of meeting. Baile, 
farm-town; choinne, gen. asp. of choinne, assembly; achadh, 
place. The place of meeting had been on the Hill of Bal- 
quhindachy, where cists, urns, and flint implements were 
found in 1835. D is a phonetic insertion, but it is not 
usually sounded. 

Balquholly. Town of the hill. Baile, town; choille, 
gen. asp. of coille, hill wood. Balquholly was formerly 
the name of the place now called Hatton Castle. It is now 
the name of a place in the Den of Kingsford, 

Balring (for Baile Kuighein). Town on the slope of a 
hill. Baile, town; raighein, gen. of ruighean, dim. of ruigh, 
hill slope. 

Balronald. Bonald's town. Baile, town; Raonull, 
Ronald. 

Balthangie (for Baile Fangain). Town of the sheep- 
fold. Baile, town; fangain, gen. of fangan, dim. of fang, 
fank, sheep-fold. F or ph became th, and ain became ie. 

Baluss. Town on the water. Baile, town; uisge, water. 

Balvack. Town of the moss. Baile, town; bhac, gen. 
asp. of bac, moss. 

Balvenie. Town of the hill. Baile, town; bheinne, 
gen. asp. of beinn, hill. 

Balwearie, Balweirie. Town at the seat of judgment. 
Baile, town'; a', of the (suppressed); bhearachd, bearachd 
asp., judgment. 

Ban-Car. A modern name in which Ban represents 
Bannerman, and Car represents Carnegie. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 37 

Bandeen (originally Chuithail). Fold. Chuithail, cui- 
thail asp., fold, corrupted into white hill and turned again 
into Gaelic by ban, white; dun, hill. 

Bandley (originally Chuit Liath). Grey fold. Chuit, 
cuit asp., fold, corrupted into white and turned again into 
Gaelic by ban, white, with d added for euphony; liath, grey. 

Bandodle (originally Chuit Dubh Dail). Fold in a black 
field. Chuit, cuit asp., fold, corrupted into white and turned 
again into Gaelic by ban, white; dubh, black; dail, field. 

Bandory (originally Chuit Doire). Field at a w r ocd. Chuit, 
cuit asp., fold, corrupted into white and turned again into 
Gaelic by ban, white; doire, wood. 

Bangalore. The chief town of Mysore. This must be 
an imported Indian name. 

Bank (originally Chuit). Fold. Chuit, cuit asp., fold, 
corrupted into white and turned again into Gaelic by ban, 
white, with k added for euphony. In the " Poll Book," 1696, 
this place is called Bank Behitch. Behitch is beithach, 
growing birches. 

Bankhead (originally Chuit, to which chuid was added). 
Both words mean fold. Chuit, cuit asp., fold, corrupted 
into white and turned again into Gaelic by ban, white, with 
k added for euphony; chuid, cuid asp., fold, corrupted into 
head. 

Bankie's Loup (originally Chuit Chuid Luib). Fold at 
a nook. Chuit, cuit asp., fold, corrupted into white and 
turned again into Gaelic by ban, white; chuid, cuid asp., fold, 
corrupted into head and turned again into Gaelic by ceann, 
head; luib, bend, nook. Chuid had been added to chuit to 
explain it after being corrupted. C of ceann had been changed 
to k, and eann had been made ie by some and s by others, 
and both had been added to k. 

Banking (originally Chuit Chuid). Fold. Chuit, cuit, 
asp., fold, corrupted into tchite and turned again into Gaelic 
by ban, white; chuid, cuid asp., fold, corrupted into head and 
turned into Gaelic by ceann, head. Ceann had afterwards 
become cinn, and this had been corrupted into king. 

Banks. The same as Bank with s added, ban being 
regarded as plural. 

Bannoch (originally Chuitan). Small fold. Chuitan, 
cuitan asp., small fold, corrupted into white an and turned 
again into Gaelic by banan, dim, of bayi, white. Final an 
had become na, and banan had become banna, now bannoch. 

Banshed Moss (originally Bac Chuit Chuid). Moss at a 
fold. Bac, moss; chuit, cuit asp., fold, corrupted into tchite 
and turned again into Gaelic by ban, white, with s added 
for euphony; chuid, cuid asp., fold, corrupted into head, 
now hed. 



38 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ban stickle Burn. Burn draining the Links of Aber- 
deen. Small fishes called banstickles were caught in it. 
The Links are now drained. 

Banteith (for Teach Chuit). House at a fold. Teach, 
house, corrupted into teith; chuit, cuit asp., fold, corrupted 
into ivhite and turned again into Gaelic by ban, white. 

Bar Pot. Pot in the river Ythaa at a projecting point. 
Barr, point. 

Barbara's Hillock. Knoll of the barberry bush. Bar- 
brag, barbery. 

Bardock Eiver. Biver formed by a great dam. Bard, 
dam, dyke; och, termination meaning great. 

Bareflat, Barefold, Barehillock. Places destitute of 
soil. By the ancient method of farming cattle were penned 
at mid-day and at night in an enclosure or fold. For litter 
to keep the fold dry thin turf sods were taken off waste 
ground and carried into the fold. When wet and dirty the 
earth was carried out and spread on a field constantly 
cropped. Outlying parts of a farm were impoverished to 
improve infield parts. 

Barhaugh Pot. Pot at a point in a haugh. Barr, point. 

Barmekin of Echt. An ancient cattle-fold on the sum- 
mit of a hill in Echt. There are two rings of stones with 
ditches. Barmekin is for barbican, the outermost ward or 
enclosure of a castle, within which cattle were kept. 

Barmkyn of Keig. An ancient cattle-fold on the summit 
of a hill in Keig, surrounded by a single dyke. 

Barn Door. Gap between two rocks. Bearna, gap. 

Barn Yards. The place where the crop of the pro- 
prietor's farm and his live stock were kept. 

Barnes, Barns. Gap in high ground. Beam as, gap. 

Barnoch Hill. Hill with a gap. Bearna, gap. 

Baronet's Cairn. Cairn erected in honour of Sir Charles 
Forbes, created a baronet in 1823. 

Baron's Gate. If not English this name represents 
Bearnas Gaothach, windy gap. Bearnas, gap; gaothach, 
windy. 

Baron's Hotel. Formerly the seat of barony courts 
and probably an inn at the time. The baron was the holder 
of the barony, which was hereditary. 

Barr Hill, Barhill, Bar Hill. Pointed hill. Barr, 
point. 

Barra Hill. Hill of the point. Barr a, gen. form of barr, 
point. On Barra there is a large enclosure which had been 
a cattle-fold, though it is 'usually supposed to have been a 
fort. 

Barrack. High place. Barrachd, pre-eminence, place 
raised up above others. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 39 

Barreldykes (for Blairdykes). Dykes on an open moor. 
Blair, gen. form of blar, open space. By transposition of 
I and r, blair had become barrel, and sometimes burrel, as in 
Honeybarrel, Burreldales. 

Barrowsgate. Gate at a point of a wood. Barra, gen. 
of barr, point. 

Barry. Point. Barra, gen. form of barr, point, pro- 
jecting end of a hill. 

Bartle Muir. Muir on which a fair was held on St 
Bartholomew's Bay. 

Barthol Chapel. Chapel dedicated to St Bartholomew. 

Basilhall. Farm-town named after a person whose 
name was Basil, a derivative from basilcus (Greek), king. 

Bass, The. The place of execution for the burgh of 
Inverurie. Bas, death. 

Bastion Lodge. Gatekeeper's house in the style of a 
fortified entrance to Glentanar House. Bastione (Italian), 
fortification. 

Battle Fauld. Fauld supposed to have been the site of 
a battle. 

Battlehill. Hill on which a battle was said to have 
been fought. Of this there is no evidence on record. Battle 
might represent Bad Tulaich, bushy round-topped hillock. 
Bad, bush; tulaich, gen. of tulach, hillock. 

Baudnacauner. See Badnacauxer. 

Baudy Meg. Bushy hill of great extent. Badan, bushy 
place; mead, greatness of size and extent. Dh and gh are 
pronounced alike, and thus d and g are interchanged. 

Baudygaun. Thicket at a cattle-fold. Badan, thicket; 
gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Baudyground (for Badan Cruinn). Bound clump of 
trees. Badan, clump; cruinn, round. 

Baudylace Burn. Burn of a bushy place where there 
was a cattle- or sheep-fold. Badan, bushy place, thicket; 
Use, gen. of lias, enclosed place, cattle-fold, sheep-fold. 

Baulus. Same as Baads; which see. After the letter a, 
especially if long and broad, I is inserted. 

Bawbee Loch. Milking-fold loch. Babhunn, cow-fold. 
Babhunn having been thought to be a diminutive unn had 
been made ee for ie. 

Bawdley (for Bad Ley). Bushy grass land. Bad, bush; 
ley (Scotch), grass land. 

Beadshallock. Grove of willows. Bad, wood, grove; 
seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

Bealach Buidhe. Yellow pass. Bealach, pass; buidhe, 
yellow. The reference must be to the colour of the subsoil. 

Bealach Dearg. Bed pass. Bealach, pass, mountain 
gorge ; dearg, red. 



40 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Bealachodhar. Yellow pass. Bealach, pass; odhar, 
dun, reddish yellow, with reference to the colour of the 
subsoil. 

Bean's Hill. Hill. Beinn, hill. 

Beardie Wood. Trees and bushes with their tops look- 
ing as if they had been shorn off. Bearrte, past part, of 
bearr, to shear. 

Bearhill. Top of the hill. Beur, top. 

Bearnie. Place in a gap in a range of high ground. 
Bearna, gap. 

Bear's Den. Den where the bear-berry grew. Bear- 
berry is in Gaelic grainnseag. 

Beaulah Hall. Beaulah may be a mis-spelling of 
Beulah, a place named in " The Pilgrim's Progress," where 
the sun shone by night as well as by day. 

Beauty Hill (for Buidhe Choill). Yellow hill. Buidhe, 
yellow; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Beaver Crags. Kocks where beavers had made dams 
in a burn. The Beaver Craigs are at the place where the 
Macduff railway crosses the Gorrachie burn. 

Bedehouse. House of prayer. The bedehouse was a 
hospital for infirm old men, who were bound to say prayers 
for the souls of the founder, his ancestors, and successors, 
etc. Biddan (Anglo-Saxon), to pray. 

Bedlaithen, Burn of. Broad wood burn. Bad, wood; 
leathan, broad. 

Bedlam. Thicket on a hill. Bad, bushy place; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill. An old form is Bedlain, which would 
mean thicket of the plain. Bad, bushy place; lean, meadow, 
level place. 

Begarry. Little rough place. Beag, small; garbli, 
rough. 

Beg's Burn. Little burn. Beag, little. 

Begshill (for Coill Beag). Little hill. Coill, hill ; 
beag, small. Beag having been supposed to be a personal 
name 's had been added to it, and it had been put first in 
the English way. 

Begsley. Small piece of grass land near Beg's Burn. 
Beag, small; ley, grass land. 

Behinties. Thriving birch-wood. Beith, birch; chin- 
tinn, pres. part. asp. of cinn, to thrive. Final inn had been 
regarded first as the dim. termination, and afterwards as 
the plural. 

Beidlestown. Town at the thicket of the enclosure. 
Bad, thicket; Use, gen. of lios, circle, stone circle, fold. 

Beinn a' Bhuird. Table mountain. Beinn, mountain; 
a', of the; bhuird, gen. asp. of bord, table. There is an 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 41 

accent instead of an apostrophe on a on the Ordnance Survey 
map. 

Beinn a' Chaokruinn, Beinn a' Chaorruinn Bheag. 
Mountain of the rowan tree, and Little mountain of the 
rowan tree. Beinn, mountain; a', of the; chaorruinn, gen. 
asp. of caorrunn, rowan tree; bheag, gen. of beag, little. 

Beinn a' Chruinnich. Hill of the roundness, round hill. 
Beinn, mountain; a', of the; cruinne, roundness. 

Beinn Bhreac. Spotted hill. Beinn, hill; blireac, fern, 
of brcac, spotted, dappled. 

Beinn Bhrotain. The meaning of the name is uncertain. 
Perhaps mountain of the veil. Blirotain, gen. asp. of brotan, 
dim. of brot, veil, envelope. If this is correct the name indi- 
cates that the summit of the hill is enveloped in cloud. Or 
the name may be a derivative from brot, to fatten, which 
would indicate that when cattle were pastured on it they 
fed well. 

Beinn Iutharn Bheag and Beinn Iutharn Mhor. 
Little mountain of hell, and Big mountain of hell. These 
absurd meanings are the results of ignorantly altering Lara 
to Iutharn in the new edition of the Ordnance Survey maps 
for the purpose of putting sense into the names. But Uarn 
was correct and gave appropriate names to the two moun- 
tains. The correct forms of the names would have been 
Beinn a' Bheirn Bheag and Beinn a' Bheirn Mhor. Little 
mountain of the gap and Big mountain of the gap. Beinn, 
mountain; a', of the; bheirn, gen. asp. of beam, gap; bheag, 
gen. asp. of beag, small; mhor, gen. asp. of mor, big. The 
heights of the two mountains are 3424 and 3096 feet, and 
their tops are a mile apart, with a deep gap between them. 
Bh is sounded ;/, v, or iv, so that bhearn would have been 
pronounced uarn, varn, or warn, indifferently, by the same 
person. 

Beinn Mheadhoin. Middle mountain. Beinn, moun- 
tain; mheadhoin, gen. asp. of mcadhon, middle. 

Bekiebutts. Small tails or bits of moss. Bacain, gen. 
of bacan, small peat-moss; biitts, ends. 

Belbo. Cow-fold. Buaile, milking-fold; bo, gen. plural 
of bo, cow. 

Beld Craig. Bald hill. Crcag, hill. 

Beldorney. Stony town. Baile, town; dornach, 
abounding in small stones. 

Belfatton. Town of the small fold. Baile, town; 
chuitain, gen. asp. of cuitan, small fold. Ch had become 
ph, equivalent to /. 

Belhangie. Town at a small fold. Baile, town; fhan- 
gain, gen asp. of fangan, small fold. F silent had been lost. 

Belhelvie (for Baile Shealbhain). Town of cattle. 



42 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Baile, town; shealbhain, gen. asp. of sealbhan, cattle. After 
being aspirated s had become silent, and it had been lost. 

Bell Knowe. Knoll on which there was a church-bell. 

Bell Wood. See Belwade. 

Bellabeg. Small town. Baile, town; beag, little. 

Bellamore. Big town. Baile, town; mor, big. 

Bellamore Craig. Cliff on the hill above Bellamore. 
Baile, town; mor, big; creag, rock, cliff, hill. 

Bellastrade (for Baile na Sraide). Town at the road- 
side. Baile, town; na, of the; sraide, gen. of sraid, road. 

Bellevue. Beautiful prospect. Belle (French), beau- 
tiful; vue (French), prospect. 

Bellmuir. Town on the moor. Baile, towu. Or, Fold 
on the moor. Buaile, cattle-fold. 

Bellsfold (for Baile Cuith). Town at a cattle-fold. 
Baile, town; cuith, cattle-fold (translated). 

Bellyhack (for Baile Acha). Town on a burn. Baile, 
town; acha, burn. 

Bellys wells, Bellieswell. Little town. Baile, 
town; suail, small. Final s is a needless addition. 

Belnabodach. Town of the spectre. Baile, town; na, 
of the; bodaich, gen. of bodach, spectre. 

Belnaboth. Town at the mansion-house. Baile, town; 
na, of the; both, hut, house, mansion. 

Belnacraig. Town on a hill. Baile, town; na, of the; 
craige, gen. of creag, hill. 

Belnagauld (for Baile na Gabhail Allt). Town at the 
fork of a burn. Baile, town; na, at the; gabhail, fork; 
allt, burn. 

Belnaglack. Town of the howe. Baile, town; na, of 
the; glaic, gen. of glac, hollow. 

Belnagoak (for Beinn a' Chnoic). Hill. Both parts 
have the same meaning, and the first had been added to 
explain the last. Beinn, hill; a', of the; chnoic, gen. asp. 
of cnoc, hill. The first syllable is sometimes made ben and 
sometimes bel, as in Belrinnes or Benrinnes. See Cnoc. 

Belneaden. Town on a brae. Baile, town; na, of the; 
aodainn, gen. of aodann, face, brae. Aodann becomes eden 
or edin in place-names when it is a prefix. 

Belnoe. New town. Baile, town; nomha, new. Mh 
represents the sound of v, but it readily becomes silent. 

Belrorie. Bed hill. Beinn, hill; ruarach, expansion of 
ruadh, red. Beinn sometimes becomes bel before r. 

Belscamphie. Bellscamphie, Belskavie, (for Baile 
Sgamhain). Farm town of a barn stored with hay or grain. 
Baile, town; sgamhain, gen. of sgamhan, barn for hay or 
grain. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or w; and ain became ie 
in passing into Scotch. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 43 

Beltamore (for Baile Teach Mor). Town at <the big 
house. Baile, town; teach, house; mor, big. 

Beltie. Farm towns. Bailte, plural of baile, farm 
town, village. 

Beltimb. Town of the hill. Baile, town; tuim, gen. of 
torn, hill. 

Belvidere. Beautiful view. Belvidere (Italian), to have 
a beautiful prospect. 

Belwade (for Baile a' Bhaid). Town of the wood. 
Baile, town; a', of the; bhaid, gen. asp. of bad, wood, bush. 
Bh is equivalent to u, v, or iv. 

Ben Avon. Mountain near the Avon. Beinn, moun 
tain; abhunn, gen. of abhainn, river. 

Ben Macdhui (for Beinn na Muiche Duibhe). Mountain 
of the black cloud. Beinn, mountain; na, of the (sup- 
pressed); muiche, gen. of mulch, fog. 

Ben na Flog (for Beinn a' Chnuic). Hill of the hill. 
Beinn, hill; a', of the; chnuic, gen. asp. of cnoc; which see. 

Ben Newe. Hill of Newe. Beinn, hill. See Newe. 

Benaquhallie. Hill of the herding. Beinn, hill; a', of 
the: cliuallaich, gen. asp. of cuallach, herding. 

Bendauch. Hill farm. Beinn, hill; davoch, farm. 

Bennachie (old form, Bennochkey). Hill of the cattle- 
fold. Beinn, hill; na, of the; chuith (tli silent), gen. asp. of 
cuitli, cattle-fold. The so-called fort on the hilltop was a 
cattle-fold. Ciche, gen. of cioch, pap, has also been sug- 
gested as the root of the last part of the name, but it is an 
objection to this etymology that the last part is always a 
monosyllable. 

Bennet's Love. Hills at a crook. Beanntan, plural of 
beimi, hill; luib, bend. An had normally become s. 

Benstill Brae (for Beinn na Still Brae). Brae of the 
hill of the spring. Beinn, hill; na, of the; still, gen. of 
steall, gushing spring. Brae may represent the Gaelic word 
braighe, hill. 

Benthoul (for Beinn Choill). Both parts of the name 
mean hill, and it must be post-Gaelic. Beinn, hill; choill, 
gen. asp. of coill, hill. Ch had become th. 

Bents. Hills. Beanntan, plural of beinn, hill. An had 
been translated into s, the English plural termination. 

Ben wells. Hill town. Originally the name had been 
Baile Beinne, town of the hill. Baile, town; beinne, gen. 
of beinn, hill. The order of the parts had been changed 
to get the accented part first in the English way, and then 
baile became bhaile, pronounced ivale, which had lapsed 
into wall and then well. Final s is an improper addition. 

Berefold. Fold near a stream. Bior, water, stream. 
Berefold is near Dudwick burn. 



44 Celtic Place-N ames in Aberdeenshire. 

Berrybrae. Brae where small berries grow. 

Berryden (for Biorach Den). Watery hollow. Biorach, 
watery, marshy. In its natural state a stream of water ran 
along the den, and there were several pools in it. 

Berryhill. Watery hill. Biorach, watery. Or, Hill 
whereon berries grow. 

Berryleys. Wet grassy places. Biorach, watery; leys 
(Scotch), grassy places. 

Berrymill. Watery hill. Biorach, watery; meall, hill. 

Berrymoss. Wet moss. Biorach, watery. 

Berry's Burn. Both parts of the name refer to water. 
Biorach, watery. 

Berry's Loup. Bend with a sharp point. Biorach, 
pointed; luib, bend. 

Berryslack, Berryslacks, Berrysloch, (for Biorach 
Slochd). Watery slack. Biorach, watery; slochd, ravine. 
Final s is unnecessary. 

Berrywell. Watery town. Biorach, watery; bhaile, 
baile asp., town. Bh is equal to u, v, or iv ; and bhaile be- 
came wale, then ivall and well. 

Bervie. End of cattle-fold. Bear, top end; chuidh, 
gen. asp. of cuiclh, cattle-fold. See Cuid and Fyvie. 

Berwick. Head of a nook. Beur, end, head; uige, gen. 
of uig, nook, solitary hollow. 

Bethelnie (for Beith Ailein).. Birch growing in a level 
place. Beith, birch tree; ailein, gen. of ailean, plain. Ei 
and n had been transposed. 

Bethlin. Birch-wood in a plain. Beath, birch-wood; 
lean, plain, level ground. 

Betteral Well. Well at a byre for cows on a shieling 
on a hill. Betteral may represent Bo-thigh Airidh Ail. Bo- 
thigh, cow-house; airidh, shieling; aill, gen. of aill, hill. 

Bhonich (for Tir a' Mhonaich). Land of the mountain. 
Tir, land; a', of the; mhonaich, gen. asp. of monach, a 
variant of monadh, mountain. Bh and mh are both sounded 
v, hence they are sometimes interchanged. 

Bicker Moss. Moss of the shieling. Bac, moss; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Bickerhard. Moss on a shieling hill. Bac, moss; 
airidh, shieling; ard, hill, height. 

Bield. Place full of farm-towns. Bailte, plural of baile, 
town, house, home. 

Bieldside. Site of farm-towns. Bailte, plural of baile, 
farm-house; suidhe, seat, site, place. 

Biffie (Bidben in the " Book of Deer "). Yellow hill. 
Buidhe, yellow; bheinn, hill. 

Bilbo, Bilboa. Cow-fold. Buaile, milking-fold ; bo, 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 45 

gen. plural of bo, cow. Buaile is equivalent to Latin bovile, 
cattle-fold. 

Bilbopark. Park at an ancient cattle-fold. See Bilbo. 
Poire, park. 

Bin, The. The hill. Beinn, hill. 

Bin Moss. Hill moss. Beinn, hill. 

Binghill. Hill of judgment, seat of barony courts. 
Binn, judgment, sentence. 

Binhall, Binhill. Both parts mean hill. Beinn, hill. 

Bink of Whiteshin (originally Beinn a' Chuithail). Hill 
of the fold. Beinn, hill, with euphonic 7; added; a', of the; 
chuithail, cuithail asp., fold, corrupted into white hill. Hill 
had afterwards been turned into Gaelic by sithean (pro- 
nounced she-an), hill. 

Binside. Hillside. Beinn, hill. 

Birkenbkewl (for Bior an Bruillidh). Burn of a mill. 
Bior, water, burn: an, of the; bruillidh (idh silent), gen. of 
bruillcadli, thrashing, crushing. 

Birkford. Ford of birches. Fords on rapid streams 
were made safe to cross by laying stems of trees in the 
channel, side by side, close together, to prevent excavation 
of holes. For this purpose birches were used. Such a ford 
was called Slateford, from slat, rod, stem of a tree. 

Birkhall. Mansion-house among birch trees. For- 
merly a farm-house with a large kitchen open to all about 
the farm was called by a name ending in hall. 

Birkie Wood. Birch wood. Birhen (Scotch), birchen. 

Birks. Birch-trees. 

Birks Burn. Burn bordered with birches. Birks 
(Scotch), birch-trees. 

Birlie Cottage. The accented syllable of Birlie is now 
first, but originally it had been last, and the name may have 
been Leth Bior. Side of the water. Leth (th silent), side: 
bior, water. 

Birness, Mill of. Mill in a gap between two heights. 
Bcarnas, gap. 

Birnie Wood. Wood of the gap or hollow. Bearna, gap. 

Birns. Gap. Beam as, gap. There is a gap between 
two knolls on the south side of the house called Birns. 

Birsack (for Barr Samhach). Pleasant point. Barr. 
point; samhach. quiet, pleasant. 

Birse. Hilly places. Braigh, high part of a district, 
with s, the sign of the plural in English. An old spelling is 
Brass. In the modern form r and i have been transposed. 

Birsebeg. Little Birse. Bcag, little. See Birse. 

Birselasie (for Braigh Lasaidh). Hill of flame, 
Braigh, hill; lasaidh, gen. of lasadh. fire, flame. 

Birsemore. Big Birse. Mor, bin. See Birse. 



46 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Bishop's Loch. Loch belonging to the Bishop of Aber- 
deen. 

Bisset. Detached place. Pioste, past part, of pios, to 
cut off. 

Bisset Moss. Detached piece of moss. Pioste, past 
part, of pios, to cut off. 

Bissetscross (for Crios Piosaidh). Cross of division. 
Crios, cross; piosaidh, gen. of piosadh, dividing. 

Bithnie (for Beithan). Birches. Beithan, plural of 
•beith, birch. A and n had been transposed. 

Blachrie, Blackrigg. Milking-fold on a hillside. 
Bleogliann, milking; ruigh, slope. 

Black Banks. Black fold. See Banks. 

Black Bothy. A hut made of black sods. Bothan, 
small hut. In smuggling times whisky was made in bothies 
among the hills, so situated that they could not be seen 
from a distance. 

Black Dog, Blackdog. Bock like a black dog. If 
the last part of the name has the accent it must be an 
adjective, and it may be a corruption of dubh, black. Both 
parts of Black Dog may have the same meaning. 

Black Hill of Mark. Black hill beside Glen Mark. 
See Glen Mark. * 

Black Sneck, Blacksnake. Black slow-running burn. 
Snaig, to creep, crawl. 

Black Spout. Black watercourse. Sput, small waterfall 
clearing the rock from which the water falls, watercourse. 

Black Stob. Black pointed hillock. 

Blackbaulk. Black band of division between two farms. 
Baulk, the strip of uncultivated ground between two ridges. 
There was no soil on the baulks, and stones of the fields 
were laid on them. 

Blackblair. Open black moor. Blar, open place. Per- 
haps for Blar Bleoghainn. Moor on which cows were 
milked when at summer pasture. Blar, open moor; bleogh- 
ainn, gen. of bleogliann, milking. 

Blackchambers. This name is corrupted, and the 
original form cannot with certainty be restored. Perhaps it 
had been Sean Airidhean Dubha. Old black shieling huts. 
Sean, old (pronounced shan); airidhean, plural of airidh, hut 
on a shieling; dubha, black. Sean has become sham in 
some names ; b is a needless insertion ; final s shows that a 
part of the name had ended in an — the Gaelic plural 
termination. 

Blackfolds. Fold built of black mossy sods. In the 
inside of the wall there might have been a row of trunks 
•of trees let into the ground. The wall gave shelter from 
wind and rain. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 47 

Blackgutter. Black water channel. Guitear, conduit, 
•drain, sewer. 

Blackhall. Hall may represent choill, coill asp., hill, 
after loss of initial c, as in Hallhill, where both parts mean 
the same thing. A large mansion-house has often a name 
ending in hall, perhaps because it has taken the place of the 
castle of old times, and it is often spoken of as The Hall. 
Blackhouse. Dairy house. Bliochd, milk. 
Blacklatch Well. Black hollow well. Lathacli, mire. 
Latch means a hollow crossing a road. It is usually wet 
and muddy. 

Blacklinn Burn. Black pool burn. Linne, pool, pond, 
waterfall. 

Blacklug. Black projecting high ground. Lug 
(Scotch), ear, projection from the head. At Blacklug Norrie 
hill projects from a large mass of high ground. 

Blackmiddens. Black middle town. Meadhon, middle. 
Final s represents on. 

Blackness (for An Eas Bleoghainn). The burn of the 
milking. .4/*, the; eas, burn; bleoghainn, gen. of blcogltann, 
milking. There had been a fold for cows near the burn. 

Blackpots, Bleckpots (1696). Small pool at a place 
where cows were folded and milked. Poitean, small pot or 
pool; bleoghainn, gen. of bleoghann, milking. An had 
wrongly been made s. 

Blackrigg. Same as Blachrie. 

Blackscrath. Place where the green sod had been 
removed, leaving bare black soil. Sgrath, turf, sod. 

Blackshiel Burn. Burn near a summer hut built of 
mossy sods. Seal (pronounced shyal), shiel, shieling. 

Blackstock, Blackstocks. Black, steep, pointed hill. 
Stoc, steep, sharp hill. 

Blackstrath. Burn valley where cows were fed and 
milked. Bliochd, milk; strath, burn valley. 

Blackton. Town of the milking, place where cows had 
been penned and milked. Baile, town; bleoghainn, gen. of 
bleoghann, milking. 

Black well Head (for Tobar Chuid Bleoghainn). Well 
of the milking-fold. Tobar, well; chuid, cuid asp., fold; 
bleoghainn, gen. of bleoghann, milking. Chuid had become 
first huid and afterwards head. 

Blaikie Well. Well at a milking-fold. Bleoghann, 
milking. 

Blair, Blairs. Open place. Blair, for blar, open 
place, moor, heath. Final s is an improper addition, made 
because Blair is the gen. form and was supposed to be a 
personal name. 



48 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Blair Glas, Blairglas. Green open moor. Blar r 
open moor; glas, green, grey green. 

Blair Hussey (for Blar Choise). Open place at the 
foot of a hill. Blair, for blar, open place; choise, gen. asp. 
of cos, foot. 

Blairbowie. Yellow open place. Blair, for blar, open 
place; bvidhe, 3 7 ellow. 

Blairdaff. Open moor of the oxen. Blar, open place,, 
moor; damh, gen. plural of damh, ox. Blair, the gen. form, 
is often used for blar. 

Blairdubh, Blairduff. Black open moor. Blair, for 
blar, open moor; dubh, black. 

Blairfad, Blairfads. Moor of the fold, and Moor of 
the small fold. Blar, open moor; chuid, gen. asp. of 
cuid, fold; chuidan, gen. asp. of cuidan, small fold. Asp. 
c had become asp. p, which is /. Ain had been made s 
instead of ie. 

Blairfowl. Open place where there was a pool. Blair, 
for blar, open place; ph/uill, gen. asp. of poll, pool, marsh. 

Blairhead. Open muir of the cattle-fold. Blair, for 
blar, open moor; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, cattle-fold. 
After being asp. c had become silent. 

Blairindinny. Open space at a small hill. Blair, for 
blar, open place; an, of the; dunain, gen. of dunan, small 
hill. 

Blairmore. Large open space. Blair, for blar, expanse; 
mor, big. 

Blairmormond. Big moor. Blair, moor; mor, big; 
monadh, moor. 

Blairnamuick. Field of the sow. Blar, open place, 
green field; na, of the; mine, gen. of muc, sow, pig. 

Blairordens. Open place of the little hill. Blair, for 
blar, open place ; ordain, gen. of ordan, small hill. Ain had 
been mistaken for the plural termination, and s had been 
added to ordain. 

Blairour. Open moor between two burns. Blar, moor, 
open place; our, gen plural of our, water, burn. 

Blairton. Town in an open place. Blar, open moor, 
heath. In names, the gen. form blair is generally used. 

Blairwick of Cults. Wide part of the Glen of Cults. 
Blair, wide, open place; uig, gen. of uig, nook. 

Blairythan. Open space beside a stream. Blair, open 
place; ithan, stream. See Ythan, Ythanside, Itenheade. 

Blakeshouse (for Teach Bleoghainn). Milking-house. 
Teach, house (translated); bleoghainn, gen. of blcoghann, 
milking. Ainn had erroneously been supposed to be the 
plural termination and had been translated into s. At 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 49 

Blakeshouse there had been a byre for cows on summer 
pasture and a dairy for butter and cheese. 

Blankets (for Cuitan Bleoghainn). Fold of milking. 
Cuitan, dim. of cuit, fold; bleogliainn, gen. of bleoghann, 
milking. An of cuitan having been supposed to be a plural 
termination had been changed into s. 

Blar Dubh. Black open moor. Blar, open place; dubli, 
black. 

Blar Ime. Field of butter. Blar, plain, open place; 
ime, gen. of im, butter. 

Blashbeans (for Blath Bheann). Warm hill. Blatli , 
warm; bheann, beann asp., hill. Th had become sh, and 
ann had been erroneously regarded as a plural termination 
and s had therefore been added to bheann. 

Blelack. Smooth stone. Blaith-leac, smooth stone. 
The stone referred to is St Wolack's stone at Kirkton, nearly 
a mile south of Blelack House. 

Blethery Well. Warm shieling well. Blath, warm; 
airidhc, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Blind Burn, Blindburn, Blind Stripe, Blindstripe. 
There is in Gaelic a word caoch, blind, and there had once 
been another meaning burn, with its dim. caochan, small 
burn. Blind here seems to be a translation of the first 
caoch instead of the second, whose meaning had been 
forgotten. In Blind Burn both parts of the name mean 
the same thing. 

Blind Well. Town near a burn. Caoch, burn (trans- 
lated); bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is equivalent to u, v, 
or w, and baile asp. has frequently become well. See 
Blind Burn. 

Blindmills. Mills on a burn. See Blind Burn. 

Blinkbonny. This name is probably taken from the 
words "blink bonny" in Motherwell's song " Craigielea." 
If it is Gaelic it might be a corruption of Bleoghann Boine, 
the milking of a cow. Bleoghann, milking; boine, gen. of 
bo, cow. 

Blockiehead (for Cuid Bleoghainn). Fold of milking. 
Cuid, fold; bleoghainn, gen. of bleoghann, milking. Bleoch- 
ainn had become blockie, which had been put first. Cuid had 
been asp. and put last, and c being silent had been lost. 

Bloody Burn. (In Gaelic Allt Bleodhainn). Milk 
burn, burn where cows were pastured and milked. Allt, 
burn (translated); bleodhainn, gen. of bleodhann, milking. 
Ainn had been changed into y. 

Bloody Butts of Lendrum. See Lendrum. Bloody 
Butts had originally been Buthan Bleodhainn, houses for 
milking cows. Buthan, plural of buth, booth; bleodhainn, 
gen. of bleodhann, milking. 

D 



50 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Bloody Faulds. Milking folds. Bleodhann, milking. 
Ann had been thought to be the dim. termination and had 
been changed to y. 

Bloody Hole (for Bleodhann Choill). Milking of trip 
hill. Bleodhann, milking; choill, coill asp., hill. C had 
been lost, being silent. Originally the name had been Coill 
Bleodhainn, hill of milking. Coill, hill; bleodhainn, gen. 
of bleodhann. 

Blue Bog. Bog at a milking-foid. Bleoghann, milking- 
place. 

Blue Cairn. Perhaps this name means hill on which 
there was a cow-fold where cows were milked. Bleoghainn, 
gen. of bleoghann, milking; cam, hill. Cam had once been 
first. The O.S. map shows the site of a cairn, but the 
officials did not know that cam meant a hill. 

Blue Corrie. Corry where cows were milked. Bleogh- 
ann, milking of cows; coire, corry. Blue Corry may be a 
translation of Coire Gorm, which might have been better 
rendered Green Corry. Gorm means both blue and green. 

Blue Hill, Bluehill. Hill where cows were milked 
when at summer pasture. Bleoghann, milking of cows. 
There are many Blue Hills, all indicating old dairying places. 

Blue Stone. Bock at which there was a milking-fold 
on a shieling. Bliochd, milk. 

Blue Well. Well at a milking-place. Bleoghann, 
milking-place. 

Bluecraig Hill. Hill seen from a great distance, at 
which it has a blue colour. Creag, hill. 

Bluefield. Milking-field, or field whose pasture yields 
much milk. Bliochd, milk. 

Bluefold. Milking-fold. Bleoghann, milking-place. 
Unless when part of the name of a lofty hill blue generally 
means milk or milking-place in a place-name. 

Blueley. Grassy place productive of milk. Bliochd, 
milk; ley, grassy place. 

Bluemill (for Meall Bleoghainn). Hill of the milking. 
Meall, hill; bleoghainn, gen. of bleoghann, milking. Gh is 
silent and ainn had become ie, which produced bleoie, and 
this had become blue. 

Bluemoor Hill. Hill on which cows were pastured and 
milked. Bleogliann, milking-place. 

Blythehillock. Milking-place at a hillock. Bliochd, 
milk. 

Bo (for Achadh Bo). Place of cows. Achadh, place 
(suppressed); bo, gen. plural of bo, cow. 

Boar's Stone. Big stone. Borr, big. 

Boarshead, Boar's Head. Big fold. Borr, big, with s 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 51 

added to get an English possessive; chaid, cuid asp., fold. 
By loss of c silent clniid had become head. 

Boat Craig. Kock where a boat could be entered or 
left. Creag, rock. 

Boatleys. Grassy places at a boat. Ley, grassy land. 

Bockie Burn. Burn of the bog. Allt, burn (translated); 
bogain, gen. of bogan, quagmire. Ain had been translated 
into ie in Scotch. 

Bodachra. Fold-house. Both, house; a', of the; chra, 
gen. asp. of era, fold. 

Boddam, Boddum. Oxen-house. Both, hut, house; 
damh, gen. plural of damh, ox. 

Boddomend (for Both Damhan). House for oxen. 
Both, house; damhan, gen. plural of damh, ox. 

Bodychell (for Badan Choill). Thicket of a hill. Badan, 
bush ; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Bodylair (for Bothan Lair). House of the land. 
Bothan, dim. of both, house; lair, gen. of lar, land. 

Bog Brannie. Bog of the little burn. Bog, marsh; 
branain, gen. of branan, little mountain stream. Ain be- 
came ie. 

Bog Loch, Bogloch. Bog of the loch. 

Bog Luchray. See Luchray. 

Bog of Culsh. Bog in a retired place. Bog, bog; cuil- 
teach, private, secluded. 

Bog of Saughs. Willow bog. Seileach, saugh, Scotch 
for willow. See Saughs. 

Bog of Gothie. See Gothie. 

Bog Sluey (for Bog Sluic). Bog of the den. Bog, bog; 
sluic, gen. of slochd, pit, gorge, ravine, slug. 

Bog Wartle. Bog beside a hill where cattle at summer 
pasture were guarded at night to prevent them from straying 
and from being stolen by Highland thieves. See " Historical 
Papers," Vol. I. (New Spalding Club). Wartle, ward hill. 

Bogancaller. Bog of the marsh Bog, bog; an, of the; 
calla, marsh. 

Bogandacker. Bog of the water. Bog, bog; an t-, of 
the ; acha, water. 

Bogandy. Black bog. Bogan, bog; dubh, black. 

Boganglaik. Bog of the hollow. Bog, bog; an, of the; 
glaic, gen. of glac, hollow between two heights. 

Boganloch. Bog of the loch. Bog, marsh; an, of the; 
loch, lake. 

Bogansourie. Bog of wetness. Bogan, bog; sugh- 
mhorachd, wetness. The asp. letters and final d had been 
lost. 

Bogbraidy. Bog of the hill. Bog, bog; braighe (for 



52 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

braghad, gen. of braighe), hill. As gh and dft are pronounced 
alike the one is often used for the other. 

Bogbuie. Yellow bog. Bog, bog; buidhe, yellow. 

Bogcoup. Bog of the hill. Bog, bog; coip, gen. of cop, 
hill. 

Bogdavie. Bog of oxen. Bog, bog; daimh, gen. of 
damh, ox. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Bogenchapel. Bog at the chapel. Bog, bog; an, of the ; 
chaibeil, gen. asp. of caibeal, chapel, family burying-ground. 
Before 1560 there were many small chapels with burying- 
grounds in Scotland. 

Bogendinny. Bog of the little hill. Bog, bog; an, of 
the; dunain, gen. of dunan, little hill. 

Bogengarrie. Rough bog. Bogan, bog; garbh, rough. 

Bogenjohn. Bog at a hill. Bogan, wet place; duin, gen. 
of dun, hill. 

Bogenjoss. Bog of the fir. Bogan, bog; giuthais, gen. 
of giuthas, fir. 

Bogenlea. Bog of the grassy place. Bog, bog; an, of 
the; ley (Scotch), grassy place. 

Bogenspro. Meadow where cattle fed. Bogan, bog, 
meadow; spreidhe, gen. of spreidh, cattle. 

Bogentassie (for Bog an t-Easain). Bog of the little 
burn. Bog, bog; an £-, of the; easain, gen. of easan, small 
burn, little cataract. 

Bogerduch (for Bog Airidhe Duibhe). Bog of the black 
shieling. Bog, marsh; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling; 
duibhe, gen. fem. of dubh, black. 

Bogerfoul (for Bog Airidh Phuill). Bog of a shieling 
at a pool. Bog, bog; airidh, shieling; phuill, gen. asp. of 
poll, pool. 

Bogfearn, Bogfern. Alder bog. Bog, bog; fearna, 
alder. 

Bogfechil. Bog near a watching-place. Bog, bog; 
faicille, gen. of faicill, watch, guard. 

Bogfennan (for Bogfinain). Bog of the little hill. Bog, 
wet place, meadow; finain, gen. of finan, dim. of fin, hill. 

Bogforgue. Bog consisting of a semi-liquid mixture of 
earth and water. Bog, bog; fuaraig, gen. of fuarag, mix- 
ture of earth and water. 

Bogforlea. Bog at a grassy place outside of a farm. 
Bog, bog; for-ley, grassy place at the front. 

Bogforth (perhaps for Bog Chorth). Marsh at an 
enclosed space. Bog, marsh; chorth, corth asp., circle, 
stone ring round a grave, fold for cattle or sheep. 

Bogfossie (for Bog a' Chosain). Bog of the little 
hollow. Bog, bog; chosain, gen. asp. of cosan, dim. of cos, 



Celtic Place-Namcs in Aberdeenshire. 53 

hollow. No Gaelic word in / yields fossie ; but /, being an 
asp. letter, may represent ch, another asp. letter. 

Bogfouton (for Bog Chothain). Bog covered with a 
frothy scum. Bog, bog; chothain, gen. asp. of cothan, froth. 
Ch had become ph, equivalent to /; and h of th had become 
silent and had been lost. Fouton may represent chuitan, 
small fold. 

Bogfur. Bog of grass. Bog, bog; feoir, gen. of feur, 
grass. 

Boggach. Boggy place. Bog, bog; and ach, abounding 
in. 

Boggerie Burn. Burn from a shieling bog. Bog, bog; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Boggiefern. Bog in which alders grow. Bogan, bog; 
feama, alder-tree. 

Boggiehinach Burn. Burn from a bog of vegetable 
growth. Bogain, gen. of bogan, bog; chinneachaidh, gen. 
of cinneachadh, growth. 

Boggy Stripes. Streamlets causing the formation of 
a bog. Bogan, bog. 

Boggyshiels. Summer huts at a bog. Bogan, bog; 
scalan, plural of seal, summer residence. S before e 
sounds sh. 

Boghead. Farm at the upper end of a bog. Head may 
represent chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. 

Bogie. Bog. Bogan, bog. Bogan is not a diminutive 
and an should not have been made ie. Bogie is also the 
name of the stream draining the great bog on the east side of 
The Buck. 

Bogieneuk. Corner of the bog. Bogain, gen. of bogan, 
wet place. 

Bogie's Hole. Sea cave supposed to be inhabited by 
a spectre. Bodach, spectre, boodie (Scotch). 

Bogiesavock. Willow bog. Bogan, bog; samhach 
(pronounced sauch, and supposed to mean willow). The 
proper meaning, however, of samhach is quiet, peaceful. 

Bogieshalloch, Boggieshalloch. Willow bog. Bogan, 
bog; seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

BOGIESHEAL, BOGIESHIEL, BoGIESHIELS. Bog at a hut 

on summer pasture. Bogan, bog; seal, hut, shiel. Shiels 
represents sealan, which might be either the plural of seal, 
or sealan, shieling, summer pasture. 

Bogindhu. Black bog. Bogan, bog; dubh, black. 

Bogixgore. Bog of the mud, filth. Bogan, bog; gaorra, 
gen. of gaorr, mud, gore. 

Bogingoss (for Bogan Giuthais). Bog of fir. Bogan, 
bog; giuthais, gen. of giuthas, fir. 

Bogixthort. Bog of the circular enclosure. Bog, bog; 



54 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

an, of the; choirt, gen. asp. of cort, circle, cattle-fold, stone 
circle. 

Bogintorry. Bog of the little hill. Bog, bog; an, of 
the ; torraxn, gen. of torran, little hill, hillock. 

Boglach Gorm. Green marsh. Boglach, quagmire, bog; 
gorm, green. 

Boglash. Bog where lights were said to have been seen. 
Bog, marsh; lais, gen. of las (Irish), flame, light. 

Bogle Den. Den of the ghost. Bogle (English), spectre. 

Boglea. Bog at a grassy place. Bog, bog; ley (Scotch), 
grass land. 

Bogless. Bog at a cattle-fold. Bog, bog; Use, gen. 
of lios, enclosure, cattle-fold, sheep-fold. 

Bogloch. Loch in a bog. 

Boglouster. Shaking bog, quagmire. Bog, bog; 
gluasdach, moving. 

Bogmeinneach, Burn of. Middle bog burn. A4ead- 
honach, middle. 

Bogmoon. Bog of the moss. Bog, bog; mona, gen. of 
moine, moss, moor. 

Bogmore. Big bog. Bog, marsh, bog; mor, big. 

Bognamoon. Bog of the moss. Bog, bog; na, of the; 
mona, gen. of moine, moss, moor. 

Bogneish Hillock. Hillock at the bog of the burn. 
Bogan, marsh; eas, burn. 

Bognieboll (for Bogan Buaile). Bog of the cattle-fold. 
Bogan, bog (with transposition of a and n) ; buaile, cattle- 
fold. 

Bogniebrae (for Bogan Brae). Bog of the hill. Bogan, 
bog; braigh (for braghad), gen. of braigh, hill. A and n had 
been transposed in passing into Scotch. 

Bogranda. Ugly bog. Bog, bog; granda, ugly. 

Bogbaxie, Bog of ducks. Bog, bog; trachd, gen. plural 
of trachd, drake. 

Bogree William. Cattle-fold at the angle where two 
roads meet. Bog, bog; rath (th silent), circle; uilinn, gen. 
of uileann, elbow, angle. Uileann usually becomes William 
in Scotch, as in Cairn William, mountain at the turn. 

Bogriffe (for Bog Buighe). Bog at the base of a hill. 
Bog, bog; ruighe, slope of a hill, the highest cultivated 
ground at the base of a hill. 

Bogrotten. Bog at a round hill. Bog, bog; rotain, 
gen. of rotan, round hill, mound, cognate with Latin rotundus, 
round. 

Bogs. Bog. Bogan, soft wet place. 

Bogskeathy. "Vomiting bog. Bog, bog; sgeitheach, 
vomiting. When water enters at the top of a bed of clay on 
a brae and finds vent lower down it sometimes pours out 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 55 

steadily in winter a mixture of water and clay, which comes 
up out of the ground as if it were vomited. 

Bogsley. Bog of the hill. Bog, hog; sleibhe, gen. of 
sliabli, hill. 

Bogsowie. Wet bog. Bog, bog; sughain, gen. of 
sughan wetness, oozing water. 

Bogston. Town near a bog. Bogan, bog. An had 
been made s. 

Bogtamma. Bog full of tufts. Bog, bog; tomach, full 
of tufts. 

Bogturk. Bog of the boar. Bog, bog; tuirc, gen. of 
tore, hog, boar. 

Bohill. Cow-hill. Bo, cow. 

Boich Head. Head curved like a bow. Bogha, bow. 
Boilmore (for Buaile Mhor). Big cattle-fold. Buaile, 
cattle-fold; -mhor, fern, of mor, big. 

Bolting Stone (for Clach Buailtein). Stone at a small 
fold. Clach, stone; buailtein, gen. of buailtean, dim. of 
buaile, fold. 

Bomahoy (for Both na Chuith). House at the fold. 
Both, hut, house; na, of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, 
fold. C being silent had been lost. Th final is silent and 
is readily lost. Hui had been pronounced hoo-ie, which had 
become hoy. 

Bonlee. Grassy hollow. Bonn, bottom; ley, grassy 
piace. 

Bonnykelly (for Coille Bainneach). Hill producing milk. 
Bainneach, abounding in milk; coille, hill. 

Bonnymuir. Moor productive of milk. Bainneach, 
abounding in milk; muir (Scotch), heath, uncultivated 
ground. 

Bonnyside. Place productive of milk. Bainneach 
abounding in milk; suidhe, place, seat. 

Bonnyton (for Baile Bainneach). Farm-town abounding 
in milk. Baile, town (translated); bainneach, productive of 
milk. 

Boonie, Burn of. Kapid burn. Buinne, rapid current. 
Borestoke. Big stone. Borr, great. See Boar's Stone. 
Borrowhill. Hill. Bruch, hill. The second part is a 
translation of the first. 

Borrowston, Borrowstone. Hill town. Bruch, hill; 
ton, for English town. 

Botany. This name in full is Botany Bay, so named 
from a place in Australia to which convicts were first sent. 
Residence at Botany was regarded as banishment. 

Botary (for Both Airidhe). Hut of the shieling. Both, 
hut; airidhe, gen. of airidh , shieling. 



56 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Both Hill. Hill of the hut. Both, but, house where 
women in charge of cows on summer pasture lived. 

Bothy. A house built of sods. In the Highlands it 
usually meant a house built of sods among the hills, where 
smuggled whisky was made. In the Lowlands it was a 
house in which farm-servants lived and prepared their own 
food. Both kinds of bothies have nearly gone out of use. 
Both an, small house, hut, cottage. 

Bothwellseat. Farm-town at the place of the man- 
sion. Bhaile, baile asp., town; both, house, mansion; 
suidhe, seat, place. Bli is equivalent to w and bhaile has 
become well. 

Bottomend. Same as Boddomend. 

Bottomhead. Ox-house at a cattle-fold. Both, house; 
damh, ox; chuid, cuid asp., cattle-fold. 

Boudiestone. Stone of the ghost. Bodach, ghost, 
spectre. 

Bourtie. Fortified place for cattle. Buar, cattle; dun, 
hill, fort. Boverdyn, 1195. See " Chartulary of Abbey of 
Lindores." Bourtie might represent buar-thigh, cattle- 
house. Buar, cattle; thigh, tigh asp., house. 

Bourtree Well. Well with an elder-tree to mark its 
position in a snowstorm. 

Bourieman's Well. Well of the man in charge of a 
milking-fold. He had to put fetters on the legs of cows before 
they were milked. Buarach, cow-fetter. 

Bovaglie (for Both Faicille). Guard-house. Both, 
house; faicille, gen. of faicill, watch, guard. The house 
had been occupied by persons guarding cattle in a glen 
against thieves. F and v, and c and g are interchangeable. 

Bow, The. Bend inward in the coast-line. Bogha, 
bow, bend. 

Bowbutts. Places near a parish church where people 
practised shooting with bows and arrows on Sunday. This 
was enjoined by Act of the Scots Parliament, to train men for 
the national defence. Yews were planted in churchyards to 
provide bows. 

Bower Well (for Tobar Buair). Cattle well, lobar, 
well; buair, gen. of buar, cattle. 

Bowie Hillock. Yellow hillock. Buidhe, yellow. 

Bowiebank. Yellow bank on the east side of the 
Deveron. Buidhe, yellow. The place named Bowiebank 
would have been suitable for growing broom. 

Bowl Boad, Bowlroad. Way from Aberdeen to the 
town cattle-fold. It is now called Albion Street. Buaile, 
cattle-fold, milking-fold. It was very likely on the Bowl 
Croft, which was on the north side of the street and on the 
west of the railway. The cow t s of the citizens had been 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 5? 

folded in the Buaile at mid-day, and women had gone there 
to milk them. There are, or were, Bowl Roads in Tarves, 
Strachan, and Edinburgh as well as in Aberdeen. 

Bowman Stone (for Bellman Stone). Stone on which 
the bellman stood when making announcements at a church. 

Boyndlie (for Ley Buinn). Grassy place at the bottom 
of a howe. Ley (Scotch), grassy place; buinn, gen. of bonn, 
bottom. 

Boynds. Quarry. Buidhinn, quarry. S had been 
affixed in the mistaken belief that inn here represented the 
Gaelic plural termination. 

Boynsmill (for Muileann Buinn). Mill at the bottom 
of the howe. Muileann, mill; buinn, gen. of bonn, bottom. 

Brackans (for Braighan). Little hill. Braighun, dim. 
of braigh, hill. An, the dim. termination, had been regarded 
as plural, and it had been translated into s, which had been 
added though an remained. 

Brackenbraes. Ferny braes. Bracken is an English 
word of Anglo-Saxon origin. 

Brackenstake. Pointed mountain. Braigh, mountain, 
bill; an, of the; stuic, gen. of stuc, pointed hill. 

Brackley. Grey hill. Braigh, hill; Hath, grey. 

Brackloch Cratg. The three parts of the name mean 
hill. Braigh, hill; lamh, hill; creag, hill. 

Braclamore. Big grey hill. Bracach, grey, black and 
white; lamh, hill; mor, big. 

Braco, Bracco. Grey place. Bracach, grey. 

Brae of Biffie. Hill of Biffie. See Biffie. Braigh, hill. 

Braegarie. Rough hill. Braigh, hill, upper part of a 
district; garbh, rough. 

Braelea. Grey hill. Braigh, hill; Hath, grey. 

Braeloine. Bralyne in 1696. Hill or brae above a 
meadow. Braigh, hill, brae; loin, gen. of Ion, marsh. 

Braeinjohn, Brainjohn. Burn of the hill. Braon, burn ; 
duin, gen. of dun, hill. 

Braemar. The meaning of mar is uncertain. Brae 
represents braigh, hill. 

Braemar (Cruden) represents Braigh Bharr. Hill of the 
point. Braigh, hill; bharr, barr asp., point. Bh is liable 
to become mh, which by loss of the asp. becomes m. 
Probably the name had originally been Barr Bhraigh, point 
of the hill. 

Braenaloin. Hill of the moss. Braigh, hill; na, of the; 
loin, gen. of Ion, moss, marsh. 

Braeneach. Hill of the spectre. Braigh, hill: neach, 
ghost, apparition. 

Braeneil (for Braigh an Aill). Hill. Braigh, hill; an, 
of the; aill, gen. of aill, hill, rocky hill. 



58 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Braeriach. Grey mountain. Braigh, mountain; 
riabhach, grey. 

Braeroddach. Hill abounding in Myrica gale, bog 
myrtle, a somewhat rare plant. Braigh, hill; roid, bog 
myrtle; ach, place of. 

Braes of Begarry. Hill of the little shieling. Braigh, 
hill; beag, small; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Braes of Gight. Windy braes. Gaothach, windy. 

Braeside. Hillside. Braigh, hill. 

Braestairie. Place on a bill where a causeway or a road- 
formed of tree stems had been made to cross a wet place. 
Braigh, hill, brae; staire, gen. of stair, causeway, stepping- 
stones at a wet place. 

Braid Bog (for Bog Braigh). Marsh at a hill. Bog, wet 
place; braigh, hill. If the name is Scotch it means broad 
bog. 

Braid Cairn. Cairn on the summit of a hill. Braid, 
summit; cam, cairn, hill. The hill is on the boundary 
between Aberdeen and Forfar. 

Braidshaw. Broad wood. Shaw (English), thicket, 
wood. Braid may mean hill, as in Braid Cairn. 

Braigh Coire Caochan nan Laogh. Mountain of the 
burn of the calves. Coire, corry ; caochan, burn; nan, of the; 
laogh, gen. plural of laogh, calf. 

Braigie. Hill. Braighe, brae, top of a brae, hill. 

Braigiewell. Hill town. Braighe, hill; bhaile, baile 
asp., town. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Braiklay (for Breac Lamh). Dappled hill. Breac, 
variegated; lamh, hill. 

Braikley (perhaps for Braigh Liath). Grey hill. Braigh, 
hill ; liath, grey. 

Braiks Burn. Places of various colours near a burn. 
Breacan, spotted places. Breac had been supposed to be a 
personal name, and an had therefore been changed to s to 
be in the possessive. 

Brain Loan (for Lon Braoin). Moss of the hill burn. 
Lon, moss, bog; braoin, gen. of braon, hill stream. 

Brainley (for Ley Braoin). Grassy place near a burn. 
Ley (Scotch), grassy place; braoin, gen. of braon, hill burn. 

Brainjohn. See Braeinjohn. 

Brakeshill. Hill. Braigh, hill. The second part of 
the name is a translation of the first. 

Brakies Croft. Croft on a hillock. Braighean, dim. 
of braighe, hill. An had been made both ie and s. 

Brandsbutt (for Buth Braoin). House at a burn. Buth, 
house, hut; braoin, gen. of braon, hill burn. When the 
parts of the name were transposed s had been added to 
braoin to make it the English possessive. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 



59 



Brandyie (for Branan). Small hill burn. Branan, dim. 
of bran, hill burn. An had become yie. 

Brankanentum, Brankinentum. Burn of the little fold 
on the hill. Bran, burn; cuithan, dim of cuith, fold; an, 
of the; tuim, gen. of torn, hill. 

Braneholm, Brankholme. Burn of the hill. Bran, hill 
burn; thvim, gen. asp. of torn, hill. T being silent before h 
had been lost, and k and I had been inserted for euphony, 
but I is seldom heard. 

Brankie (originally Braon Cuith). Burn at a fold. 
Braon, mountain burn; cuith (th silent), fold. Cut had be- 
come hie. 

Brankston. Town at a mountain burn. Bran, mountain 

burn. 

Brawland Knowes (for Braigh Lamhan Cnocan). lhe 
three parts of the name all mean hill. Braigh, hill, higher 
part; lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill; cnocan, dim. of cnoc, hill. 
An had been translated into s, in the belief that it was a 
plural termination. 

Brawnsbog (for Bog an Braoin). Bog of the mountain 
burn. Bog, wet place; an, of the; braoin, gen. of braon 
mountain burn. When the parts of the name were trans- 
posed s had been inserted in the belief that braoin was a 
personal name in the genitive in Gaelic. 

Breac Leitir. Spotted hillside. Breac, dappled; leitir, 
hillside. 

Breacan Hillocks (for Toman Breaca). Spotted hill- 
ocks. Toman, hillocks (translated); breaca, spotted. 

Breagach Hill. Dappled hill. Breacach, spotted, 
party-coloured. 

Breda. Broadhaugh in "Poll Book," 1696. 
Breda Hill. Here Breda seems to be a corruption of 
braighe, hill. Dh and gh are both pronounced like y, and 
hence g was sometimes changed into d in passing into Scotch. 
Breedie's Haugh. Haugh where a court of justice was 
held. Breith, judgment. Bretus in the name of the chief 
magistrate of the Aedui (Caesar, " De Bell. Gall.," III., 16) 
is probably cognate with breith, judgment. 

Bressachoil. Bush of the hill. Prcas, bush; a', of 
the; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Brewthin. Fairy knowe. Bruighinn, fairy knoll. The 
knolls at which barony courts were held are now often sup- 
posed to have been regarded as abodes of fairies. 

Brickfield (for Burghfield). This is near the site of 
the Burgh of Battray. 

Bride's Well, Brideswell. Well dedicated to St 
Bridget, an Irish saint venerated also in Scotland. 



60 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Bride stonefold. Fold at a stone where courts of justice 
were held. Breith, judgment. 

Bridge o' Ess. Bridge over the Tanar Water. Eas, 
water. 

Bridge of Don. There are two bridges of this name. 
The upper, at Balgownie, is very old and its builder is 
uncertain. It may have been built by the Earl of Mar at 
the same time as Kildrummy Castle was built. It is some- 
times attributed to Bobert Bruce. The lower bridge was 
built 1831-3. 

Bridge of Leid. Broad bridge. Leoid, gen. of leud, 
breadth. 

Bridle Boad. Poad along which a traveller on horse- 
back may pass. 

Bridlefold. Substantial fold. Brigheil, efficacious. 
Gh and dh are pronounced in the same way and are mis- 
taken the one for the other. 

Bridlies (for Breith Lios). Judgment circle. Breith, 
judgment; lios, circle. The place had been the seat of a 
barony court, which had been held within an enclosed place. 

Brierfield (for Achadh Braigh Airidhe). Field of the 
hill of the shieling. Achadh, field; braigh (pronounced 
briye), hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Briggs. Places where water rushes through with force. 
Bruchdan, plural of bruchd, openings in sea rocks through 
which the tide rushes. 

Brimmond Hill. All the three parts of this name mean 
hill. Braigh, hill; monadh, hill or moor of great extent. 
The Brimmond is more than a mile broad, and it is 870 
feet high. 

Brindy Burn. Small burn. Branan, dim. of bran, hill 
burn. Brindy is locally pronounced breeny. 

Broad Cairn. Hill. Braid, hill; earn, hill, mountain. 

Broad-Gate, Broad Street. A wide street in Aber- 
deen, originally extending from the west side of Guestrow 
to the east side of .Broad Street. Gate was formerly a 
common name in towns for a street leading to any important 
place, as Castlegate, Gallowgate. 

Broad Hill. The hill is only about 300 yards wide and 
hardly deserves to be called broad. Apparently, however, 
it had been called leathan in Gaelic, which means broad, 
for about the end of the Catholic period it was sometimes 
called the Lady Hill, lady being erroneously supposed to 
refer to the Virgin Mary. See Ladysford. 

Broad Place. Hilly place. Braid, hill. 

Broad Shade. Broad extent of gently sloping ground. 
Shed, slope, separation, division. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 61 

Broad Ward. Hilly enclosed place for calves or other 
farm animals. Braid, hill; tvard, enclosed, protected place. 

Broadgate. Place near a turnpike road. 

Broadgreens (perhaps for Ailean Braghead). Green 
place of a hill. Ailean, green level place; braghad (gh 
silent), gen. of braigh, hill. The s in Broadgreens represents 
an in ailean, which had been supposed to be plural. 

Broadland. Both broad and land mean hill. Braigh, 
hill; lamhan, dim. of lamli, hill. Bh is liable to become 
mh, which by loss of the aspirate becomes m. Mh in 
lamhan is usually equivalent to v, but it may become silent 
and be lost. Final d is euphonic. 

Broadley. Broad grassy place. Perhaps the name had 
at first been Braidley, meaning hilly, grassy place, from 
braid, hill, and ley, grassy place. 

Broad straik (for Strioch Braid). Hill stripe. Strioch, 
stripe; braid, hill. 

Broback, The. The hill of the moss. Brucli, hill; bac, 
moss. 

Brochdhu. Black hill. Bruch, hill; dubh, black. 

Brock Ness. Badgers' point. Broc, badger; ness 
(English), promontory. 

Brockholes. Badgers' holes. Broc, badger. But brock 
may be bruch, hill, and holes may be choill, coill asp., hill, 
with s added. 

Brockie Burn, Brocky Burn. Burn of the steep brae. 
Bruchaich, gen. of bruchach, steep ascent. Same as Burn 
of Brooky. 

Brock's Brae. Badger's brae. Broc, badger. 

Broclach. Badger's den. 

Brodiach. Broad howe. Iochd, howe. 

Brodie Brae, Brodies Braes. The Gaelic form of 
Brodie had been brodan, but the meaning of this word is 
uncertain. It sometimes seems to mean a projecting point 
or a narrow piece of ground, and sometimes a level place. 
In Brodies an has been made both ie and s. 

Brodies Burn. Perhaps Burn in a narrow strip of land. 

Brogan. Small hill. Bruchan, dim. of bruch, hill. 

Broken Grip (for Groban Bruchain). Top of the small 
hill. Groban, summit; bruchain, gen. of bruchan, small 
hill. The parts of the name had been transposed when 
bruchain was made an English word. 

Broken wind (for Bruchan Bheinn). Hill. Bruchan, 
dim. of bruch, hill; bheinn, beinn asp. and pronounced 
loeinn, hill. 

Bronie Burn. Small burn. Braonan, dim. of braon, 
burn. 



■62 Celtic Place-Na7nes in Aberdeenshire. 

Broom Hill, Broomhill. In old leases it was some- 
times stipulated that farmers should sow a few acres of 
broom, to provide thatch for buildings on a farm. Hence 
broom is found on some high hills and only in a few places 
in a district, instead of being generally distributed. 

Broom Inch. Eiver island clothed with broom. Innis, 
island. 

Broomhead. Broomy place at a fold. Chuid, gen. asp. 
of cuid, fold. G had been lost, being silent. 

Broomielaw. Broom hill. Lamh, hill. 

Broomies Burn. Small burn. Braonan, dim. of braon, 
hill burn. An had been rendered by both ie as a dim. and 
s as a plural termination. 

Brooms. Small hill burn. Braonan, dim. of braon, hill 
burn. Medial n became m, and an became s instead of ie. 

Broomy Lea. Level grassy place growing broom. In 
Scotch, lea means land level enough to be cultivated. 

Brotherfield (for Achadh Bruch Airidhe). Field of the 
hill of the shieling. Achadh, field; bruch, hill; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. C asp. had become t asp., and dh 
becoming silent had been omitted. 

Brothers, The. Kocks resembling a family of children. 

Brown Cow (for Braon Cuith). Burn of the cattle-fold. 
Braon, mountain burn; cuith (th silent), cattle-fold. Cui 
had been pronounced coo-ie. 

Brown Cow" Hill. Hill from which flows a burn passing 
a cattle-fold. See Brown Cow. 

Brown Hill. Hill of the mountain burn. Braon, hill 
burn. 

Brownhills, Brownieshill. Both names mean hill 
from which flowed a little burn. Braonan, dim. of braon, 
burn. In Brownhills an had been made s and put after 
hill. In Brownieshill an had been made both ie and s. 

Brownside. Burn side. Braon, burn. 

Bruach Dhubh. Black bank. Bruach, bank; dhubh, 
fern, of dubh, black. 

Bruach Mhor. Big bank. Bruach, bank; mhor, fern, 
of mor, big. 

Bruach Euadh. Red bank. Bruacli, bank; ruadh, red. 
Bruach in Bruach Dhubh, Bruach Mhor, Bruach Ruadh, 
Tighnabruaich, etc., is probably a late translation into 
Gaelic of Banks or Bankhead, both of which mean cattle- 
fold. See Bankhead and Banks. 

Bruce Hill, Brucehill. Hill. Bruch, hill. The name 
had originated in a mistaken belief that King Robert Bruce 
had halted on it in his pursuit of Comyn, Earl of Buchan. 

Bruce 's Camp. Place locally fancied to have been a 
■camp of King Robert Bruce; but this idea must have origi- 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 63 

Bated in the likeness of bruch, a Gaelic word for a hill, to 
the name Bruce. The supposed camp had been a cattle-fold. 

Bruce's Haven. Bruce is a corruption of brugh, forti- 
fied stronghold. 

Bruckhills. Both parts of the name mean the same 
thing. Bruch, hill. 

Brucklay. Both parts mean hill. Bruch, hill; lamh, 
hill. 

Bruckleseat. Place where bruckles grow. Bruckle 
(Scotch), stalk of carex, used for cleaning out oil-holes of 
spinning-wheels, stems of tobacco-pipes, etc. 

Bructor Hill. Bruch, hill; torr, steep hill with flat top. 

Brughs. Mansion. Brugh, mansion-house, fortified 
place. Final s is an improper addition. 

Bruness (perhaps for Bruchd Ness). Cape where water 
rushes through openings among rocks. Bruchd, rush; ness 
(English), nose. 

Brunt Heugh, Bruntbrae. Brunt in these names 
represents bruchan, dim. of bruch, hill. Ch being silent 
had been lost, and t had been added for euphony and to 
convert bruan into a Scotch word. 

Bruntcowes (for Bruchan Cuithain). Little hill with 
a small fold. Bruchan, little hill; cuithain, gen. of cuithan, 
small fold. Bruclian lost asp. c and took on t to become 
the Scotch word brunt. Cuith lost asp. t, and ain by mis- 
take was made es instead of ie. 

Brunthall. Hill. Bruchan, small hill; choill, coill 
asp., hill. The second part had been added to explain the 
first, after it had lost ch and taken on t to become the 
Scotch word brunt. Choill had lost c, which was silent, 
and oi had become a to form hall, an English word. 

Bruntland, Bruntlan. Both parts of the name mean 
small hill. Bruchan, small hill; lamhan, small hill. The 
name had passed through the following forms: — Bruchan 
Lamhan, Bruan Laan, Brun Lan, Bruntland. 

Bruntstane. Stone on a hill. Bruchan, small hill. 
Ch had been lost, being silent, and t had been added for 
euphony and to convert the Gaelic word into a Scotch. 

Bruthaichanluig. Steep side of the howe. Bruthach, 
steep hillside; an, of the; luig, gen. of lag, hollow. 

Brux. Hill. Bruch, hill. Perhaps for bruchan, small 
hill, in which an had been mistaken for the plural termina- 
tion and had been translated by s. This would have pro- 
duced bruchs, equivalent to brux. 

Bruxfin. Both parts mean hill. Bruchan, small hill; 
fin, hill. An had been made s. 

Bruxie (for Bruchan). Small hill. An had been 
regarded as a plural termination, and s had been inserted 



64 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

before an, making bruchsan. Afterwards an was changed 
to ie, which produces bruchsie, and this lapsed into bruxie. 

Buchaam (for Bogha Cham). Curved bend. Bogha r 
bend; cham, cam asp., crooked. 

Buachaille Breige (for Brig Buachaille). Shepherd's 
cairn. Brig, cairn, pile; buachaille, shepherd. 

Buachaille Mor's Grave. The grave of the big herd, 
who was killed accidentally. Buachaille, shepherd; mor, 
big. 

Buailteach. House at a cattle-fold. Buaile, cattle-fold, 
milking-fold ; teach, house. Buaile is the same as Latin 
bovile, cattle-fold. 

Buchan. The district in the angle between the North 
Sea and the Moray Firth. Boghan, small bend, curve. 

Buchan Ness. East point of Buchan. This is Petrie's 
Loup on Keith Inch. An old map has " Buchan Ness " in 
the middle of Peterhead Bay, and on subsequent maps it 
was put at Boddam Ness by mistake. Boghan, little bend; 
ness (English), nose. 

Buchanhaven. Harbour near Buchan Ness, which name 
was formerly given to the east point at Peterhead. 

Bucharn. Hut on a hill. Buth, hut, temporary resi- 
dence of people in charge of cattle on summer pasture ; 
chaim, gen. asp. of cam, hill. 

Buchts. Houses for sheep when on hill pasture. 
Buthan, plural of buth, hut, house, th having become ch, 
and an becoming s. 

Buck, The. The big mountain. Buchd, bigness. The 
Buck is the biggest mountain in the ridge between the 
Deveron and the Bogie. Perhaps from bulge, wetness. The 
sides of the hill are wet in many places. 

Buckering Well (for Tobar Bac Airidhe). Well of the 
moss shieling. Tobar, well (translated); bac, moss; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Bucket. See Glenbucket. 

Bucket Mill. Mill for sawing wood to be made into 
buckets. 

Buckie. Bend. Bogha, bow, bosom, place in a curve 
between two heights, or in a bend of a 'river or in the sea 
coast. 

Buckie Burn. Burn at a curve in a hillside. Bogha, 
bow, curve. 

Buckler Burn. Cowherd's burn. Buachaille, shep- 
herd, cowherd, protector of cattle or sheep. 

Buxburn, Boxburn, (for Allt Bocan). Burn of jumps. 
Allt, burn; bocan, gen. plural of boc, jump, leap. In 
passing into Scotch an became s, and bocs is equivalent to 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 65 

box, which accounts for the local form of the name, Box- 
burn. The burn falls rapidly in the last mile of its course. 

Buffle (for Buth Choill). House on a hill. Buth, 
house; choill, coill asp., hill. Ch had become /, and th had 
also become / by attraction. But Buffle might be a corrup- 
tion of Buthlaw; which see. 

Buglehole (for Coille Buachaille). Hill of the shepherd 
or cowherd. Coille, hill; buachaille, gen. of buacliaille, 
shepherd, herdsman. 

Buidheanach. Hill summit commanding a good view. 
Buidhneach, commanding an extensive prospect. 

Bull Well. Town at a cattle-fold. Buaile, cattle-fold; 
bhaile, baile asp., town. The name had originally been 
Baile Buaile. 

Bullers of Buchan. Fold at a small shieling. Buaile y 
fold; airidhean, dim. of airidhe, shieling. Dh with the flank- 
ing vowels had been lost, and an had become s instead of 
ie. The name is now given to a village at an inlet between 
high rocks, the end of which had served as a fold where cows 
were milked. It is also given, improperly, to a pot sur- 
rounded by steep rocks and communicating with the sea by 
a short tunnel. It had been a sea cave, the inner end of 
which had fallen in. 

Bull's Slack (for Buaile Sluic). Milking-fold in the 
gorge. Buaile, cattle-fold, cow-fold; sluic, gen. of sloe, 
gorge, trench-like hollow. 

Bulwark (for Buaile Mhart). Fold where cows were 
milked. Buaile, cow-fold; mhart, gen. plural asp. of mart, 
cow. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or iv. 

Bulwark, The — King-Edward — (for An Buaile Mhart). 
The fold of the cows. An, the; buaile, milking-fold; mhart, 
gen. plural asp. of mart, cow. 

Bum Stripe. Streamlet in the bottom of a valley. Bun, 
bottom. 

Bunzeach (for Buneoch). Bottom of the howe. Other 
forms are Bunzeoch, Bunyeoch, Bunnyach, Bonzeoch. 
Bun, bottom; iochd, howe. In Strathdon Bunzeach is the 
name of a long, narrow, trench-like gorge on the south border 
of the parish. The west end is called Glac of Bunzeach — 
glac meaning howe, the same as iochd; near it is Loch of 
Bunzeach; farther north is Forest of Bunzeach; and, still 
farther, Craig of Bunzeach. 

Burgh Muir. Uncultivated ground near a royal burgh, 
where the cows of the burgesses were pastured. 

Buried Men's Leys. Places growing grass, where dead 
men were said to have been buried. The O.S. map says 
this was the site of a conflict in 1411. There is no evidence 
of this conflict on record. 

E 



66 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Burn Hervie. Burn of division. Thearbaidh, gen. asp. 
of tearbadli, division, bounding. Th had become silent, and 
b had been aspirated, becoming equivalent to v. 

Burn of Allantersie. Cross burn. Allan, small 
stream; tarsuinn, cross. 

Burn of Angels (for Burn of Lights). Aingle, plural 
of aingeal, fire, light. The reference may be to the use of a 
blaze in catching trout or salmon at night. 

Burn of Auldenachie. See Auldenachie. 

Burn of Auldgarney. Burn of the rough burn. Allt, 
'burn; garbh, rough; abhainn, water. 

Burn of Auldmad. Burn passing the seat of a court of 
justice. Allt, burn; moid, gen. of mod, court of justice. In 
this word o is frequently changed to a. Bum and auld mean 
the same thing, and " Burn of " is redundant. 

Burn of Auldmuck. Gloomy burn. Allt, burn; muige, 
gen. of muig, gloom. 

Burn of Backcammie. Burn of Cammie moss. Bac, 
peat-moss; camaidh, gen. of camadh, bend. This refers to 
the hill at the bend in the boundary between Forfar and 
Kincardine. 

Burn of Benglack. Burn of the hollow of the hill. 
Beinn, hill; glaic, gen. of glac, narrow hollow between two 
heights. 

Burn of Bogturk. Burn of the boar's bog. Bog, bog; 
tuirc, gen. of tore, boar. Wild boars delight to feed on the 
juicy roots and stems of plants growing in lakes and bogs, 
which their recurved tusks enable them to pull up. 

Burn of Boonie. Bapid burn. Buinne, rapid stream. 

Burn of Buck. Burn of the big mountain. Buchd, 
bigness, size. The Buck is the biggest mountain in its 
district. 

Burn of Cake. Both parts of the name mean stream. 
Caoich, gen. of caoch, burn, howe. 

Burn of Clachanyell. Burn of the white stones. 
Clachan, plural of clach, stone; ghil, gen. plural fern, of 
geal, white. 

Burn of Contlach. Burn at a place where hills at the 
sides approach one another. Con, with, together; tulach, 
hill. 

Burn of Corbus. Burn of the fold. Corbus is for 
chuitail, fold, corrupted into whitehill and turned into Gaelic 
by corban (cor. hill; ban, white). An was abnormally made 
s, producing corbs, now corbus. See Forbes. 

Burn of Corn. Burn of the hill. Cairn, gen. of cam, 
hill. 

Burn of Corrie. Burn from a hollow in a hillside. 
Coire, caldron, hollow like a cup cut slantingly so as to leave 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 67 

in the lower half only a small portion of the lip but nearly 
all the bottom. 

Burn of Craig. Burn of the hill. Crcag, hill. 

Burn of Duchery. Burn of the black corry. Dubh, 
black; choirc, coire asp., corry. 

Burn of Dunriggs. Burn of the slope of the hill. 
Ruigliean, dim. of ruigh, slope; duin, gen. of dun, hill. An 
had become s instead of ie. 

Burn of Easaiche. Burn of waterfalls. Easach, 
abounding in waterfalls. 

Burn of Ellanduan. Burn of the green plain beside the 
black water. Ailean, green meadow; duibhe, gen. fern, of 
dubh, black; abhann, gen. of abhainn, stream. 

Burn of Fathie. Burn of the green level place. Fatha, 
gen. of fath, plain, green place. 

Burn of Glaaick. Burn of the hollow. Glaic, gen. of 
glac, hollow. 

Burn of Fuie. Burn of the cattle-fold. Chuith, gen. 
asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. Ch had become ph, which is 
equivalent to /; and th had become silent and had been lost. 

Burn of Glenny. Burn of the glen. Glinne, gen. of 
gleann, glen. 

Burn of Granney. Burn of sand. Grainne, sand. 

Burn of Grennoch. Rough burn. Greannach, rough. 

Burn of Kelly. Burn of the hill. Coille, hill. 

Burn of Millwaddoch. Burn of the bushy hill. Mill, 
gen. of meall, hill; bhadaich. gen. of badach, woody. Bh 
is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Burn of Pots. Burn with deep holes. Poitean, gen. 
plural of poit, pot. 

Burn of Raibet. Burn whose channel had been eroded 
by water. Riabaidh, gen. of riabadh, eroding, tearing. 

Burn of Sheals, Burn of Shiels. Burn passing 
summer residences for dairywomen. Sealan, plural of seal, 
temporary summer residence. Sealan might also mean 
shieling, and in this case s would be an improper addition. 

Burn of Shield. Burn of the summer pasture. Seal 
(pronounced shyal), temporary summer hut. See Shiel. 

Burn of Slacks. Burn of the little hollow between two 
heights. Slugan, small hollow between hills. The termina- 
tion an is here the diminutive, but it had been supposed to 
be the plural termination and had been translated by s. 

Burn of Skinna (for Allt Skinna). Rushing burn. Allt, 
burn; sginnidh, gen. of sginneadh, gushing out. 

Burn of Tarsan. Cross burn. Tarsuinn, cross. 

Burn of Tonburn. Burn of the bottom. Ton, bottom 
of a hollow. 



68 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Burn of Wood. Burn of a bushy place. Bhaid, gen. 
asp. of bad, bushy place. Bhaid is pronounced vaid or waid, 
and this in Scotch would readily lapse into wood. 

Burnbeg. Small burn. Beag, small. 

Burncruinach. Bound howe. B earna, gap; oruinneach, 
round. 

Burnfoot Cottages. Cottages where a burn runs into 
a river. 

Burngarnie (for Allt Garbhanach). Bough burn. Allt, 
burn (translated); garbhanach, rough, rugged. 

Burngrains. Branches of a burn. Grain is the same as 
groin and should mean the space between the two branches, 
but grains is now put for the branches themselves. 

Burnhead. Cattle-fold at a burn. Chuid, cuid asp., 
cattle-fold. became silent after aspiration. Some places 
called Burnhead are near the sources of burns. 

Burns, Hill of. Hill in which there is a gap. Bearnas, 
gap. See Barns. 

Burnshangie (for Bearnas Fhangain). Hollow of the 
sheep-fold. Bearnas, hollow; fhangain, gen. asp. of fangan, 
dim. of fang, fold. F being silent had been lost. 

Burnt Burns. Mountain burns. Braon, mountain 
burn. The place called Burnt Burns had been an enclosure 
for cattle. It has streams on three sides. 

Burnthouse (for Braon Chuith). Burn of the fold. 
Braon, hill burn; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. Subse- 
quent forms of the name had been: — Braonhuith, Braon- 
huish, Braonhuis, Brunthouse. See Husband Hillock. 

Burrel Ley. Open grassy place. Blar (by transposition 
of letters made burrel), open place; ley, grassy place. 

Burreldales, Burrel Dale, (for Dail Blair). Field of 
the open place. Dail, for dalach, gen. of dail, meadow, level 
field; blair, gen. of blar, open place. S is not represented 
in the Gaelic name. 

Burrowley (for Bruch Ley). Hill with a grassy place. 
Bruch, hill. 

Burryhillock (for Bruchan Hillock). Both parts have 
the same meaning, the second having been added to explain 
the first. Bruchan, dim. of bruch, hill. 

Bush. Thicket of trees or bushes, thieves' lurking-place 
at a roadside. 

Bushelgreens. Green places at a shepherd's house. 
Buachaille. shepherd. 

Busk, Busks, Busk Craig, Busks of Coral. Nothing 
is known of the meaning of these names. They are names 
of rocks on the coast of Cruden. The rocks are round and 
possibly the names might be derivatives from bus, snout,, 
with euphonic h added. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 69 

Butiilaw. House on a hill. Buth, hut, house; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill. 

Butt. Mark. Buta, mark, conspicuous object. 

Butter Ford (for Ath Buth Airidhe). Ford of the hut 
on a shieling. Ath, ford (translated and put last); buth, 
hut; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Butterwards. Enclosed places for cattle at a hut on 
a shieling. Ward, enclosure for live stock; buth, hut; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Butterybrae. Brae of the shieling hut. Buth, hut; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Butterywells (for Bhaile Buthan Airidhe). Town of 
huts on a summer shieling. Bhaile, baile asp., town; 
buthan, plural of buth, hut; airidhe, gen. of airidh, summer 
pasture. Baile had been aspirated when it was put to the 
end of the name. It has become well or wells in several 
names, bh being equivalent to u, v, or w. Butter was made 
at the summer shiels, and this may have influenced the 
form which the name assumed when it passed out of Gaelic 
into Scotch. 

Byebush. Birch bush. Beith (th silent), birch; bush 
(Scotch), wood, clump of trees, thicket. 

Byesnuik, Burn of. Burn of a nook where birches grew. 
Beithan, gen. plural of beith, birch. Th is silent, and an 
had been translated into s. 

Bylands (for Lamhan Beith). Little hill of birches. 
Lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill; beith, gen. plural of beith, 
birch. An of lamhan had been translated by s instead of ie. 
D is euphonic. 

Bynack Burn. Clear water burn. Baine, white; acha, 
water. One of the head waters of the Bynack Burn is Feith 
Mhor Bhan, big clear burn. 

Bynack Lodge. Summer residence for sportsmen on the 
Bynack Burn. 

Byreleask. Land at a burn. Bior, water, burn; leasg, 
piece of land. 

Byresfold. Cattle-fold at byres for dairy cows when on 
hill pasture. 

Bysantrach. Small piece of ground by the side of a 
river. Piosan, little bit; tragha, gen. of traigli, riverside. 
This was the name of a holding in 1696 on Heade of Inch, 
now Headinsch. 

Byth. Birch trees. Beath, plural of beath, birch tree. 

Ca, Cath, Catha, Cadha — all pronounced ca. Drove road, 
hill road. Local names are: — The Ca, The Ca Boad, The 
Cadha, Cat, Catt, Cattie, Catto, and Gatt in Auchnagatt. 
■Ca simply means road, and Boad should not be added to 



70 Celtic Place- Navies in Aberdeenshire. 

The Ca. On the Ordnance Survey maps The Ca and The 
Cadha are put on hilltops, showing that these terms were 
supposed to mean hills. 

Ca Dubh. Black road. The ca roads were merely 
tracks. A Ca Dubh (black road) was, partly at least, on 
moss and good in dry weather, but almost impassable in 
wet weather. A Ca Buidhe (yellow road) was on the hard 
stony clay commonly forming the sub-soil, and it was rough 
and stony but safe. 

Ca Road, The. Ca means a hill road, and the addition 
of road shows that the meaning of ca was forgotten. Lat- 
terly it was supposed to be the same as the Scotch ca, to 
drive. See Ca. 

Cable Shore (perhaps for Coble Shore). Place where 
flat-bottomed boats are hauled to land. 

Cabra, Cabrach. Thicket. Cabrach, thicket, peat- 
moss containing trunks of trees. 

Cac Carn Beag, Cac Carn Mor. Little dirty moun- 
tain, and Big dirty mountain. Caca, dirty, miry, covered 
with black wet peat-moss; cam, mountain; beag, little; mor, 
big. 

Cacherlicyme Burn (for Cathair-leac-ighe). Circle of 
stones at a burn. Cathair, circle; leac, gen. plural of leac, 
stone; ighe, gen. of igh, burn. By change of asp. letters 
Cathair-leac-ighe became Cachair-leac-imhe, which lapsed 
into the present strange form. 

Caciinaminniegawn, Burn of. Burn polluted by filth 
from a fold for kids. Cach, for cac, filth; na, of the; mean- 
nan, gen. plural of meannan, young kid; gabhainn, gen. of 
gabhann, penfold. 

Cadger Well. Roadside well. Cadha, road. This and 
some subsequent names show that the sound of dh was 
liable to be mistaken for that of dg. 

Cadgerford, Cadgers' Ford. Ford on an old main road 
to Aberdeen. Cadha, road, path, hill road, drove road. 

Cadgerhill. Hill of the road. Cadha, drove road, main 
road between two distant places. 

Cadgers' Road. Drove road. Cadha, hill road, drove 
road. 

Cadhach Burn. Burn near a public road. Cadha, hill 
road, road. 

Caiesmill, Caiesmills. Mill at a cattle-fold. Cuith, 
cattle-fold. 

Cailleachrennie. Burn among ferns. Cailleach, old 
woman, is frequently introduced into names improperly. 
When it occurs in a name referring to a stream, as here, it 
is used instead of coileach, a small rill. Coileach, small 
rill; rainich, gen. of raineach, fern. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 71 

Caillevar, Callievar Hill. Hill of the projecting 
point. Coille, hill; bharra, gen. asp. of barr, point. Bit is 
equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Caird Hill, Cairdhillock, Cairo's Hillock. Knoll 
where travelling tinsmiths encamped. Ceard, caird 

(Scotch), tinsmith, tinker — formerly tinkler. 

Caird 's Well. Well near place where travelling tin- 
smiths encamped on Cot Hill. 

Cairdseat. Smith's place. Ceard, smith, tradesman 
working at smith- work of any kind. 

Cairn. Pile of stones. Cam, cairn, hill. Cairns are 
frequently seen on mountains. Some are memorials of 
persons and events. Others mark the summits of mountains 
to make them conspicuous. Many are boundary marks be- 
tween counties, parishes, estates, and these are necessary 
to prevent misunderstandings regarding the respective rights 
of parties. Shepherds need cairns to let them know the 
boundaries of their pastures. Many small cairns have been 
made on sunny braes to allow more grass to grow early in 
spring, when it is scarce. Cairns are numerous at junctions 
of glens, where funeral parties wait and rest. Some large 
cairns have been formed of stones gathered off the surface 
of the ground or taken out in cultivating the land. 

Cairn, Blue. Rocky mountain summit seen from a 
distance. Cam, mountain, especially one with a con- 
spicuous summit. Distant mountains are blue. 

Cairn Bad a' Ghuail. Mountain having bushes on the 
shoulder. Cam, mountain; bad, bush; a', of the; guailne, 
gen. of gualann, shoulder. 

Cairn Bannoch. Pointed mountain. Cairn, mountain; 
beannach, pointed, horned. 

Cairn Cash. Steep hill. Cam, hill; cais, gen. of cas, 
ascent. 

Cairn Cassie. Steep hill. Cam, hill; casaich, gen. of 
casach, steep ascent. 

Cairn Cat. Heap of stones near a drove road. Cam, 
cairn, hill; cath, drove road. 

Cairn Culchavie. Hill of Culchavie. Cam, hill. See 

CULCHAVIE. 

Cairn Cummer. Cairn between two branches of a burn. 
Cam, cairn; comair, gen. of comar, confluence of waters. 

Cairn Deuchrie. Hill of the black corry. Cam, hill; 
dubh, black; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry. 

Cairn Etchachan. Pile of stones on a hill near Loch 
Etchachan. Cam, cairn. See Loch Etchachan. 

Cairn Fenny. Hill of flaying. Cam, hill; feannaidh, 
gen. of feannadh, flaying, removing the surface, casting 
divots. 



72 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Cairn Ficklie. Hill of the watch. Gam, hill, cairn; 
faicille, gen. of faicill, guard. The proper name of the hill 
and the cairn on it is Fichlie. 

Cairn Gaidley. Cairn raised in a grassy place over per- 
sons who had died of disease. Cam, cairn; gaoide, gen. of 
gaoid, disease; ley, grassy place. 

Cairn Geldie. Hill near the Geldie Burn. Cam, hill. 
See Geldie. 

Cairn Gow. Cairn at a cattle-fold. Cam, cairn; cuith, 
cattle-fold. G very often became c when Gaelic passed into 
Scotch, and c sometimes became g, as in Glasgow, for Glas 
Cuith. 

Cairn Head. Hill of the fold. Cam, hill; chuid, gen. 
asp. of cuid, fold. Asp. c is silent and had been lost. 

Cairn Hill. The second part of the name is a trans- 
lation of the first. Cam, hill. 

Cairn Hillock. Mountain of the hillock. Cam, moun- 
tain, hill. 

Cairn Leuchan. Hill of wetness. Cam, hill; fhliuchain, 
gen. asp. of fliuchan, wetness. Fh is silent and had been 
lost. 

Cairn Ley. Grassy place on a hill. Cam, hill; ley, 
grassy place. 

Carn Liath. Grey mountain. Cam, mountain; Hath, 
grey. 

Cairn Mor, Carn More. Big mountain. Cam, hill; 
■tnor, big. 

Cairn Mude. Hill of the court of justice. Carn, hill; 
moid, gen. of mod, court of justice. On the hill there is an 
enclosure, probably surrounding an ancient stone circle, 
which had afterwards been selected as the seat of a barony 
court. 

Cairn na Hilt. Hill of the steep cliff. Carn, hill; na, 
of the; h (euphonic); uilt, gen. of alt (Irish), steep place. 

Cairn na Wink (for Carn na Bheinne). Hill. Cam, hill ; 
na, of the; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. The last part 
has the same meaning as the first. 

Cairn Nairvie (for Carn a' Thearbaidh). Hill of the 
division. Cam, hill; a', of the (suppressed); thearbaidh. (th 
silent), gen. asp. of tearbadh, separation. Cattle travelling 
from Aboyne over Mount Keen were rested and sorted on 
Cairn Nairvie. 

Cairn o' Neil. Cairn of the hill. Cam, cairn; an, of 
the; aill, gen. of aill, hill. 

Cairn of Claise. Hill of the gorge. Cam, hill: claise, 
gen. of dais, trench-like gorge. 

Cairn of Gilderoy. Cairn supposed to commemorate 
Patrick Gilroy, who was hanged at the Market Cross of 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 73 

Edinburgh, July 30, 1636, for slaughter, theft, pillaging, 
etc. Many of his haunts were in the upper districts of West 
Aberdeenshire. Gilroy, red lad. Gille, lad; ruadh, red. 

Cairn of Gowal (for Cam na Gobhail). Hill of the prop 
of stones marking a boundary. Cam, hill; na, of the; 
gobhail, gen. of gohhal, tapering pile of stones, gable of a 
house. 

Cairn of Maule's Ha' (for Carn an Maol Choill). Cairn 
of the bare hill. Cam, cairn; an, of the; maol, bald, 
smooth; choill, gen. asp. of colli, hill. Choill had become 
hall, which had been shortened to ha'. 

Cairn of Memsie (for Carn Maim Sithe). Cairn of the 
pap-like hillock. Carn, cairn; maim, gen. of mam, pap; 
sithe, gen. of sith, hillock, heap. Sithe is pronounced she. 
The Cairn of Memsie is a great heap of stones gathered 
from the land. 

Cairn of Milduan (for Carn Meall Dubh Abhann). 
Cairn of the hill of the black water. Carn, cairn, hill ; 
meall, hill; dubh, black; abhann, gen. of abhainn, water. 

Cairn Sawvie. Hill of the fox's den. Cam, hill; 
saobhaidhe, gen. of saobhadh, den of a fox. 

Cairn Toul. Mountain with a pool on summit. Carn, 
mountain; tuill, gen. of toll, hole. Loch Uaine is near the 
top. 

Cairn Trumpet. Hill on which signals were made by a 
trumpet. Cam, hill; triombaide, gen. of triombaid, 
trumpet. 

Cairn Vaich, Cairn Vachich. Hill of the cow-byre. 
Carn, hill; bhathaich, gen. asp. of bathach, cow-house. Bh 
is equivalent to u, v, or iv. Th has become ch. 

Cairn Well. Well of the mountain. Cam, mountain. 
The Cairn Well is near the summit level of the road from 
Braemar to Blairgowrie. 

Cairn William. Hill at a turn in a range. Cam, moun- 
tain; uilinn, gen. of uileann, corner, angle, bend. 

Cairnadilly. 'Hill of the whortleberry. Carn, hill; a', 
of the; dile, whortleberry — a berry like the blaeberry but 
darker in colour. 

Cairnagour Hill. Hill of the goat. Cam, hill; na, of 
the; gobhair, gen. of gobhar. goat. 

Cairn aquheen. See Carn na Cuimhne. 

Cairnargat. Hill of silver. Carn, hill; airgid, gen. of 
airgiod, silver, wealth. Perhaps by silver mica had been 
meant, which is called sheep's silver. Some granites shine 
brilliantly in sunlight. 

Cairnballoch. Hill near a road. Cam, hill; bealaich, 
gen. of bealach. way, road. 



74 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Cairnbanno. White hill. Cam, hill; baine, white. 
White hill is a corruption of chuithail, fold. 

Cairnbathie. Hill of the cow-house. Cam, hill; 
baihaich, gen. of bathach, cow-house. The name might 
mean hill of the birches, and this meaning should be 
adopted if the hill abounds in birches. Cam, hill; beathach, 
abounding in birches. 

Cairnbeg. Little hill. Cam, hill; beag, little. 

Cairnborrow. Both parts of the name mean hill. 
Cam, hill; brnch, hill. 

Cairnbrogie. Grey cairn. Cam, cairn; brocach, grey, 
speckled. The cairn had been a memorial. On its site 
urns and gold coins were found. 

Cairnbulg. Hill of the small fold. Cam, hill; buaileag, 
dim. of buaile, fold. 

Cairncake. Hill of the burn. Cam, hill; caoich, gen. 
of caoch, burn, rivulet, howe. Caoch, burn, is not in 
Gaelic dictionaries; but its diminutive, caochan, is given. 
Caochan is a very common word in place-names in West 
Aberdeenshire. 

Cairncatto. Cairn on a main long road. Cam, cairn, 
hill; cadha, road, drove road, thoroughfare. The cairn is 
a great unshapely mound of stones, probably covering 
ancient interments. 

Cairnchina. White hill. Cam, hill; caine, gen. of 
caine, whiteness. White hill is a corruption of chuithail, 
fold. 

Cairncosh. Hill of the ravine. Cam, hill; cois (pro- 
nounced cosh), gen. of cos, ravine. 

Cairncoullie. Hill of the retired place. Cam, hill; 
cuile, gen. of cuil, nook, secluded place. 

Cairncry. Hill of the boundary. Cam, hill, cairn; 
criche, gen. of crioch, boundary. Cairncry hill is on the 
inner side of the freedom boundary of Aberdeen. 

Cairndaie. Hill of the ox. Cam, hill; daimh, gen. of 
damh, ox, stag. Plough oxen were in former times usually 
put to pasture on some place near the farm, to be at hand 
when required. 

Cairndale. Hill of the field. Cam, cairn; dail, for 
dalach, gen. of dail, riverside field. 

Cairndard (for Carn an t-Aird). Cairn of the hill. Cam, 
cairn; an t-, of the; ard, for aird, gen. of ard, height, hill. 

Cairndenity (for Carn Dam Netain). Cairn of judgment 
at a small stream. Carn, cairn; dain, gen. of dan, judg- 
ment; netain, gen. of netan, small burn. The name indi- 
cates a place where barony courts were held. 

Cairndoor Hill. Hill of the grove. Cam, hill; doire, 
gen. of doire, grove. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 75 

Cairness. Hill near a burn. Cam, hill; eas, burn. 

Cairneve. Hill of the fold. Cam, hill; chuith, gen. 
asp. of cuith, fold. Ch had been lost, and th had become 
bh, sounded v. 

Cairneylaw. Hill. Carnan, small hill; lamli, hill. An 
became ey . 

Cairnfall Wood. Wood of the hill. Cam, hill; choill, 
coill asp., hill. Ch of choill had become ph, equivalent 
to /. 

Cairnfechel. Cairn where a watch was kept. Cam, 
cairn, hill; fuicille, gen. of faicill, watch, guard. 

Cairnferg. Stormy hill. Cam, hill; feirge, gen. of 
fearg, anger, rage. 

Cairnfield. Field containing a cairn. Cam, cairn, hill. 

Cairnfold. Hill fold. Cam, hill. 

Cairnford Bridge. Hill ford bridge. Cam, hill. 

Cairngall, Cairngauld. Hill of the rock. Cam, hill; 
gall, rock, pillar. 

Catrnglass. Green hill. Cairn, hill; glas, green, grey 
green. 

Cairngorm. Blue mountain. Cairn, mountain; gorm, 
blue, green. Besides the Cairngorm on the north side of 
Glenavon there is another on the east side of Ben Macdhui, 
between the Derry and Lui burns. Great mountains are 
named by those who see them from a distance, hence the 
meaning blue must be assigned to gorm here. 

Cairnhall. Both cairn and hall mean hill. Cam, hill; 
choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. C had been lost and oi had 
been changed to a to produce an English word. 

Cairnhead. Hill of the cattle-fold. Cam, hill; chuid, 
cuid asp., cattle-fold. C had become silent and had been 
lost. 

Cairnhigh (for Cam Chuith). Hill of the cattle-fold. 
Cam, hill; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. 
[C]/i[w]/[f/i] lost the letters within brackets after being 
aspirated. 

Cairnhill. The second part is a translation of the first. 
Cam, hill. 

Cairnie. Place abounding in hills. Carnach, full of 
hills. 

Cairniehillock. Hillock. Carnan, little hill. 

Cairnlea, Cairnley. Grey hill. Cam, hill; JiatJi (tli 
silent), grey. 

Cairnleith. Grey hill. Cam, hill; Hath, grey. 

Cairnlob. Hill of the bend. Cam, hill; luib, bend. At 
Cairnlob there is a bend in a high road. 

Cairnmore. Big hill. Cam, hill; mor, big. 



76 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Cairnmurnan. Cairn in memory of a dearly beloved 
person. Cam, cairn; muimean, beloved person. 

Cairnmuir. Muir of the cairns. 

Cairnmyre. Bog on a hill. Cairn, hill; mire, bog where 
water oozes out of the ground. 

Cairnorchies. Hill of charity. Cam, hill; oircheis, 
gen. of oircheas, charity. There might have been a hospice 
for travellers on the main road crossing the hill. It was near 
the abbey of Deer. 

Cairxorrie. Cairn of the song. Cam, cairn; orain, gen. 
of oran, song, poem. Urns were found near the site of the 
cairn, and the name indicates that songs had been sung or 
poems had been recited annually at the cairn in memory 
and honour of some person. An, the dim. termination in 
Gaelic, became ie in passing into Scotch. Oran was prob- 
ably cognate with Latin oro, I pray, the primary meaning of 
which is I speak. 

Cairns. Heaps of stones. There are many springs near 
the cairns, and this is an indication that the hill had been 
good pasture ground. Probably the cairns had been made 
of stones gathered to let more grass grow. The O.S. map 
states that a fight took place there in 1411, an improbable 
statement. 

Cairnsleed. Both parts of the name mean hill. Cam, 
hill; sleibh, hill. 

Cairnstockie. Hill with a fold made by a circle of 
trunks of trees stuck into the ground. Cam, hill; stocach, 
having posts. 

Cairxtack. Hill croft. Cairn, gen. of cam, hill; tack 
(Scotch), holding, croft. Or, Hill of the house. Gran, hill; 
taigh, house. 

Cairntaw^ie. Hill of the village. Cam, hill; tamhain, 
gen. of tamhan, permanent residence, village. 

Cairnton. Hill town. Cam, hill. 

Cairntradlin, Cairntrodlie (for Cam an Treid Leithne). 
Hill of the broad drove of cattle. Cam, hill; an, of the 
(suppressed); treid, gen. of trend, drove; leithne (th silent), 
gen. of Icathan, broad. In a Gamrie name an treid has 
become andrew; and so also, perhaps, in the Fyvie name 
Andre wsford. 

Cairntulloch, Cairntough. Hill. Cam, cairn, hill; 
tulach, hill. Both parts of the name mean hill. 

Cairnwell. Hill of the town. Cam, mountain; bhaile, 
gen. asp. of baile, town. Bhaile, pronounced waile, had 
lapsed into well. 

Cairnwhelp (for Carn "a' Choilp). Hill of the heifer. 
Cam, hill; a', of the; choilp, gen. asp. of colp, heifer. 
Heifers were kept apart from other cattle. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 77 

Cairnycroch (for Cam a' Chnuic). Hill. Both parts of 
the name mean hill. Cam, hill; a', of the; chnuic, gen. asp. 
of cnoc, hill. Cnoc in some places is pronounced crochg. 

Cairnyfarrach. Cairn commemorating an act of viol- 
ence. Cam, cairn; a', of the; farraich, gen. of farrach, 
violence, pestilence. 

Cairnywhing (for Cam a' Choinne). Hill of the meet- 
ing. Gam, hill; a', of the; choinne, gen. asp. of coinne, 
meeting. 

Caisteal na Caillich. Castle of the old woman. Cais- 
teal, castle; na, of the; cailliche, gen. of cailleach, old 
woman. This is the name of a solitary high rock in Braemar 
Forest. Perhaps for Caisteal na Cailliche Oidhche, owl's 
castle. Literally — Castle of the old woman of the night. 
Oidhche, night. 

Caistealhungry (for Caisteal Fhang Airidhe). Fort at a 
fank on a shieling. Caisteal, strong place; fhang, fang asp., 
sheep-fold; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. F is silent and 
had been omitted. 

Cake, Burn of (for Allt Caoich). Bum of the howe. 
Allt, burn; caoich, gen. of caoch, howe, burn. 

Cake Well (for Tobar Caoich). Well of the howe. 
Tobar, well; caoich, gen. of caoch, howe. Well might be a 
corruption of bhaile, baile asp., town. 

Calf-fold. Fold on a farm for calves, to prevent them 

from straying and damaging growing corn. Formerly calves 

were allowed to go on cornfields till the crop began to shoot. 

Calfward. Enclosed field on a farm, to which calves 

were sent to pasture. 

Callamalish. Marsh of the cattle-fold. Calla, marsh; 
na, of the; Use, gen. of lios, cattle-fold, circle, enclosed 
place. 

Callater. Meadow land. Calla, wet meadow; tir, 
land. Callater is the name of a glen, a river, and a loch. 

Calliebrae. Hill. Coille, hill; braigh, hill. Both parts 
mean the same thing. 

Calnecreich (for Calla na Creiche). Marsh of the hill. 
Calla, marsh; na, of the; creiche, gen. of creach, hill. 

Calsay, Calsie, Casay, Causey. Road shod with stems 
of trees, stones, etc. Calceata (Latin), shod. 

Calton Hill. Hill of hazel trees. Calltuinn, gen. plural 
of calltuinn, hazel. Calton might represent coilltean, a 
variant of coillean, dim. of coille, hill. 

Calurg Wood. Wood of the hillside. Goill, wood; 
luirg, gen. of lurg, hillside. When the knowledge of Gaelic 
was declining nouns in the genitive were put in the simple 
nominative form. 

Camalynes. Crook of the level ground. Camag, crook; 



78 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

lein, gen of lean, plain. Ein had erroneously been supposed 
to be a plural termination, hence s had been added to the 
name. 

Cambus o' May (for Camas a' Mhaigh). Bend of the 
river Dee at a level haugh. Camas, bend; a', of the; 
mhaigh, gen. asp. of magh, level plain. 

Camies' Grave. Place supposed to be the grave of a 
person named Camus. 

Camiestone. Stone supposed to mark the grave of a 
person named Camus. But the stone may have been set 
up to mark a turn in a boundary line. Camadh, crook. 

Camlet. Curved side. Cam, crooked; leathad, side. 

Cammaloun. Crook of the wet place. Camadh, crook; 
fhliucliain, gen. asp. of fliuchan, wetness. Fh had been 
lost, and ch had also become silent and had been lost. 

Cammack's How (for Toll Camaig). How of the bend 
in Culsh Burn. Toll, howe ; camaig, gen. of camag, curve. 

Camock Hill. Hill with a crook in its high ridge. 
Camag, crook, bend. 

Camock Road. Boad over Camock Hill. 

Camore. Great road. This is the name of a ridge on 
the north of Strathdon, which had formerly been crossed by 
a hill road from Blairnamarrow to Loinherry. Cath, road; 
mor, big. See Ca. 

Camp Hill, Camphill. Hill supposed to have been the 
site of a camp. The supposed camp had been a fold. 

Camp Howe. The supposed camp was a cattle-fold. 

Campla Hill (for Camp Law Hill). Lamh, hill. The 
supposed camp was an ancient cattle-fold. 

Campfield (for Cam Choill). Crooked hill. Cam, 
crooked; choill, coill asp., hill. Ch had become /, equivalent 
to ph. 

Cample. Crooked turn. Cam, crooked; pill, to turn. 

Candacraig, Candycraig. Head of the craig. Ceann, 
head; a , of the; craige, gen. of creag, rock, craig, hill. 

Candle Hill, Candlehillock. Candle (for Ceann Dail). 
Head of the field. Ceann, head; dail, field. 

Candle Stone. Stone at the head of a field. Candle 
(for Ceann Dail). Ceann, head; dail, field. 

Candleland. (perhaps for Ceann Dail Lamhan). Hill at 
the head of a field. Ceann, head; dail, for dalach, gen. of 
dail, field, meadow; lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. 

Candy (for Ceann Dubh). Black head. Ceann, head, 
knoll; dubh, black. 

Candyglirach (for Ceann a' Chleirich). Head of the 
clergyman. Ceann, head; a', of the; cldeirich, gen. asp. of 
cleireach, clergyman. D is a euphonic insertion. 

Cannachars (for Airidh Cannaich). Shieling of the bog 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. "9 

■myrtle. AiridJi, shieling; cannaich, gen. of cannach, bog 
myrtle. Final s represents the sound of dh in airidh. 

Cannie Burn, Canny Burn. Burn near which bog 
myrtle grows. Cannach, sweet willow (Myrica gale). 

Cannies Well. Well at the head of a hill. Ceann, 
head. Ann had been made ie as a dim. termination and s 
as a plural termination, though it is neither the one nor 
the other. 

Cannon Braes (for Ceann an Bhraighe). Head of the 
hill. Ceann, head; an, of the; braighe, for braghad, gen. 
.asp. of braigh, hill. 

Cannonhills (for Ceann an Choill). Head of the hill. 
Ceann, head; an, of the; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Canny Sweet Pots. Pools at the head of the place. 
Ceann, head, end; an, of the; suidhe, settlement, place; 
pots (Scotch), pools. An had been regarded as the dim. 
termination of ceann, and had been translated into y. 
Suidhe becomes in names suie, side, sweet, and siveetie. 
The settlement was at the Cowhillock, a name which means 
cattle-fold, where there had been houses for the men and 
women in charge of cows. 

Can up (perhaps for Cnap). Hillock. 

Caochan. Small rapid stream, dim. of caoch, burn. It 
is apparently supposed to mean a stream partially hidden by 
vegetation, or which runs underground for a short distance 
in a gravelly place. Hence, in turning it into English it is 
made Blind burn; but this arises from confusing caoch, 
burn, with caoch, blind. 

Caochan a' Bhutha. Burn of the bothy. Probably a 
house in which whisky was made is indicated. Caochan, 
burn; a , of the; bhutha, gen. asp. of buth, cot, temporary 
house. 

Caochan Aighean. Burn of the heifers. Caochan, 
streamlet; aighean, gen. plural of agh, fawn, heifer. 

Caochan an Tc Duibhe. Devil's burn. Caochan, burn; 
an, of the; 'ic, for mhic, gen. asp. of mac, son; duibhe, 
blackness, devil. 

Caochan an t-Sluichd Mhoir. Small burn from the 
great slug. Caochan, streamlet; an t-, of the; sluichd, gen. 
of slochd, gap, gorge, slug; mhoir, gen. of mor, big. 

Caochan Bheithe. Streamlet of the birch-tree. 

Caochan, streamlet; bheithe, gen. asp. of beith, birch-tree. 

Caochan Cam. Crooked burn. Caochan, burn; cam, 
crooked. 

Caochan Claise. Burn of the hollow. Caochan, burn- 
claise, gen. of clais, trench 

Caochan Crom. Crooked burn. Caochan, small stream; 
■crom, crooked. 



80 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Caochan Dearg. Red little stream. Caochan, stream- 
let; dearg, red with iron oxide. 

Caochan Deochry. Burn of the black corry. Caochan, 
burn; dubh, black; choire, coire asp., corry. 

Caochan Dubh Beag, Caochan Dubh Mor. Little and 
Big black burn. Caochan, burn; dubh, black; beag, little; 
mor, big. 

Caochan Luachair. Burn of rushes. Caochan, burn ; 
luachair, gen. of luachar, rush, bulrush. 

Caochan Meanna Ghobhair. Stream frequented by kids 
of the goat. Caochan, streamlet; meannach, abounding in 
kids; ghobhair, gen. asp. of gobhar, goat. 

Caochan na Cothaiche. Frothy burn. Caochan, burn ; 
na, of the; cothaiclie, for cothanaiche, froth. 

Caochan na Cuairte. Burn of the circle. Caochan, 
burn; na, of the; cuairte, gen. of cuairt, circle. The upper 
part of the burn forms a semicircle. 

Caochan nan Laoigh. Burn of the calves. Caochan, 
burn ; nan, of the ; laoigh, gen. plural of Jaogh, calf. 

Caochan Odhar. Dun streamlet. Caochan, burn; 
odhar, dun, yellow. In some instances odhar, yellow, seems 
to refer to the vegetation on the sides of the burn, such as 
Sphagnum moss. 

Caochan Raineach Beag, Caochan Baineach Mor. 
Little ferny burn, and Big ferny burn. Caochan, burn; 
raineach, ferny; beag, little; mor, big. 

Caochan Seileach. Stream bordered by willows. Cao- 
chan, streamlet; seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

Caochan Tarsuinn. Cross burn. Caochan, burn; tar- 
suinn, cross. 

Caochanan Bana. White little burn. Caochanan, dim. 
of caochan, burn; baine, white, clear. 

Caochanan Buadha. Bed streamlets. Caochanan,. 
dim. of caochan, streamlet; ruadha, plural of ruadh, red. 

Caoohandye Hill. Hill at the black burn. Caochan, 
burn; dubh, black. 

Capel Pass. Horse track over the Grampians from Glen- 
muick to Clova. Capull, horse. 

Capelstones. Stones like horses. Capidl, horse. There 
are more stones than one, and one is regarded as like a 
lying horse. 

Caperneuk. Nook where a turner of caps and wooden 
bowls lived. Capper, turner of caps. Caps were made of 
alder and birch, and till the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury they were in general use for holding food and drink. 

Capul Ford. Horse ford. Capull, horse; in dictionaries 
said to mean mare. 

Carden. Seat of judgment. Cathair (th silent), seat,. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 81 

place; dain, gen. of dan, judgment. The name indicates a 
place where barony courts were held. 

Carden Well, Carden's Well. Well at a place where a 
barony court was held. Cathair, seat of a court; dain, gen. 
of dan, judgment. S had been added to Carden because it 
was supposed to be in the possessive. 

Garden's Knowe, Cardensbrae, Cardenstone, Carding 
Hill. Places where barony courts were held. Cathair (th 
silent), seat, place; dain, gen. of dan, judgment. 

Cardlunchart Hill. Hill of the circular enclosure. 
Cathair (th silent), seat, fort; luncart, stone circle, cattle- 
fold. D is a needless insertion. 

Cardno. Seat of judgment. Cathair, seat; dain, gen. of 
dan, judgment. Ai and n had been transposed, and ai had 
then become o. 

Cardrum. Curve of a hill ridge. Car, twist, bend; 
droma, gen. of druim, ridge, hill. 

Carewe Hill. Curving hill slope. Car, bend; ruigh, 
slope of a hill. 

Cargeddie. Rock of danger. Carr, rock; gaidh, gen. of 
gadJi (Irish), danger. 

Carl Well. Wizard's well. Carl (Scotch), wizard. 

Carlin Craig, Carlin's Craig, Carlin Den, Carlin Hill, 
Carlin Pot. In these names carZm means witch. 

Carlogie. Enclosure in a little hollow. Cathair, circle 
for defence or penning cattle; lagain, gen. of lagan, little 
howe. 

Carn a' Bhacain. Hill of the little peat-moss. Cam, 
hill; a' , of the; bhacain, gen. asp. of bacan, little peat-moss. 

Carn a' Bhealaidh. Mountain with a road over it. 
Cam, mountain; a', of the; bhealaich, gen. asp. of bealach, 
pass. Bhealaidh is the gen. of bealaidh, broom, which does 
not grow on high hills. 

Carn a' Choire Bhoidheach. Mountain of the beautiful 
corry. Cam, mountain; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of 
voire, corry ; bhoidhich, gen. of boidheach, pretty. 

Carn a' Gheoidh. Mountain of the goose. Cam, moun- 
tain ; a', of the; gheoidh, gen. asp. of geadh, goose. Prob- 
ably geese had bred on this hill at a remote time. 

Carn a' Mhaim. Mountain of the breast. Carn, moun- 
tain; a', of the; mhaim, gen. asp. of mam, breast, large 
round hill. Mam is cognate with the Latin word mamma, 
the breast of a woman. 

Carn Allt an Aitinn. Mountain of the juniper burn. 
Carn, mountain; allt, burn; an, of the; aitinn, gen. of 
aitionn, juniper. 

Carn Allt na Beinne. Hill of the mountain burn. 

F 



82 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Cam, hill; allt, burn; na, of the; beinne, gen. of beinn, 
mountain. 

Carn an Daimh. Mountain of the stag. Cam, moun- 
tain; an, of the; daimh, gen. of damh, stag. 

Carn an Fhidhleir. Mountain of the fiddler. Cam, 
mountain ; an, of the; fhidhleir, gen. asp. of fidhlear, fiddler. 
Fh and dh are silent, and the remnant Heir has some re- 
semblance to the other name of the hill — Carn Ealar. This 
name is a modern invention. 

Carn an Fhir Bhogha. The archer's cairn. Cam, 
cairn; an, of the; fhir, gen. asp. of fear, man; bhoga, gen. 
asp. of bogha, bow. 

Carn an Tc Duibhe. Mountain of the devil. Cam, 
mountain; an, of the; 'ic, for mhic, gen. asp. of mac, son; 
duibhe, blackness. 

Carn an Leth-allt. Mountain of the burnside. Cam, 
mountain; an, of the; leith-uillt, gen. of leth-uillt, burnside. 

Carn an t-Sagairt Beag, Carn an t-Sagairt Mor. 
Little hill of the priest and Big hill of the priest. Cam, hill ; 
an t-, of the; sagairt, gen. of sagart, priest; beag, little; 
mor, big. 

Carn an Tuirc. Hill of the boar. Cam, hill; an, of the; 
tuirc, gen. of tore, boar. Formerly live stock were sent to 
the hills in summer to be away from growing crops, and 
when it was time to bring them home in autumn straying 
animals had to be left behind. 

Carn Aosda. Hill of the inn. Cam, hill; osde, gen. of 
osda, inn. There had once been an inn or hospice on the 
road in the Clunie valley. 

Carn Bad a' Ghuail. Hill with a bushy place on the 
shoulder. Cam, mountain; bad, bush; a', of the; ghuailne, 
gen. asp. of gualan, shoulder. Ghuail, on the O.S. map, is 
the gen. asp. of guail, coals. 

Carn Beag. Little mountain. Cam, mountain : beag, 
little. 

Carn Bhac (for Carn a' Bhac). Mountain of the peat- 
moss. Cam, mountain; a', of the ; bhac, gen. asp. of bac, 
peat-moss. 

Carn Bhither (for Carn a' Bhither). Mountain of the 
wild beast. Carn, mountain; a', of the; bhithir, gen. asp. of 
beithir, bear, serpent, any wild beast. 

Carn Chrionaidh (for Carn Crionaiche). Mountain 
growing brushwood. Cam, mountain; crionaiche, gen. of 
crionach, brushwood. 

Carn Cloich-mhuilinn. Millstone hill. Carn, hill, 
mountain; cloich-mhuilinn, gen. of clach-mhuilinn, mill- 
stone. Hand mills were usually made of granite or of 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 83 

knotted schist; but large millstones are commonly made of 
sandstone. 

Carn Creagach. Mountain with steep rocks. Cam, 
mountain; creagach, abounding in steep rocks. 

Carn Crom. Crooked mountain. Carn, mountain; crom, 
crooked. 

Carn Cruinn. Round mountain. Carn, mountain; 
cruinn, round- 

Carn Daimh. Hill of oxen. Cam, hill; daimh, gen. of 
damh , ox. 

Carn Damhaireach (perhaps for Carn Damhaire). 
Mountain of rutting of deer. Cam, mountain; damhaire, 
gen. of damhair, rutting of deer. Damhaireach means keen. 

Carn Dearg. Red mountain. Carn, mountain; dearg, 
red. 

Carn Deuchrie. Hill of the black corry. Cam, hill ; 
dubh, black; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry. 

Carn Drochaid. Mountain of the bridge. Cam, moun- 
tain; drochaide, gen. of drochaid, bridge. 

Carn Dubh, Carndubh. Black mountain. Carn, moun- 
tain; dubh, black. 

Carn Dubh Clach Choutsaich. Black hill of Clach 
Choutsaich. Cam, hill; dubh, black. See Clach Chout- 
saich. 

Carn Eag Dhubh. Hill of the black nick. Cam, hill; 
eag, nick; dhubh, fern, of dubh, black. Eag Dhubh should 
have been Eige Duibhe in the gen. 

Carn Ealar. Mountain of the cul de sac for catching 
deer. Cam, mountain; eilear, place for catching deer. See 
Carn an Fhtdhleir. 

Carn Eat.asaid. Mount Elizabeth. The local pronuncia- 
tion of the name suggests that it should be Carn Aillsichte, 
exaggerated mountain, meaning that it is very great. It is 
2600 feet high and the biggest mountain on the north side 
of Strathdon. 

Carn Eas. Mountain beside a burn. Cam, mountain; 
eas, burn, waterfall. 

Carn Elrig Beag, Carn Elrig Mor, (for Carn Aill- 
Ruigh Beag and Carn Aill-Ruigh Mor). Little hill with a 
rocky slope, and Big hill with a rocky slope. Cam, hill; aill, 
gen. of aill, rock; ruigh, slope at the base of a hill; beag, 
little; mor, big. Originally Aill-Ruigh had been Ruigh-Aill. 
See Carnrickle. 

Carn Fiaclach, Carn Fiaclach Beag. Mountain with a 
jagged summit, and Little mountain with a jagged summit. 
Cam, mountain; fiaclach, toothed, jagged; beag, little. 

Carn Ghriogair. Gregor's cairn. Carn, cairn; Ghrio- 
gair, gen. asp. of Griogair, Gregor. 



84 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Carn Greannach. Rough mountain. Cam, mountain;. 
greannach, rough, shaggy. 

Carn Iain. John's hill. Cam, hill; Iain, John. 

Carn Leac Saighdeir. Hill of the stone of the soldier. 
Cam, hill; leac, monumental stone; saighdeir, gen. of saigh- 
dear, arrower, soldier. 

Carn Leitir na Cloiche. Hill of the slope where there 
was a stone. Carn, hill; leitir, slope, hillside; na, of the; 
cloiche, gen. of clach, stone. 

Carn Liath. Grey mountain. Cam, mountain, cairn; 
Hath, grey. 

Carn Luachair. Hill of rushes. Carn, hill; luachair, 
rushes. 

Carn Meadhonach. Middle mountain — between two 
burns. Carn, mountain; meadhonach, middle. 

Carn Mhic an Toisich. Cairn Macintosh. Cam, hill, 
cairn; mhic, gen. asp. of mac, son; toisiche, gen. of toiseach, 
leader. 

Carn Moine an Tighearn. Mountain of the moss of the 
laird. Carn, mountain; moine, moss; an, of the; tighearn, 
laird, landlord. 

Carn Mor. Big mountain. Cam, mountain; mor, big. 

Carn na Craoibhe Seileich. Mountain of the willow 
tree. Cam, mountain; na, of the; craoibhe, gen. of craobh, 
tree; seileich. gen. of seileach,, willow. 

Carn na Criche. Mountain of the boundary. Cam, 
mountain; na, of the; criche, gen. of crioch, boundary, 
division. At the north-east side there is a watershed 
between two burns. 

Carn na Cuimhne. Cairn of remembrance. Carn, cairn; 
na, of the; cuimhne, remembrance, memory. 

Carn na Drochaide. Mountain of the bridge. Cam, 
mountain; na, of the; drochaide, gen. of drochaid, bridge. 

Carn na Gobhair. Hill of the goat. Carn, hill; na, of 
the; gobhair, gen. of gobhar, goat. 

Carn na Greine. Sunny mountain. Cam, mountain; 
na, of the; greine, gen. of grian, sun. 

Carn na Moine. Mountain of the moss. Cam, moun- 
tain; na, of the; moine, moss, moor. 

Carn nan Sac. Hill of willows. Cam, hill; nan, of 
the; sac, sauchs (Scotch), translation of seileach, gen. 
plural of seileach, willow. 

Carn nan Seileach. Mountain of the willows. Cam, 
mountain; nan, of the; seileach, gen. plural of seileach, 
willow. 

Carn nan Sgliat. Hill of the slates. Carn, hill; nan, 
of the; sgliat, gen. plural of sgliat, slate. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 85 

Carn Oighreig. Mountain of the cloudberry. Cam, 
mountain; oiglireig, gen. of oiglireag, mountain strawberry. 

Carn Tiekeiver. Mountain of the house for goats. Cam, 
mountain; taigh, house; eibhre, castrated goat. 

Carn Ulie. Mountain at a turn in a long range. Carn, 
mountain; uille, gen. of uileann, elbow, angle. Willings in 
New Byth, Woolman Hill in Aberdeen, and Cairnwilliam in 
Monymusk come from uileann, angle. 

Carnagour. Hill of the goat. Cam, hill; a', of the; 
ghobhair, gen. asp. of gobhar, goat. Bh is equivalent to u. 

Carnaquheen. Same as Carn na Cuimhne. 

Carnaveron. Hill of the weeping. Cam, hill ; a', of the; 
bhronn, gen. asp. of bronn, lamenation. The hill had been 
a place of interment. 

Carndubh. Black hill. Cam, hill; dubh, black. 

Carnfearg. Hill of storms. Cam, hill; fearg, gen. 
plural of fearg, storm. 

Carnichal (for Carn a' Choill). Hill of the hill. Both 
parts mean hill. Carn, hill; a', of the; choill, gen. asp. of 
coill, hill. The latter part had been added to explain the 
first. 

Carnieston. Town of the little hill. Carnan, little hill. 

Carnoch Burn. Stony burn. Carnach, stony. 

Carnstockie. Hill of a place surrounded with trunks of 
trees to form a cattle-fold. Carn, hill; stocach, having posts. 
A place of this sort near Aberdeen was called The Stocket 
Head. 

Carntawie. Hill of the small dwelling-place. Cam, 
hill ; tamliain, gen. of tamhan, dim. of tamli, habitation, 
hamlet. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or iv ; and an is equivalent 
to ie in Scotch. 

Carr Cottage. Cottage at a projecting part of a hill. 
Carr, projecting part. 

Carrue. Curve in the slope of a hill. Car, turn; ruigh, 
lower slope of a hill. 

Carsluiche. Fen of the pool. Car, mossy plain, fen; 
sluichd, gen. of slochd, pool. 

Cartars (for Carr Tarsuinn). Lateral projection from a 
hill. Carr, projection from a hill; tarsuinn, lateral, oblique, 
cross. Uinn of Tarsuinn had been regarded as a plural ter- 
mination equivalent to s, which had been conjoined with 
the preceding s. 

Cartle, Drum of (for Druim Carr Tulaich). Bidge of a 
projecting hill. Druim, ridge; carr, projecting hill; tulaich, 
gen. of tulach, hill. 

Cartlehaugh. Haugh beside a hill on which there was a 
monumental stone. Carr, sepulchral stone; tulaich, gen. of 



86 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

tulach, knoll. Anciently there was a stone circle near 
Cartlehaugh. 

Carvichen. Eock of fire. Carr, rock; bheochain, gen. 
asp. of beochan, small fire. Probably a fire had anciently 
been made on this rock on certain occasions. 

Carvie Water. Burn of Glen Carvie — the rough glen. 
See Glen Carvie. 

Casaiche Burn. Burn of the brae. Casaich, gen. of 
casach, ascent. 

Caskie Ben, Caskieben. Wooded hill. Gasach, bushy; 
beinn, hill. 

Cassiegills (for Casach Chuitan). Brae of the little 
fold. Casach, brae; chuitan, little fold. Chuitan had been 
corrupted into whitean and this had been turned into gealan, 
little white place. An had been changed into s, and gealan 
had become gills. 

Cassielands. Pieces of arable land on a brae. Casach, 
brae, steep place. 

Castle Dale. Waterside field at Fyvie Castle. Bail, 
field near a river. 

Castle Forbes. Castle Forbes was formerly at Drum- 
minor in Kearn. The new castle in Keig was at first called 
Putachy. 

Castle Maud. Small castle where barony courts were 
held. Mod, court of justice. 

Castle Wilson. A precipitous rock with a cave in it, on 
the east side of the Slacks of Glen Carvie. It was the haunt 
of a freebooter named Wilson. 

Cat Cairn, Cat's Cairn. Cairn beside a hill road. Cath, 
drove road, hill road; earn, pile of stones, mountain. 

Cat Craig, Catcraig, Cat Craigs, Cat's Craig, Catto 
Hill. Most of these names are supposed to mean rocks 
haunted by wild cats. Probably the order of the parts of 
the names has been changed and all of them refer to roads 
crossing hills or passing alongside them. Cath, catlia, road, 
drove road, thoroughfare; creag, rock, hill; creagan, rocks, 
hills. 

Cat, Hill of. Hill of the road between Glentanner and 
Glentarf. Cat same as cath. See Ca. 

Cat Loup. Bend of the road. Cath, drove road; luib, 
bend. 

Cat's Slack. Gorge through which a road passes. Or, 
perhaps, gorge frequented by wild cats. Cath, road; cat, 
wild cat; slochd, gorge. 

Catden. Den near a road. Cath, road. Or, Den fre- 
quented by wild cats. 

Caterans' Howe. Hollow in which Highland cattle 
thieves lurked. Ceatharn, fighting band of thieves. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 87 

Catherine's Dub, St. Pool in which the St Catherine, 
a ship of the Spanish Armada, sank. Dub, pool. 

Cattens. Foot track. Cathan, dim. of cath, road. An 
had been regarded as the plural termination and had been 
changed into s. 

Catterloch. Loch at which there is boggy ground. 
Cathar, mossy, boggy ground. 

Cattie. Eoad. CatJia, thoroughfare, drove road over 
hills. 

Cattie Burn. Burn of the drove road. Catha, gen. of 
cath, hill road. It goes along the side of the Cattie burn, 
and crosses Hill of Cat. See Ca. 

Cattie Knowes. Knolls at a roadside. 
Catties Haugh. Boadside haugh. 

Caudron Howe. Caudron is a translation of the Gaelic 
word coire, corry, which is an appropriate description of the 
place. 

Caudyknowes (for Cnapan Cuidh). Knoll at a cattle- 
fold. Cnapan, dim. of cnap, knoll, knowe ; cuidh, gen. of 
cuidh, cattle-fold. An had been regarded as a plural ter- 
mination and had been changed to s, which had been added 
to knowe. 

Cauldhame (for Cul a' Thuim). Back of the hill. Cul, 
back; a', of the (suppressed); thuim, gen. asp. of torn, hill. 
The article a' was necessary to aspirate t of tuim. 

Cauldsowens. Cold and Cauld, in names of places in 
Aberdeenshire usually represent cul, the back or north side 
of a hill, and sowans is a corruption of the Gaelic word 
sughan, moisture, drainings. Gh is silent, and an being 
erroneously regarded as a plural termination s had been 
added. The name might mean wet place on the north side 
of a hill. 

Causeway, Causey. See Calsay. 

Causewayend, Causeyend. Place where a made road 
ended. 

Causewayfold. Fold with a hard road leading to it. 
Causeyhill. Hill crossed by a made road. 
Causeyton. Town on a made road. 

Cave Arthur. Cave of the high land. Ard-thir, high 
land. 

Cave o' Meackie. Cave of plants. Meacan, gen. plural 
of meacan, root, plant with a fleshy root. Asplenium 
marinum grows in the roof of sea-caves. 

Cave of Coffin. Cave of the hollow. Cobhain, gen. of 
cobhan, hollow. 

Cavil, Mill of. Mill at a place where salmon were 
caught in a stationary net or fish basket. Cabhuil, creel for 
catching fish, hose net. 



88 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ceann" a' Chuirn. Head of the hill. Ceann, head; a', 
of the chuirn, gen. asp. of earn, hill. 

Ceann Crion Carn a' Mhaim. The small head of Cam 
a' Mhaim. Ceann, head; crion, diminutive; Carn a' Mhaim, 
hill name; which see. 

Ceard's Cove. Tinker's shelter. Cove, sheltered bay 
or opening among rocks. 

Cemetery. Burying-ground. Koimeterion (Greek), 
sleeping-place, cemetery. 

Cessnie Burn. Burn of the pleasant little place. 
Seisean, dim. from seis, pleasant, delightful. Ea and n had 
been transposed. 

Chalybeate Spring. Spring discharging water impreg- 
nated with iron. Chalybs (Latin), steel. 

Chance Inn. Inn with a fold for cattle or sheep on a 
journey. Fang, fank, fold. F is equivalent to ph, and it had 
been changed into eh. 

Changehill. Fank hill. Fang, fank. F, being an 
aspirated letter, had been changed into ch, hard at first but 
now soft. 

Channeller. Bellowing ground. Place frequented by 
deer at rutting time. Sianail (pronounced shanail), bellow- 
ing; lar, ground. 

Chanonry Knap (for Cnap Sean Bath). Knoll of the old 
stone circle. Cnap, knoll; sean, old; ratli (th silent), stone 
circle round a grave. There is no trace of the circle now. 

Chanryhill (for Sean Bath Hill). Hill of the old stone 
circle. Sean, old; rath, stone circle. 

Chapel. Small place of worship. Capella (Latin), 
chapel, shrine for relics. 

Chapel Belts. Strips of wood near the old church of 
Newhills, which was at first a chapel or subsidiary place of 
worship in Old Machar parish. Capella (Latin), shrine, place 
of worship. 

Chapel Hill. Hill to which horses were sent to feed in 
summer. Capull, gen. plural of captdl, horse, mare. 

Chapel o' Sink (for Caibeal a' Sithein). Chapel on the 
hill. Caibeal, chapel; a , of the; sithein, gen. of sithean, 
hill, with k added for euphony. Th is silent. The chapel is 
a ring of stones round a grave. 

Chapel of Garioch. This was originally the name of a 
chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. It afterwards became 
the site of the church of the parish of Logie-Durno, and 
subsequently the parish came to be called Chapel of Garioch. 

Chapel of Seggat. Chapel dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary. It continued to be visited for religious worship after 
15G0, and sick and infirm persons visited the chapel well 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 89 

on the first Sunday of May. They drank of the well and 
dropped coins into it. See Seggat. 

Chapel Ronald. Chapel dedicated to St Ronald. 
Capella, chapel, shrine; Raonvll, Ronald, Ranald. 

Chapel Stripe. Streamlet of the horses. Capull, gen. 
plural of capull, a horse, mare. 

Chapelton. Town at the site of a chapel. Capella 
(Latin), shrine; ton (English), town. In Gaelic, Ionad 
Naomh. Holy place. Ionad, place; naomh, holy. In one 
case Ionad has become Ennets and naomh has been dropped. 

Charlie's Howff. An underground chamber on an 
ancient shieling, which afterwards became the hiding-place 
of a robber called Charlie. 

Charsk Hill. Hill of the crossing. Chraisg, gen. asp. 
of crasg, crossing. 

Chest Craigs. Steep rocks near the Ythan at place in 
the river like a chest. 

Chest Fauld. Small enclosed field in which a stone 
coffin had been found. Ciste, kist, stone coffin. 

Chest of Dee. Place where the channel of the Dee is 
like the lock of a canal. 

Choral Howe (for Toll Coireill). Howe of the quarry. 
Toll, howe (translated); choireill, gen. asp. of coireall, quarry. 
The upper part of the walls of the old church of Turriff had 
been built long after the building of the church itself, out of 
a quarry made in a hollow near it. 

Christianhall. Farm name. 

Christ's Kirk. Church of Rathmuriel, dedicated to 
Christ. It was annexed to Kennethmont, probably after 
1560. 

Churter's Chest. This name is said to have been given 
to a place in which charters were hidden in a time of danger. 
A better form of the name would be Charters Chest. 

Ciach Lodge (for Crioch Lodge). Residence for sports- 
men on the watershed between the heads of two burns. 
Crioch, boundary, division. 

Cist, Chest. Stone chamber for the body or calcined 
bones of a dead person. Cistc, chest, kist, coffin. 

Cistern. Reservoir for water. Gista and cisterna 
(Latin), chest, reservoir. 

City Hillock (for Sithe Hillock). Fairy hillock. Sithc, 
gen. of stilt, fairy. 

Cividly. Grassy place. Suidhe, place, seat; ley, grass 
land. U, v, and w were interchangeable about the year 1700. 

Clach a' Chleirich. Stone of the bellman. Clacli. 
stone; a', of the: chleirich, gen. asp. of cleircach, bellman, 
clerk. 

Clach Choutsaich, Clachchoutsaich. Stone at an old 



90 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

fold. Clach, stone; chuit, cuit asp., fold; seic, gen. of seac, 
decayed, deserted. 

Clach Mheann. Stone of the kids. Clach, stone; 
mlieann, gen. plural asp. of meann, kid. 

Clach Mhor Bad a' Chabair. Big stone of Bad a' 

Chabair. Clach, stone; mhor, fem. of mor, big; bad, clump 

of trees ; a' , of the ; chabair, gen. asp. of cabar, fork of a burn. 

Clach nan Taillear. Stone of the tailors. Clach, stone ; 

nan, of the; taillear, gen. plural of taillear, tailor. 

Clachan Burn. Village burn, or Stepping-stones burn. 
Clachan, village, stepping-stones. 

Clachan Lochan. Stones beside a small loch. Clachan, 
stones; lo chain, gen. of lochan, small loch. 

Clachan Yell. White stones. Clachan, plural of clach, 
stone; geala, white. There are many loose stones on the 
hilltop. The name might be a late translation into Gaelic of 
Whitestones, in which white is a corruption of cuit, cattle- 
fold. See Cuit. 

Clachanturn (for Clach an Chuirn). Stone of the hill. 
Clach, stone; an, of the; chuirn, gen. asp. of cam, hill. Ch 
had become th because both have only the sound of h. 
Clachbeg. Little stone. Clach, stone; beag, little. 
Clachcurr (for Clach Carr). Monolith, monumental' 
stone. Clach, stone; carr, monumental pillar. Clachcurr 
would mean stone at a pool or fountain. 

Clachdu, Clachdubh. Black stone. Clach, stone; dubh, 
black. 

Clachie Burn. Stony burn. Clachach, stony, pebbly. 
Clachmaddy Hill. Wolfstone hill. Clach, stone; 
madaidh, gen. of madadh, wolf, dog. 

Clackriach. Grey stone. Clach, stone; riabhach, grey. 
Clagganghoul. Bell of the post. Clag, bell; an, of the; 
gobhail, gen. of gobhal, post, pillar, fort. 

Clais (pronounced clash). Hollow like a trench. 
Clais Choal. Gorge of the meeting-place. Clais, gorge; 
choailc, gen. asp. of coail, meeting. 

Clais Fhearnaig. Alder hollow. Clais, trench-like 
hollow; fheamach, fearnach asp., abounding in alders. 

Clais Garbh. Kough trench-like hollow. Clais, trench;. 
garbh, rough. 

Clais Liath. Grey gorge. Clais, trench-like hollow; 
Hath, grey. 

Clais Meirleach. Thieves' hole, drowning-place for 
thieves. Clais, trench, hole, howe; meirleach, gen. plural of 
meirleach, thief. See Meikle Knowe. 

Clais Mhadaidh. Gorge of the wolf. Clais, gorge; 
mhadaidh, gen. asp. of madadh, wolf. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 91 

Clais Mhor. Big trench-like gorge. Clais, trench, 
gorge; mhor, fern, of mor, great. 

Clais nam Balgair. Gorge of the foxes. Clais, gorge; 
nam, of the; balgair, gen. plural of balgair, fox. 

Clais nam Bo. Gorge of the cows. Clais, trench-like 
hollow; nam, of the; bo, gen. plural of bo, cow. This had 
been a place where cows at hill pasture were folded at night. 

Clais nan Cat. Hollow of wild cats. Clais, trench-like 
hollow; nan, of the; cat, gen. plural of cat, cat, wild cat. 

Clais nan Gad. Gorge of the twists. Clais, trench; 
nan, of the; gad, gen. plural of gad, curve, twist. The name 
implies that the gorge is crooked. 

Clais Bathadan. Ditch of the little road. Clais, ditch; 
rathadain, gen. of rathadan, little road. 

Clais Toul (for Clais Tuill). Gorge of the howe. Clais, 
trench; tuill, gen. of toll, hollow, howe. 

Claisansgannaig, Burn of. Burn of the gorge of the 
little drove. This is a small gorge like a trench, where a 
small drove of cattle crossing the Ca Dubh Hill could be 
penned at night. Clais, trench; an, of the; sgannaige, gen. 
of sgannag, little drove. 

Claisdhu Hill. Hill of the black trench-like hollow. 
Clais, trench; dhubh, fern, of dubh, black. 

Claise an Toul (for Clais an Tuill). Gorge of the hollow. 
Clais, trench-like hollow; an, of the; tuill, gen. of toll, 
hollow. 

Claisnean. Hollow of the girls. Clais, trench-like 
hollow; nan, of the; nigheaji, gen. plural of nighean, girl, 
young woman. Young women were employed in milking 
cows on hill pasture in summer. Nean might represent 
nigheachan, washing. 

Claivers Howe. Howe named in honour of James 
Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, who passed 
through Aberdeenshire in 1689. 

Clamandswells (perhaps for Tobar Clamhain). Well 
of the kite. Tobar, well; clamhain, gen. of clamhan, kite. 

Clarack. Bare place. Clarach, bare. 

Clasachdhu. Black little howe. Claiseag, little howe; 
dhubh, fem. of dubh, black. 

Clash Wood. Wood in a hollow. Clais, trench-like 
hollow. 

Clashancape. Trench-like hollow on the top of a hill. 
Clais, trench; an, of the; cip, gen. of ceap, plot of cultivated 
ground, hilltop. 

Clashandail. Trench of the level place. Clais, trench- 
like hollow; an, of the; dail, for dalach, gen. of dail, field, 
meadow, level ground. 



92 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Clashbog Well. Well at a stripe running from a bog. 
Clais, stripe, gutter, ditch; bog, marsh, wet grassy place. 

Clashburn. Burn of the gorge. Clais, trench-like gorge. 
The Clash burn becomes the Strathie burn. 

Clashenloan. Trench-like hollow in a grassy place. 
Clais, long hollow; an, of the; loin, gen. of Ion, moss, 
meadow, lawn. 

Clashenteple Hill (for Clais an t-Seipel Hill). Hill of 
the chapel howe. Clais, hollow; an t-, of the; seipel, gen. 
of seipeal, chapel. After t the s of seipel becomes silent 
and is lost, and t takes its place, making it teipeil. The 
howe extends from Invernettie to Glenbucket, and the 
chapel is now a church. 

Clashholm. Trench-like hollow on a hillside. Clais, 
trench; holm, for thuim (t silent), gen. asp. of torn, hill. 

Clashie Well (for Tobar na Claise). Well in a trench- 
like hollow. Tobar, well (translated); na, of the; claise, gen. 
of clais, trench, long narrow howe. 

Clashindarroch. Hollow of the oak. Clais, trench, 
gorge; an, of the; daraich, gen. of darach, oak-tree. 

Clashinruich. Hollow at the foot of a hill slope. Clais, 
trench-like hollow; an, of the; ruigh, slope at the foot of a 
hill. 

Clashmach Hill. Hill at level plain with a trench-like 
hollow. Clais, trench; maigh, gen. of magh, plain. 

Clashmarket (for Clais Mor Chuit). Hollow of the big 
fold. Clais, trench-like hollow; mor, big; chuit, gen. asp. of 
cuit, fold. 

Clashmore. Big gorge. Clais, trench; mor, big. 

Clashnachree. Hollow of the boundary. Clais, trench- 
like hollow; na, of the; criche, gen. of crioch, boundary. 

Clashnarae Hill. Hill of the trench-like hollow of the 
plain. Clais, long, narrow hollow; an, of the; reidhe, gen. 
of reidh, plain. Rae may represent ratli, stone circle, fold. 

Clashnearby. Hollow of the division. Clash, trench- 
like hollow ; an, of the; thearbaidh, gen. asp. of tearbadh, 
separation. Th in thearbaidh, is silent. The hollow is near 
the boundary between Towie and Kildrummy. 

Clashneen. Hollow of the young women. Clais, gorge, 
deep hollow; nighean, gen. plural of nighean, damsel. The 
young women had been employed as dairymaids on a shieling. 

Clashnettie. Gorge of the little burn. Clais, gorge; 
netain, gen. of netan, little burn. 

Clashwalloch Burn. Burn in deep trench-like gorge. 
Clais, trench; bhealaich, gen. asp. of bealach, gorge, pass, 
way. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Clashwell. Spring in a deep hollow. Clais, trench-like 
hollow ; well, spring. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 93 

Clatt. Rocky height. Chit, rocky hill. The local pro- 
nunciation of Clatt is clet. 

Clatterin Brig, Clatterin Briggs, Clattering Bridge. 
Bridge which took the place of a row of stepping-stones. 
Clacharan, stepping-stones. Ch became th, and then h be- 
came silent and was lost. Final s in Briggs is due to an, a 
plural termination. There were six places of this name in 
Aberdeenshire but in some cases the name is now obsolete. 

Clatterin Kist. Grave made of stones placed on edge 
round the sides and ends. Clacharan, pavement, stepping- 
stones, stones arranged for some purpose; ciste, chest, kist, 
grave. 

Clatterns. Stepping-stones. Clacharan, stepping- 
stones over a burn or at a wet place in a road. An had been 
contracted into n, but it had also been made s. 

Clattie Burn. Burn which had excavated a deep bed. 
CJadhaichte, dug out. Dli and ch had become silent, and 
with the intermediate vowels had been omitted. 

Claverhouse. Place named by Sir Charles Forbes in 
honour of James Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, 
who passed through Aberdeenshire in 1689. 

Claybokie. Stone of the spectre. Clach, stone; bocain, 
gen. of bocan, ghost. 

Claydikes. This name may mean clay dikes. More 
likely, however, it means stone dikes. Clach, stone. Ch 
is often silent in names, as in Clay of Allan, for Clach of 
Allan. 

Clayford (for Ath Clachach). Stony ford. Ath, ford 
(translated); clachach, stony. The asp. letters in clachach 
had become silent and had been lost. After ath had been 
translated the order of the parts had been changed. 

Clayfords (for Athan Clachach). Small stony ford. 
Athan, dim. of ath, ford; clachach, stony. An is a dim. 
termination, but it has become s, the plural termination. 
See Clayford. 

Clayhtlls (for Clachach Choillean). Stony little hill. 
Clachach, stony; choillean, coillean asp., little hill. In 
clachach chach had been lost, and in choillean can had be- 
come s instead of ie. In Aberdeen Clayhills meant hills of 
clay. 

Clayhooter (for Clach Chuit Airidhe). Stone of the 
cattle-fold on a shieling. Clach, stone; chuit, gen. asp. of 
cuit, cattle-fold; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. After 
aspiration, c of chuit had become silent and had been lost. 

Claylands (for Clachach Lamhan). Stony hill. Clach- 
ach, stony; lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. An had wrongly 
been made s, and d had been inserted for euphony. 



94 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Claylatch. Wet clayey place where a road crosses a 
howe. Lathach, latch, miry hollow crossed by a road. 

Claymill. If Gaelic, this name had originally been 
Clachach Meall. Stony hill. Clachach, stony; meall, hill. 
C in ch is silent. 

Claymires. Place where a thin mixture of clay and 
water oozes out of the ground in wet weather. 

Clayshot. Little howe. Claiseag, small hollow in the 
side of a hill. 

Claystiles. Farm-house with stone pillars at the gate. 
Clack {ch silent), stone; style (English), gate-pillar. 

Clean. Valley. Cluain, meadow, valley. In Ireland 
cluain has become clon, in Scotland cluny is the usual form. 

Clean, The. Level green pasture. Cluain, meadow, 
green valley, pasture on flat ground. 

Cleanhill. Hill above a burn valley. Cluain, valley, 
meadow. 

Clearfield. Bare level field. Clar, bare, level. 

Cleftbog, Cliftbog. Bog at which baskets were made. 
Cleibh, plural of cliabh, basket, hamper, creel. Baskets 
and creels were formerly much used for carrying farm 
produce and fish. 

Cleik-him-in Pgt. Pot where salmon were caught with a 
cleek. 

Clerack. Bare place. Clarach, bare. 

Clerkhill. This place is said to have taken its name 
from a proprietor named Clerk ; but clerk may represent 
clarach, bare. 

Cline Burn. Burn of the valley. Cluain, river valley, 
meadow. 

Clinkie's Well (for Tobar Cluan Cuith). Well of the 
cattle-fold meadow. Tobar, well; cluan, meadow; cuith (th 
silent), fold. 

Clinkstone. Stone of the meadow. Cluain, gen. of 
cluan, meadow, burn valley. K had been added for euphony. 

Clinter. Meadow land. Cluain, meadow; tir, land. 

Clinterty (for Tirtean Cluain). Lands of the meadow. 
Tirtean, plural of tir, land; cluain, gen. of cluan, meadow. 
An had been made y, as if tirtean were a dim., but it is 
plural. The order of the parts of the name had been 
changed. 

Cloads (for Cnocan). Cnocan, dim. of cnoc, hill. 

Cloak (for Cnoc). Hill. In Gaelic cnoc is often pro- 
nounced crochg or croghg. 

Cloak Burn. Hill burn. Cnoc, hill. 

Cloak Crofts. Hill crofts. Cnuic, gen. of cnoc, hill. 
The liquids n and I had been interchanged. 

Cloch Diius (for Cloch Giuthais). Stone at a fir. Cloch, 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 95 

stone; giuthais, gen. of giuthas, fir. Th had become silent, 
and had been omitted. 

Clocii Maluidh. Stone on the brow of a hill. Clock, 
stone; maluidhe, gen. of maluidh, brow of a hill. 

Clochcan. White stone. Cloch, stone; can, white. 
White quartz stones abound at Clochcan. 

Clochforbie, Clochorby (1369). Stone at a fold. Cloch, 
stone. The original form of the second part had been 
cuitail, fold, which had afterwards been successively White- 
hill, Corban (cor, hill; ban, white), Chorban, Forban, Forbie. 
In Clochorby ch had become silent and had been lost. The 
stone is now called The Grey Stone of Clochforbie. 

Clochran. Stepping-stones at a wet place in a road or 
over a burn. 

Clochren Bridge (for Clochran Bridge). Bridge which 
took the place of a row of stepping-stones. Clochran, step- 
ping-stones. 

Clochter Pot. Land stone pot. Cloch, stone; iir, land. 
Clochter Stone. Stone in the land. Cloch, stone; 
tir, land. 

Clociitow. Stone in a howe. Cloch, stone; tuill, gen. 
of toll, howe. Oil at the end of a word is sometimes sounded 
•oull, and the 11 is sometimes silent. 

Clockhill, Clodhill, Cloghill. The second part of 
these names is a translation of the first, which is in all the 
three a corruption of cnoc, hill; which see. 

Clocksters. Stepping-stones for crossing a bog or a 
burn. Clachan, plural of clach, stone; stair, passage through 
a wet place or a stream. 

Clofferickford (for Ath Euigh Cnuic). Ford of the 
slope of the hill. Ath, ford; ruigh, slope ; cnuic, gen. of cnoc, 
hill. When the first part of a name was translated it was 
usually put last, and the last part assumed the nom. form 
and was put first. Ruigh Cnuic, slope of the hill, became 
Cnoc Ruigh, hill of the slope. Cnoc had afterwards become 
successively Cnoch, Cloch, Cloffe, and ruigh had become 
Rick. 

Clognie Burn. Burn of the little hill. The original 
form of the name had been Allt Cnocain. Allt, burn: 
cnocain, gen. of cnocan, little hill. In cnocain ai and n had 
been transposed, producing Cnocnai, which had passed into 
Clognie. 

Cloiche Dubh. Black rock. Cloch, rock, stone; dhubh, 
fern, of dubh, black. 

Cloichedubh Hill (for Creag Cloiche Duibhe). Hill of 
the black stone. Creag, hill; cloiche, gen. of cloch, stone; 
duibhe, gen. fern, of dubh, black. 

Cloisterseat. Site of an ancient convent, probably of 



96 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

the Columban class. Claustrum (Latin), enclosure; suidhe, 
seat, site. 

Clola (for Clo[chach] La[mh]). Stony hill. Clochach, 
stony; lamh, hill. The letters within brackets, being aspi- 
rated, had become soft and had ultimately been lost. 

Clonheugh. Steep bank at the edge of a meadow or 
strath. Cluain, meadow, flat river valley; heugh, steep 
bank above a low level place. 

Clova. Eough place. Clvmhach, rough, uneven, bushy. 
Mh is sounded u, v, or w. 

Clova Hill. Eough, shaggy hill. Clumhach, hairy, 
rough. 

Cloven Craig. Split rock. Creag, rock. 

Cloven Stone (for Cloch Clamhain). Stone of the kite. 
Clock, stone; clamhain, gen. of clamhau, kite. Mh is 
equivalent to u, v, or w; and clamhan (pronounced clauan) 
is like the Scotch clouen for cloven. 

Cloverfield, Cloverhill, Cloverycrook. In these 
names clover and clovery represent clocharra, stony. Crook 
is a corruption of cnoc, hill; which see. 

Clubbie Craig (for Creag Clamhain). Rock of the kite. 
Creag, rock, cliff; clamhain, gen. of clamhan, kite. Mh is 
equivalent to bh, and hence, by dropping h after interchange, 
m is sometimes changed to b. 

Clubscross (for Clobhsa Craisg). Passage across a hill. 
Clobhsa, passage, entry; craisg, gen. of crasg, crossing over 
a hill or high ground. 

Clune, Cline, Clyne. Meadow. Cluan, meadow, flat 
river valley. 

Clunie, Cluny. Meadow. Cluain, meadow, flat river 
valley. Ai and n had been transposed, producing clunai, 
which had become clunie and cluny. 

Clunie' s Well. Well in a valley. Cluain, river valley, 
meadow. 

Cluny Leys Wood. Wood of the grassy places in the 
river valley. Cluain, gen. of cluan, meadow; leys, grassy 
places. 

Clyan's Dam. Dam where a creel was placed to catch 
fish. Cliabhan or cliathan, small basket or breast of wicker- 
work for catching salmon at a w T eir or dam. S is an improper 
addition to clyan. 

Clystie Burn. Rapid burn. Cliste, swift. 

Cnap a' Chleirich. The bellman's hillock. Cnap, 
hillock; a', of the; chleirich, gen. asp. of cleireach, beadle, 
bellman. 

Cnap a' Choire Bhuidhe. Hillock of the yellow corry. 
Cnap, hillock; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry ;_ 
bhuidhe, gen. of buidhe, yellow. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 97 

Cnap na Clais Giubhais. Hillock near the fir-tree 
hollow. Cnap, hillock; na, of the; claise, trench-like hollow; 
giubhais, gen. of giubhas, fir. 

Cnap na Cuile. Hillock of the nook. Cnap, hillock; na, 
of the; cuilc, gen. of cuil, nook. 

Cnapan an Laoigh. Little knoll of the calf. Cnapan, 
little knoll; an, of the; laoigh, gen. of Jaogh, calf. 

Cnapan Beag. Little hillock. Cnapan, hillock; beag, 
little. 

Cnapan Garbh. Rough knoll. Cnapan, hillock; garbh, 
rough. 

Cnapan Loch Tilt. Knoll of Loch Tilt. Cnapan, knoll. 
See Loch Tilt. 

Cnapan Mor. Big hillock. Cnapan, hillock; mor, big. 
The Cnapan Beag and Cnapan Mor are humps on the high 
watershed on the west of Braemar. 

Cnapan nan Clach. Hillock of the stones. Cnapan, 
hillock; nan, of the; clach, gen. plural of clach, stone. 

Cnapan Nathraichean. Hillock frequented by adders. 
Cnapan, hillock; nathraichean, gen. plural of nathair, adder, 
serpent. 

Cnapan Or. Yellow knoll. Cnapan, little knoll; ora, 
golden, yellow. Cnapan Or is a hump on the summit of 
Cairn Geldie. 

Cnoc. Hill. In Aberdeen and Kincardine cnoc has some- 
times become Cload, Cloak, Clock, Clod, Cloud, Clog, Coch, 
Cock, Cook, Crock, Crook, Cruick, Goak, Gook, Gowk, Knox, 
Knock. 

Cnoc Cailliche. Hill of the owl. Cnoc, hill; cailliche, 
gen. of cailleach, owl, old woman. On Cnoc Cailliche is the 
site of an old cattle-fold, marked on the O.S. map Camp. 

Cnoc Chalmac. Thick hill. Cnoc, hill: chalmachd, 
calmachd asp., thickness. 

Cnoc Dubh. Black hill. Cnoc, hill; dubh, black. 

Cnoc Guibneach. Hill of the curlew. Cnoc, hill; 
guilbnich, gen. of guilbneach, curlew. 

Cnoc na h-Iolaire. Hill of the eagle. Cnoc, hill; na, 
of the; h (euphonic); iolaire, gen. of iolair, eagle. 

Cnocan Mor. The bigger of two small hills. Cnocan, 
small hill; mor, big. 

Coachford. Ford of the burn. Caoch, burn, howe. 

Coalford, Coalmoss. Hill ford, Hill moss. Coill, hill. 

Coatmore. Big cattle-fold. Cuit, cattle-fold; mor, big. 

Coatown (for Baile Cuit). Town at a fold. Baile, town 
(translated and put last); cuit, fold. Coatown in New Byth 
has become Woodtown. 

Cobairdy (for Cop Airde). Top of the height. Cop, hill, 

G 



98 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

head of a hill; airde, gen. of aird, height. P had become b 
by passing through the forms ph and bh. 

Cobban's Well (for Tobar Cobhain). Well of the 
hollow. Tobar, well (translated and transposed); cobhain, 
gen. of cobhan, hollow. 

Cobbles, The. Perhaps The enclosures. Cobhailan, 
dim. of cobhail, enclosure. Final an might erroneously have 
been supposed to be the plural termination and have been 
translated into s in passing into Scotch. 

Cobleheugh. Level place at the foot of a steep bank, 
where a flat-bottomed fishing boat was stationed. Coble, 
flat-bottomed boat; heugh, steep bank. 

Coblestock. Tree to which a salmon coble was tethered. 
Coble, flat-bottomed river boat; stoc, trunk of a tree. 

Cobrigdale (perhaps for Dail Cabraiche). Field of the 
thicket. Dail, meadow, riverside field; cabraiche, gen. of 
cabrach, thicket. 

Coburty (for Cop Tigh Buair). Hill of the house for 
cattle. Cop, hill; tigh, house; buair, gen. of buar, cattle. 
The accent is on the second syllable, which had originally 
been at the end. 

Cochran (for Kann Cnuic). Point of the hill. Rann, 
point; cnuic, gen. of cnoc, hill. The position of the accent 
indicates that the parts of the name had afterwards been 
transposed, when cnuic lost the gen. form and became cnoc, 
subsequently made Cnoch and Coch. See Cnoc. 
Cock, The. Farm-town at the Cock Bridge. 
Cock Bridge. Bridge over the Cock burn; which see. 
Cock Burn. Hill burn. Coileach, burn, cock. 
Cock Cairn, Cockcairn, (for Cnoc Cam). Cnoc, hill; 
cam, hill, cairn. The second part of the name has the same 
meaning as the first. This shows that cam means hill, 
though this meaning is not given to it in dictionaries. 

Cockardie (for Cnoc Ardan). Small hill. Cnoc, hill; 
ardan, small hill. The second part explains the first. 

Cockersmyres (for Bogan Cnoc Airidhe). Mire of the 
hill of the shieling. Bogan, mire; cnoc, hill; airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling. An of bogan having been regarded as a 
plural termination s had been added to myre. 

Cocklarachy. Hill of the site of a building. Cnoc, hill; 
laraiche, gen. of larach, ruin, field of battle, site of a 
building or important work. 

Cocklaw, Cockhill. Both parts of these names mean 
the same thing. Cnoc, hill; lamh, hill. See Cnoc. 

Cockmuir. Muir of the hill. Cock is a corruption of 
cnoc, hill. 

Cock's Stripe. Small hill burn. Coileach, burn, cock. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 09 

Cockston (for Baile Chnuic). Town of the hill. Baile, 
town (translated); chnuic, gen. asp. of cnoc, hill. 

Coilacreich. Gallows hill. Coille, hill; croiche, gen. 
•of croich, gallows. 

Coill Chamshronaich Hill. Crooked-nosed hill. 

■Coill, hill; cJiam-sronaich, gen. asp. of cam-sronach, hook- 
nosed. 

Coilsmore. Big hill. Coill, hill; mor, big. S is an 
unwarrantable insertion. 

Coinlach Burn. Burn running in a defile. Cunglaich, 
gen. of cunglach, defile. 

Coire. Corry. A corry is a hollow on a hillside, such 
as would be made by cutting off half of a cup and leaving 
on the other half a small part of the lip and a large part of 
the bottom. Corries are usually eroded by small streams 
descending a hillside where the rock is decayed. 

Coire Allt a' Chlair. Corry of the burn of the clear 
place. Coire, corry; allt, burn; a', of the; chlair, gen. asp. 
of clar, open place clear of trees. 

Coire Allt an Aitinn. Juniper burn corry. Coire, 
corry; allt, burn; an, of the; aitinn, gen. of aitionn, juniper. 

Coire Allt an Droighnean. Corry of the burn of the 
thicket of blackthorn. Coire, corry; allt, burn; an, of the; 
droighnein, gen. of droighnean, sloe, blackthorn. 

Coire an Dubh Lochain. Corry of the black little loch. 
Coire, corry; an, of the; dubh, black; lochain, gen. of lochan, 
small loch. 

Coire an Daimh Moile. Corry of the hornless stag. 
Coire, corry; an, of the; daimh, stag; mhaoil, gen. of maol, 
bald, hornless. 

Coire an Feidh, Coire an Fheidh. Corry of the deer. 
Coire, corry; an, of the; feidh, gen. of fiadh, deer; fheidh, 
gen. asp. of fiadh, deer. 

Coire an Fhir-Bhogha. Corry of the man of the bow. 
Coire, corry; an, of the; fhir-bhoga, gen. asp. of fear-bogha, 
man of the bow, soldier. 

Coire an Laoigh. Calf corry. Coire, corry; an, of the; 
laoigh, gen. of laogh, calf. 

Coire an Loch. Corry of the loch. Coire, corry; an, 
of the; luich, gen. of loch, lake, loch. 

Coire an Loch Bhuidhe. Corry of the yellow loch. 
Coire, corry; an, of the; loch, loch; bhuidhe, gen. asp. of 
buidhe, yellow. 

Coire an Lochain Uaine. Corry of the little green loch. 
Coire, corry ; an, of the ; lochain, gen. of lochan, a small loch ; 
uaine, green. 

Coire an Tobair. Corry of the well. Coire, corry; an, 
of the; tobair, gen. of tobar, well. 



100 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Coire an t-Sabhail. Corry of the barn. Coire, corry; 
an t-, of the; sabhail, gen. of sabhal, barn. There is a 
ludicrous mistake in this name. Sabhal means a storehouse, 
but it has been used as a translation of barns, a corruption 
of bearnas, a gap in a mountain range, or a trench-like hollow 
in level ground. It is in common use and rightly applied in 
most cases, as in Barns in Premnay and Towie; but since 
Gaelic ceased to be understood among the mountains round 
the sources of the Dee and Don it has been given to promi- 
nent rocks near the summits of high mountains from their 
faint resemblance to buildings, in the belief that Barns could 
only mean storehouses. The " barn " giving its name to 
the corry is a mass of rock near the summit of Cairn Toul, 
4200 feet above the sea. 

Coire an t-Sagairt. Priest's corry. Coire, corry; an t-, 
of the; sagairt, gen. of sagairt, priest. 

Coire an t-Saighdeir. Corry of the soldier. Coire, 
corry; an t-, of the; saighdeir, gen. of saighdear, arrower, 
bowman, soldier — because the fighting man had a bow and 
arrows. 

Coire an t-Seilich. Corry of the willow. Coire, corry; 
an t-, of the; seilich, gen. of seileach, willow. 

Coire an t-Slugain. Corry of the little slug. Coire, 
corry; an t-, of the; slugain, gen. of slugan, a little gorge, 
slug. 

Coire an t-Sneachda. Snowy corry. Coire, corry; an t-, 
of the; sneachda, gen. of sneachd, snow. 

Coire Bhearnaist (for Coire Bearnach). Corry with 
gaps in the upper edge. Coire, corry; bearnach, having gaps. 

Coire Bhrochain. Corry of porridge. Coire, corry; 
bhrochain, gen. asp. of brochan, porridge, gruel. Perhaps 
the name ought to be Coire a' Bhrotachaidh, fattening 
corry. Coire, corry; a', of the; bhrotachaidh, gen. asp. of 
brotachadh, fattening. 

Coire Bhronn. Corry like a deep round valley. Coire, 
corry; bhronn, gen. asp. of bru, belly. 

Coire Boidheach. Pretty corry. Coire, corry; boid- 
heach, pretty. 

Coire Buidhe. Yellow corrie. Coire, corry; buidhe, 
yellow. 

Coire Caochan Eoibidh (for Coire a' Chaochain Eobaich). 
Corry of the dirty streamlet. Coire, corry; a', of the; 
chaochain, gen. asp. of caochan, streamlet; robaich, gen. of 
robach, dirty. 

Coire Chrid. Heart-shaped corry. Coire, corry; chridhe, 
gen. asp. of cridhe, heart. Probably the name should be 
Coire Chreidhmte. Eroded corry. Coire, corry; chreidhmte, 
past part. asp. of crcidhvi, to erode, gnaw. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 101 

Coire Chuil. Corry of the nook. Coire, corner; chuile, 
gen. asp. of cuil, nook. It is at a bend in the boundary of 
Aberdeenshire. 

Coire Clach nan Taillear. Corry of the stone of the 
tailors. Coire, corry; clach, stone; nan, of the; taillear, gen. 
plural of taillear, tailor. 

Coire Clachach. Stony corry. Coire, corry; clachach, 
stony. . 

Coire Craobh an Oir. Corry of the yellow foam. Coire, 
corry; craoibhe, gen. of craobh, foam; an, of the; oir, gen. of 
or, gold. Craoibhe is also the genitive of craobh, tree. 

' Coire Creagach. Rocky corry. Coire, corry; creagach, 
abounding in rocks. 

Coire Dhomhain. Corry of depth. Coire, corry; 
domain, gen. of dornhan, depth. 

Coire Dhonnachaidh Taillear. Corry of Duncan the 
tailor. Coire, corry; Dhonnachaidh, gen. asp. of Don- 
nachadh, Duncan; tailleir, gen. of taillear, tailor. 

Coire Dubh. Black corry. Coire, corry; dubh, black. 

Coire Etchachan. Corry of the Etchachan burn. Coire, 
corry. See Etchachan. 

Coire Fhearneasg (for Coire Fearnach). Corry of the 
alders. Coire, corry; fearnach, growing alders. 

Coire Fionn. Pleasant corry. Coire, corry; fionn, 
pleasant, white. 

Coire Gharbh Uillt. Corry of the rough burn. Coire, 
corrv; garbh, rough; uillt, gen. of allt, burn. 

Coire Ghiubhais. Fir-tree corry. Coire, corry; giubhais, 
gen. of giubhas, fir-tree. 

Coire Glas. Green corry. Coire, corry; glas, green. 

Coire Gorm. Green corry. Coire, corry; gorm, green 
when applied to things at hand, blue when applied to distant 
hills. 

Coire Loch Kander. Corry of Loch Kander. Coire, 
corry; locli, loch; canta, lake. 

Coire Lochan nan Eun. Corry of the little loch fre- 
quented by birds. Coire, corry; lochan, small loch; nan, of 
the; eun, gen. plural of eun, bird. 

Coire Meacan. Corry of plants with tieshy roots. Coire, 
corry; meacan, gen. plural of meacan, plant like a parsnip. 

Coire Mor. Great corry. Coire, corry; mor, great. 

Coire Murean. Corry of fox-gloves. Coire, corry; 
meuran, gen. plural of meuran, fox-glove. 

Coire na Caillich. Corry of the old woman. Coire, 
corry; na, of the; caillich, gen. of cailleach, old woman. 

Coire na Ciche. Corry of the pap. Coire, corry; na, of 
the; ciche, gen. of cioch, pap, woman's breast. 



102 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Coire na Cloiche. Corry of the stone. Coire, corry; na r 
of the; cloiche, gen. of clach, stone. 

Coire na h-Oisink. Corry at the corner. Coire, corry; 
na, of the; h (euphonic); oisinn, gen. of oiseann, corner, 
nook. 

Coire na Lairige, Coirenalarig. Corry of the hillside. 
Coire, corry; na, of the; lairige, gen. of lairig, hillside. 

Coire na Meanneasg (for Coire Meannach). Corry suit- 
able for kids. Coire, corry; meannach, suitable for kids. 

Coire na Poite. Pot-shaped corry. Coire, corry; na, of 
the; poite, gen. of poit, pot. 

Coire na Saobhaidh, Coire na Saobhaidhe. Corry of 
the fox's den. Coire, corry; na, of the; saobhaidhe, gen. of 
saobhaidh, fox's den. 

Coire na Sqreuchaig. Corry of the jackdaw. Coire, 
corry; na, of the; sgreuchaig, gen. of sgreucliag, screeching, 
jackdaw, kae. 

Coire nam Freumh. Corry of the tree stumps. Coire, 
corry; nam, of the; freumh, gen. plural of freumh, tree root, 
stump of tree cut down. 

Coire nam Muc. Corry to which pigs were sent to feed 
in summer. Coire, corry; nam, of the; muc, gen. plural of 
muc, pig. 

Coire nan Clach. Com- of the stones. Coire, corry; 
nan, of the; clach, gen. plural of clach, stone. 

Coire nan Imireachan. Corry of the Sittings. Coire, 
corry; nan, of the; imrichean, gen. plural of imrich, flitting, 
migration. This corry may have been a place to which herds 
and dairymaids went in summer to pasture cows and make 
butter and cheese for winter use. 

Coire Odhar. Dun corry. Coire, corry; odhar, dun, 
£rab. 

Coire Poll Eandaidh (for Coire Poll Eanndair). Corry 
of the murmuring pool. Coire, corry; poll, pool; ranndair, 
gen. of ranndar, murmuring. 

Coire Bjabhach. Grey corry. Coire, corry; riabhach, 
grey. 

Coire Euadh. Eed corry. Coire, corry; ruadh, red. 

Coire Euairidh. Eoderick's corry. Coire, corry; 
Euairidh, Eoderick. 

Coire Sputan Dearg (for Coire Sputain Dheirg). Corry 
of the red little gushing spring. Coire, corry; sputain, gen. 
of sputan, gushing spring; dheirg, gen. of dearg, red, rusty. 

Coire Uilleim Mhoir. Corry of great William. Coire, 
corry; Uilleim, gen. of Uilleam, William; mhoir, gen. of 
mor, great. From the situation of the place, it is likely that 
the name is a corruption of Coire Uilinn Moire, corry of the 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 103 

big corner. Coire, corry; uilinn, gen. of uileann, corner; 
moire, gen. fern, of mor, great. 

Coire Yaltie, Coireyaltie (for Coire Ealtach). Corry 
where birds or other gregarious animals congregate. Coire, 
corry; ealtach, gregarious. 

Coireachan Dubha. Black corries. Coireachan, plural 
of coire, corry; dubha, plural of dubh, black. 

Coirebhruach. Corry on the bank of the Tanner. Coire, 
corry; bhruaich, gen. asp. of bruach, bank. 

Cold Well, Cold Wells, Coldwells. The original 
form of this name had been Baile Cuil. Town at the back of 
a hill. Baile, town; cuil, gen. of cut, back, north side. 
After the meaning of the parts had been lost their 
order was changed and baile was asp., the name becoming 
Cul Bhaile. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w, and the name 
became first Cul Well, and afterwards Cold Well or Cold 
Wells. But the name may in some cases be English. 

Coldhome (for Cul Tuim). Back of the hill. Cul, back; 
tuim, gen. of torn, hill. In some instances Coldhome has 
been corrupted into Cauldhame, showing that the meaning 
of the name had been lost. 

Coldrach. Hough corner. Cul, corner; dorrach, rugged, 
rough. 

Coldstone. Stone marking a place of assembly. 
Codaile, gen. of codail, assembly. 

Coldstream. Corruption of Culstruphan; which see. 
Coldwellshaw. Wood of the cold well. Shaw (Eng- 
lish), wood, thicket. See Cold Well. 

Collemmie (for Coill Lamhain). Both parts mean hill. 
Coill, hill; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, small hill. Ain became 
ie on passing into Scotch. 

Collie Burn. Hill burn. Coille, hill. 
Collie Burn, Collie Hill, Collie Law, Collieford, 
Colliehill, Colly Stripe, Collyhill, Colehill. In these 
names the first part is coill or coille, hill. Laiv is lamh, hill, 
in which mh is equivalent to w. 

Collieston, Colliestown. Hill town. Coille, hill. S 
had been inserted after the meaning of coille had been lost, 
and it had come to be regarded as a personal name. 

Collithie (for Coill Leathan). Broad hill. Coill, hill; 
leathan, broad. An had been regarded as a dim. termina- 
tion and changed into ie, as in Drumlithie, which also means 
broad hill. 

Collmuir. Muir of the hill. Coill, hill. 
Collonach. Wet hill. Coill, hill; lonach, wet, marshy. 
Collordon. Both parts mean hill. Coill, hill; ordan, 
little hill. 

Colly Rigs (for Buighean Choille). Slopes of the hill. 



104 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ruighean, plural of ruigh, slope at the base of a hill; coille, 
hill, wood. But ruighean may be the dim. of ruigh, and 
mean little slope. 

Colly Stripe. Hill burn. Coille, hill; stripe (Scotch), 
small burn. 

Collynie, Colyne. Hill of the corn land. Coill, hill ; 
leana, level arable ground. 

Colnabaichin. Hill of the cow-byre. Coill, hill; na, of 
the; baichin, gen. of baichean, dim. of baiche, cow-house. 

Colonel's Cave and Colonel's Bed. The person re- 
ferred to was John Farquharson of Inverey. 

Colp, Colpy. These names may represent colpach, 
heifer, and mean land reserved for heifers, which were 
usually pastured by themselves. But Colp is locally pro- 
nounced coup, and Z may be a euphonic intrusion. If so, 
Colp had been at first cop, hill, and Colpy had been copan, 
small hill. Cop, hill, head of a hill; copan, dim. of cop, hill. 

Colquhonny. Hill of assembly. Coill, hill; choinne, 
gen. asp. of coinne, meeting. 

Colquhrookie Stone (for Clach Coill Chnocain). Stone 
of the hill of the hillock. ' Clach, stone (translated) ; coill, 
hill; chnocain, gen. asp. of cnocain, dim. of cnoc, hill. The 
last part had been added to explain the second. Quit repre- 
sents ch, noc has become rook, and ain has become ie. See 
Cnoc. 

Comalegy (for Cobh na Leigidh). Howe of the milking. 
Cobh, howe; na, of the; leigidh, gen. of leigeadh, milking. 

Combsburn. St Columba's burn. Columan, dove. 

CoxMbscauseway. Combs may be a corruption of 

Columba; causey, through French chaussee, from Latin 
calceata, shod. A causey is a road protected by stones, 
gravel, etc. 

Comers. Meeting of two burns. Comar, confluence. 
S had been added because there were two burns. 

Comisty. Joint valuation. Comh, together; measte, 
past part, of meas, to value, attribute. Apparently the hill 
of Comisty had been held jointly as a shieling. 

Commonty. Pasture free to all the tenants of proprietors 
whose lands were contiguous to the pasture-ground. In 
Aberdeen the Links were a commonty for all the burgh. A 
proprietor might have a commonty for his own tenants. 
Communitas (Latin), community. 

Conachcraig. Cotton-grass hill. Conach, cotton-grass; 
creag, rock, hill. 

Concraig, Concraigs. Hill frequented by small quadru- 
peds. Con, gen. plural of cu, small quadruped, dog, squirrel, 
rabbit, water-rat, hedgehog; creag, hill; creagan, little hill. 

Confunderland (for Comh-fin Airidhe Lamhan). Hill 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 105 

held jointly as a shieling. Comh, together; fin, hill; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. Lamhan (mh silent), had been 
added as an explanation when the meaning of the preceding 
part had almost been forgotten. D had been added for 
euphony to both fin and lamhan. 

Congalton. Holding. Congbhail, keeping, holding. 
Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w, and it is often silent, as it is 
here. 

Conglas. Narrow valley. Cunglach, narrow river valley. 

Coniecleugh. Steep bank tenanted by rabbits. 

Coinean, from Latin cuniculus, rabbit, coney. 

Oonland. Assembly. Conlan (Irish), meeting, assembly. 

Connachal Burn (for Allt Aill Connaidh). Burn of the 
hill of firewood. Allt, burn; aill, hill; connaidh, gen. of con- 
nadh, fuel, firewood. When allt was translated the other 
two parts had been transposed. 

Connachat Burn. Meeting-place burn. Coinneachadh, 
meeting, assembly. Perhaps the name ought to be Con- 
nachal Burn; which see. 

Conn's Quarry. Quarry named after a person named 
Conn. 

Conrie Water. See Glen Conrie. 

Contlach, Contlaw, (for Tulach Coinne). Hill of meet- 
ing. Tulach, hill; coinne, meeting, assembly. 

Conyng Hillock. Babbit hillock. Cuniculvs (Latin), 
rabbit. 

Conzie Castle. Castle of the meeting-place. Coinne, 
meeting. Z is not in the Gaelic language, and here it is 
intruded to indicate the sound of y after n. 

Cook (for Cnoc). Hill. N had become silent, and had 
been omitted. See Cnoc. 

Cookies-shiel Loch. Loch of the shiel on a small hill. 
Cnocan, small hill; seal, shiel, summer residence on hill 
pasture; loch, lake. Cnocan became cookan; and an was 
by some regarded as a dim. and translated into ie, and by 
others as a plural and translated into s. 

Cook's Cairn (for Cnoc Cam). Both parts have the 
same meaning. Cnoc, hill; cam, hill. 

Cook's Beeves (for Bathan Cnuic). Circular enclosure 
on a hill. Rathan, small circle, sheep-fold, cattle-fold ; 
cnuic, gen. of cnoc, hill. In rathan th became bh, which 
is equivalent to v; and an, the dim. termination, was sup- 
posed to be the plural and translated into s. Cnuic lost n, 
and being in the gen. was made to end in 's in English. 

Cookshill, Cookston. Cooks is a corruption of cnocan, 
small hill. An ought to have been changed to ie and not to s. 

Coolah, The. The back part. Culaobh, back part. The 
Coolah is on the southern boundarv of Aberdeenshire. 



106 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Coombs Well. Well dedicated to St Columba. Coin- 
man, dove. 

Cooper's Croft. A man named Cooper lived at this 
place. 

Cooper's Slack (for Sliochd Cop Airidhe). Slack of the 
hill of the shieling. Sliochd, long howe ; cop, hill; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Coplandhill. The three parts of the name mean the 
same thing. Cop, hill; lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. Mh is 
silent here, and d had been added to an for euphony. 

Coral. Bound hill. Cor, round hill; aill, hill. 

Coralea. Steep-sided hill. It rises 310 feet in 1000 on 
the east side. Corra, steep; leth (th silent), side. 

Coralhill (for Coireall Hill). Quarryhill. Coireall, 
quarry. 

Corbanchory (originally Chuithail Choire). Fold in a 
corry. Chuithail, cuithail asp., fold, corrupted into White- 
hill and turned back into Gaelic by Corban (cor, hill; ban, 
white); choire, coire asp., corry. 

Corbie Craig, Corbie Den, Corbie Hill, Corbie Knowe, 
Corbies Hole, Corbies' Nest, Corbshill, Corbsmill, Corby 
Loch. Corbie, etc., had originally been chuithail, cuithail 
asp., fold, corrupted into Whitehall and turned into Gaelic 
by Corban (cor, hill; ban, white). In Corbie an of corban had 
become ie, in Corby it had become y, in Corbies it had 
become both ie and s. Craig is creag, hill; Hole is choill, 
coill asp., with c lost; and Nest is an eas, the burn, with t 
added for euphony. Corbies' Nest may, however, mean 
Ravens' Nest. Corvus (Latin), crow, rook, raven, through 
French corbeau, crow, raven. The raven nests on rocks; 
the hooded crow in trees, solitarily; the rook is gregarious 
and builds in trees, but before trees became abundant in 
Scotland it probably built on the ground. It uses small sods 
in making a nest. Jackdaws build in steep rocky places. 

Corbiestongue. Piece of ground in shape like a crow's 
tongue, long bit of land tapering to a point. 

Corblelack. Hill of the smooth flagstone. Cor, round 
hill; blaith-lic, gen. of blaith-leac, smooth stone. The 
smooth flagstone referred to must be St Wolock's Stone, 
which is nearly a mile to the north. 

Corbouies Wood. Yellow hill wood. Cor, hill; buidhe, 
yellow. S is an addition made in the belief that buidhe was 
a personal name. 

Corbuie, Little and Meikle. Yellow corry, little and 
big. Coire, corry; buidhe, yellow. 

Corbus Burn, Burn of the fold. Corbus had originally 
been chuithail, cuithail asp., fold, and subsequently White- 
hill, Cor Ban, Corban, Corbie, Corbies, Corbus. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 107 

Corby Hall. House with trees in which crows build. 
Corbeau (French), from Latin corvus, crow, raven; hall, 
large house, farm-house. 

Corchinnan (for Corcheannan). Bold-faced hill. Cor, 
hill; cheannan, asp. form of ceannan, bold-faced. Ccannan 
is a derivative from ceann, head; and it also forms part of 
the name Benchinnans, bold-faced hills. 
Corcraig. Hill. Cor, hill; creag, hill. 
Cordach. The name may be a corruption of Cor Damh. 
Hill of oxen or deer. Cor, hill; damh, gen. plural of damh, 
ox, stag. See Cordamph. 

Cordamph. Hill of oxen. Cor, hill; damh, gen. plural 
of damh, ox, stag. 

Cordie Hillock (for Cordain Hillock). Hillock where 
barony courts were held. .Cor, round hill; dain, gen. of dan, 
judgment. An had become ie. 

Core, The. The hill. Cor or corr, hill, round hill. 
Core Burn. Burn of the round hill. Cor or corr, round 
hill. 

Corfhouse. Place where salmon were formerly pickled 
with vinegar and prepared for export. 

Corfiedly (for" Cor Chuid Leith). Hill of the grey fold. 
Cor, hill; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold; leith, gen. of Hath, 
grey. Th final is silent. Some folds had a ring of posts or 
a stone wall inside and a bank of earth or peat-moss outside 
for shelter; hence some folds were green or grey and others 
were black. C asp. had become p asp., which is /. 

Corgarff. Bough corry. Coire, corry; garbh, rough. 
Corhill, Corehill. Hill. Cor or corr, hill, round hill. 
The second part of the name is a translation of the first. 

Corklie. Hill of assembly. Cor, hill; clithe, gen. of clith 
(th silent), meeting. 

Corlich. Hill. Both parts of the name have the same 
meaning, and the second part had been added to explain 
the first. Cor, hill; lamh, hill. 

Cormalet (for Cor Meallaidh). Hill of riches, meaning 
good pasture. Cor, hill; meallaidh, gen. of mealladh, goods, 
wealth in cattle. 

Cormech. Hill of the level plain. Cor, round hill, 
usually a small hill; maigh, gen. of magh, plain. 
Cormoir. Big hill. Cor, hill; mor, big. 
Corn, Burn of. Burn of the hill. Cam, hill. 
Corn Arn (for Cam Fhearna). Hill of the alder tree. 
Cam, hill; fhearna, fearna asp., alder tree. Am, for fhearna, 
is the Scotch word for alder. On this hill are Coire Corn 
Arn, the corry of the hill of the alder; and Shank of Corn 
Arn, in which Shank is sithean (th silent), hill, with euphonic 
k added. 



na, of 


the; 


of the 


; bo, 


Cam, 


hill ; 


Cam, 


hill ; 



108 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Cornabae. Birch hill burn. Cor, hill; 
beithe (th silent), gen. of beith, birch. 

Cornabo. Hill of the cow. Cam, hill; na. 
for boin, gen. of bo, cow. 

Corncatterach. Boggy hill ground. 
catharach, mossy, wet. 

Corncloch Burn. Hill of the stone burn. 
cloiche, gen. of clock, stone. 

Corncraig. Both parts of the name mean hill. Cam, 
hill ; creag, hill. 

Corndavon (for Cam Da Abhann). Hill of the two rivers. 
Cam, hill; da, two; abhann, gen. of abhainn. 

Cornhill. Hill. Cam, hill. The two parts of the name 
have the same meaDing. 

Corniehaugh, Cornyhaugh (for Dail Carnain). Haugh 
of the little hill. Dail, riverside field; carnain, gen. of car- 
nan, small hill. A of carnain had become o, and ain had 
become ie in Scotch. 

Cornival. Hill of the farm-town. Cam, hill; «', of the; 
bhaile, gen. asp. of baile, town. 

Corntulloch. Hill. Cam, hill; tidach, hill. Both 
parts of the name have the same meaning. 

Corquhar. Hill of the arable land. Cor, round hill ; far, 
land. 

Corquhittachie. Hill beside a field where there was a 
cattle-fold. Cor, round hill; cuit, cattle-fold; achaidh, gen. 
of achadh, field. See Cuit. 

Corr Buidhe. Yellow hill. Corr, round hill; buidlie, 
yellow. 

Corr Eiabhach. Grey round hill. Corr, round hill; 
riabhach, grey. 

Corr Stone (for Carr Stone). Monumental pillar. 
Carr, erect stone. The Corr Stone is part of a sepulchral 
stone circle. 

Corrach. A precipitous cliff on Mount Keen. Corrach, 
steep, precipitous. 

Corrachree. Sheep-fold. Chaorach, gen. plural of 
caora, sheep; rath, circle. Th of Eath became bh, equiva- 
lent to v. Eav lapsed into Eieve, and it into Eee. 

Correen Hills. Hills of the little corry. Coirein, small 
corry. 

Correen Quarry. Quarry in a little corry. Coirein, dim. 
of coire, corry. 

Corrennie. Corry of ferns. Coire, corry; raineach, 
gen. plural of raineach, fern. 

Corrie Burn. Burn from a corry. Coire, corry. 

Corrie Cairn. Corrie of the hill. Coire, corry; cairn, 
gen. of cam, hill. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 109- 

Corrie Cn.\su. Steep corry. Coire, corry; chais (pron. 
hash), gen. asp. of cas, difficulty, steepness. 

Corrie Cula. Corrie of the back of a hill. Coire, corry; 
cida, secondary form of the gen. of cul, back. 

Corrie Don. Corry of the Don. A grassy marsh near 
the source of the Don. 

Corrie Feragie. Squirrel corry. Coire, corry; feoraige, 
gen. of feorag, squirrel. 

Corrie of Allt nan Aighean. Corry of the burn of the 
heifers. Coire, corry; allt, burn; nan, of the; aighean, gen. 
plural of agli, heifer, hind. 

Corrie of Allt Keppachte. See Coire and Allt Eep- 
pachie. 

Corrie of Creag Mheann. Corry of the hill of kids. 
Coire, corry; creag, mountain; mheann, gen. plural asp. of 
meann, kid. 

Corrie of Morlich. Corry of the big hill. Coire, corry; 
mhor, gen. of mor, big; laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. Lich 
might represent lice, gen. of leac, flagstone, sepulchral stone, 
big stone. 

Corrie of Slochd Mor, East and West. Corry of the 
great den. See Coire and Slochd Mor. 

Corrie Hill. Hill with a cup-shaped hollow in one side. 
Coire, corry. 

Corriebreck. Spotted corry. Coire, corry; breac, 
spotted. 

Corriehoul (for Coire a' Thuill). Corry of the howe. 
Coire, corry; a', of the (suppressed); thuill, gen. asp. of toll, 
howe. T had been lost after aspiration. 

Corriemore. Big corry. Coire, corry; mor, big. 

Corriemulzie. Corry of the mill. Coire, corry; muilinn, 
gen. of muileann, mill. 

Corrienearn (for Coire na Fhearna). Corry of the alder. 
Coire, corry; na, of the; fhearna, gen. asp. of fearna, alder. 
Fh is silent. 

Corrienewe. Corry of Newe. See Coire and Newe. 

Corrybeg and Corybeg. Small corry. Coire, corry; 
beag, small. 

Corrydown. Corry of the hill. Coire, corry; duin, gen. 
of dun, hill. 

Corrylair. Land in a corry. Coire, corry; lair, gen. of 
lar, land. 

Corry's Howe. Hollow of the corry. Coire, corry. S 
is added because coire is in the gen. 

Corse. Crossing. Crasa, highest part of a road over a 
hill. 

Corse Burn. Burn of the crossing of a hill. Crasg, 
crossing. 



110 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Corse Craig. Shore rock. Corsa, coast; creag, rock. 

Corsehill. Crossing on a hill. Crasg, crossing. 

Corse of Balloch. Place where a path from Longside 
to Cruden crosses a high ridge of land. Crasg, crossing; 
bealaich, gen. of bealach, hill road, pass. 

Corse of Garbet. Crossing of a hill at a rough place. 
Crasg, crossing; garbh-aite, rough place. 

Corse of Laigh. Crossing of a hill. Crasg, crossing; 
laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. 

Corsedardar (for Crasg an t-Ard Ar). Crossing of the 
high land. Crasg, crossing; an t-, of the; ard, high; ar, land. 

Corseduick. Crossing at a black mossy place. Crasg, 
crossing; dubhaich, gen. of dubhach, blackness. Bh and h 
had become silent and had been lost. 

Corsend. End of a pass over a hill. Crasg, crossing. 

Corsefield. Field at the crossing of a hill. Crasg, 
crossing. 

Corsegight. Windy crossing. Crasg, crossing; gao- 
thach, windy. 

Corseknowes. Place where the road from Huntly to 
Turriff crosses a knoll. Crasg, crossing; cnapain, gen. of 
cnapan, knoll. Final s had been added because cnapan ends 
in an, but it is not plural. 

Corsemaul. Crossing of the bare, blunt hilltop. Crasg, 
crossing; maol, bald, hornless. 

Corshalloch. Hill of willows. Cor, hill; seileach, gen. 
plural of seileach, willow. 

Corsiestone. Stone of the crossing on a hill. Clach, 
stone; craisg, gen. of crasg, crossing. 

Corsindae. Crossing at a church or a house. Crois, 
crossing; an, of the; daimh, church, house. 

Corskelly. Hill of the rock. Cor, round hill ; sgeilgain, 
gen. of sgeilgan, dim. of sgeilg, rock. 

Corskie. Hill of the hawthorn. Cor, round hill; sgeich, 
gen. of sgeach, hawthorn. 

Corsman. Crossing on a hill. Crasg, crossing; man, hill. 

Cortes. Small circle. Cortan, small enclosed space, 
stone circle. 

Corthie Bridge. Bridge near a small stone circle. 
Corthan, dim. of corth, stone circle. An had become ie. 

Corthie Moss (for Bac Corthain). Moss of the little 
circle. Bac, moss; corthain, gen. of corthan, dim. of corth, 
circle of stones round a grave. 

Corthymuir. Moor of the small circle. Corthain, gen. 
of corthan, dim. of corth, circle, stone circle guarding a 
grave. 

Cortiebrae (for Braigh Cortain). Hill of the stone circle. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. Ill 

Braigli, hill; cortain, gen. of cortan, stone circle round a 
prehistoric interment. 

Cortiecram. Circular enclosure at a tree. Cortan, small 
circle, stone circle round a grave; crann, tree. Many people 
pronounce n as m without observing that they are doing it. 
Open is often made opem, Banff is pronounced bamff, pen- 
fold pumphal. 

Cosaiche Burn. Burn from a hollow. Cosaiche, hol- 
lowness. 

Cosh, Mill of. Mill of the hollow. Cois (pronounced 
cosh), gen. of cos, ravine, howe. 

Coshelly. Ravine of the burn. Cosh, cos with s asp., 
ravine; attain, gen. of allan, water, burn. Ain, the dim. 
termination, became y in passing into Scotch. 

Cossack Burn. Burn running in hollows. Cosagach, 
full of hollows. 

Costly Burn. Burn of the ravine of the hill. Cos, 
ravine; tulaich, gen. of tulach, hill. 

Cot Burn, Cotburn, (for Allt Cuit). Burn of the cattle- 
fold. AM, burn; cuit, fold. See Cuid. 

Cot Craigs. Large stones at a cattle-fold. Creagan, 
plural of creag, stone, rock; cuit, fold. 

Cot Grains. Cattle-fold between the branches of a burn. 
Cuit, cattle-fold; grains, same as groin, branches of a burn. 
S in grains is unnecessary. 

Cot Hill, Cothtll, Cothillock, Cotehill. The first 
part of these names represents en it, fold. 

Cot Town, Cotetown, Cotton, Cottown. Cattle-fold 
town. Baile, town (translated and put last); cuit, gen. of 
cuit, cattle-fold. These names had been given to groups of 
cottages at cattle-folds. 

Cothal, Cothel. Cattle-fold. Cuithail, cattle-fold. 
Cothiemuir. Muir of the small circle. Corthan, dim. of 
corth, stone circle, enclosure. 

Cotlandhillock. Hillock where there had once been a 
cattle-fold. Cuit, cattle-fold; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, 
hillock. 

Cotter Hill, Cottertown. Cotter represents Cuit 
Airidhe, fold of the shieling. Cuit, fold; airidhe, gen. of 
airidh, shieling. 

Cotwells (for Baile Cuit). Town at a cattle-fold. Baile, 
town; cuit, cattle-fold. Baile had been asp. and transferred 
to the end. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w, and bhaile had 
become first icell and afterwards ivells. 

Couchercairn (for Carn Cuith Airidhe). Hill of the 
cattle-fold on the shieling. Carn, hill, cairn; cuith (with th 
changed to ch), cattle-fold; airidhe, gen. of airidh (idhe 
silent), shieling. 



112 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Coul. North side of a hill. Cul, back. 

Coul Burn, Coulburn. Back burn. Cul, back, north 
side of a hill. 

Coul of Ledmacoy. Eetired place at Ledmacoy. Cuil, 
nook, obscure place. See Ledmacoy. 

Coul of Newe. Eetired, secluded place of Newe. Cuil,. 
nook. See Newe. 

Coulachan Burn. Burn from a deep oval hollow. Cui- 
leaclian, deep wicker basket, hollow like a basket. 

Coulick Hill. Hill where mossy sods were cut. Culaig, 
gen. of culag, peat,' sod for a hearth. 

Coulins Burn. Burn of the angle at the junction of two* 
burns. Cuilan, dim. of cuil, nook. An is a dim. termination, 
but in post-Gaelic time it had been regarded as a plural, and 
s had been added. 

Coull. Back or north side of a hill. Cul, back, corre- 
sponding to Latin cuius, buttock. 

Coullie. Retired place. Cuilean, dim. of cuil, nook,, 
private place. 

Coulliehare, Couliehair. Hill of the shieling. Coille, 
hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling, summer pasture among 
hills. 

Coulnacraig. Back of the hill. Cul, back, north side; 
na, of the; creige, gen. of creag, hill. 

Coulter Folds. Sheep- or cattle-folds in a secluded 
place. Cuilteach, retired. 

Coulterfannie. Back land of the slope. Cul, back, 
north-lying; tir, land; fanaidh, gen. of fanadli (Irish), gentle 
slope. 

Coulterna (for Cuit Airne). Fold at which a watch was- 
kept by night against thieves. Cuit, fold; airne, watching 
at night. In Cuternach in Cairnie the last part of the name 
represents airneach, vigilant at night. L in Coulterna is 
not sounded and seems to be a needless insertion. 

Coulvoulin Plantation. Wood in a corner at a mill. 
Cuil, corner; mhuilinn, gen. asp. of muileann, mill. 

Counseltree. Hollow of the willow tree. Cobhan (pro- 
nounced coivan), hollow; seilich, gen. of seileach, willow. To 
seilich had been added at a late date the English word tree 
to tell its meaning. 

Counter Head. Head opposite an island on the other 
side of a bay. 

Counterford. Ford where there is a hollow place in the 
valley of the Gadie. Cobhan (pronounced coicari), howe ; tire, 
gen. of tir, land. 

Countesswells. If Countesswells is a name of Gaelic 
origin it may represent Baile Cobhan an t-Eas, town in the 
howe of the burn. Baile, town; cobhan (pronounced cowan), 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 113 

hollow; an t-, of the; eas, burn. Baile had been put last and 
asp., and bJiailc had become first Well and afterwards Wells. 

Couper's Road. Hill of the shieling road. Cop, hill; 
airidhe, gen. of airidli, shieling. 

Court Hill. Hill with a circular enclosure. Cuairt, 
circle, perhaps a sheep- or cattle-fold. 

Courtcairn (for Cam Cuairte). Hill or cairn of the 
circle. Cam, hill, cairn; cuairte, gen. of cuairt, circle. 

Courteston. Town at a circle. Cuairte, gen. of cuairt, 
circle, sepulchral stone circle. 

Courtstone. Stone of a circle round a grave. Cuairte, 
gen. of cuairt, circle. 

Coutens. Small cattle-fold. Guitan, dim. of cult, 
cattle-fold. S had been added under the influence of an, the 
dim. termination. 

Cow Den. Den of the cattle-fold. Cuith (ith silent), 
cattle-fold. 

Cow Spout. Spring at a cattle-fold. Cuith, cattle-fold; 
sput, gushing spring. 

Cowbog (for Bog a' Chuith). Bog at a cattle-fold. Bog, 
bog; a', of the; c[h]u\ith'\, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. 
The letters within brackets had become silent and had been 
lost, leaving cu, pronounced coo. 

Cowbyres. Byres at a fold. Cuith, fold. Cuith had 
been made cow because the byres had been used for cows. 
Probably the name had originally been Bathaich Cuithain, 
byre at a small fold. Bathaich, byre; cuithain, gen. of 
cuithan, small fold. An had been believed to be the plural 
termination, and s had been added to Byre erroneously. 

Cowcraig (for Creag Cuith). Hill of the fold. Creag, 
hill; cuith, fold. 

Cowesmill (for Cuithan Mill). Fold of the hill. Cuithan, 
dim. of cuith, fold; mill, gen. of me all, hill. An had been 
made s in the mistaken belief that it was a plural termina- 
tion. The name had been given very long before the intro- 
duction of mills for farms. 

Cowford Bridge. Bridge which took the place of a ford 
at a cattle-fold. Cuith, cattle-fold. 

Cowfords (for Ath an Chuith). Ford of the fold. Ath, 
ford; an, of the; chuith, cuith asp., fold. An had been 
annexed to ath, and athan had been supposed to be the plural 
of ath . Of chuith only c and u had persisted, and cu had been 
pronounced coo. 

Cowgate (ow pronounced as oo). Road to a cattle-fold. 
Cuith (th silent), cattle-fold. The Cowgate in Aberdeen 
passed along the north-east angle of the castle, from Justice 
Street to Commerce Street. It was the footpath by which 
women went to a fold where cows were penned. 

H 



114 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Cowhill, Cowhills, Cowhillock (for Toman Cuith). 
Hillock on which there was a fold. Toman, hillock; cuith, 
fold. Ith had been omitted, and cu had been pronounced 
coo. S of hills represents an of toman, which had errone- 
ously been regarded as a plural termination. Cowhillock 
is on the Links at Aberdeen. 

Cowhole. Cattle-fold partly formed by a bay with steep 
rocks at the sides and inner end. Cuith, cattle-fold. Cow 
had been pronounced coo. 

Cowie. Hill. Coille, hill. Coille is cognate with Latin 
collis, hill. 

Cowie Burn. Hill burn. Coille, hill. 

Cowie Hillocks, Cowieshillock, (for Toman Cuithain). 
Hillock on which there was a small fold. Toman, dim. of 
torn, hill; cuithain, gen. of cuithan, dim. of cuith, fold. An 
of toman is represented by ock, the English dim. termina- 
tion; but final s is a mistake caused by regarding an as both 
a dim. and a plural termination. Am of Cuithain normally 
became ie ; but ies in Cowies arose from regarding ain as 
both a dim. and a plural termination. 

Cowiehill, Cowiehillock. Hill. Coille, hill. The 
second part is a translation of the first. 

Cowiemuir. Hill moor. Coille, hill; muir (Scotch), 
moor. 

Cowie 's Well. Well on a hill. Coille, hill. Cowie had 
been regarded as a noun in the possessive, and therefore s 
had been affixed to it. 

Cowinch (for Innis Cuith). Enclosure of a cattle-fold. 
Innis, enclosed space; cuith, cattle-fold. 

Cowlair. This may mean place where cows rested at 
night when on hill pasture. If of Gaelic origin it represents 
Lair Cuith, land at a cattle-fold. Lair, for lar, land; cuith 
(ith silent), cattle-fold. 

Cowley. Cattle-fold at a grassy place. Cuith (ith 
silent), cattle-fold; ley, grassy place. 

Cow's Haugh (for Iochd Cuith). Haugh of the fold. 
Iochd, howe, haugh; cuith, fold. When a part of a name is 
translated into English it is put to the end of the name. 

Cowsrieve. Cattle-fold. Cuith (ith silent), cattle-fold; 
rath, enclosed space. The second part of the name is an 
explanation of the first. Cu had been pronounced coo. S is 
an improper insertion made after the meaning of cuith had 
been lost. Th of rath had become bh, equivalent to v. 

Cowstane Hirst (for Cuithan Brisde). Broken down 
little fold. Cuitan, small fold; brisde, broken down, ruinous. 
The name might have passed through the following forms 
in succession: — Cuitan Brisde, Cuistan Bhrisde, Cuistane 
Hirste, Cowstane Hirst. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 115 

Cowstones. Stones at a cattle-fold. Cuith, cattle-fold. 

Coyles of Muick. The hills near the Muick river. 
Coillc, hill. The Coyles are three dark masses of serpentine 
rock with prominent peaks. 

Coynach. Cup-shaped hollow with a burn in it. Cuach, 
cup; na, of the; ach, water. The Tarland burn comes from 
the Howe of Coynach. 

Coynachie. Meeting of waters. Coinne, meeting; acha, 
water. Three burns meet at Coynachie. 

Cradle Howe. Cheerful howe. Cridheil, cheerful. 

Cradle Stones. Stones believed to have been concerned 
with religious worship. Creadhal, worshipping, religious. 

Craggan, Craggans. Little hill. Creagan, dim. of 
creag, hill. In Craggans final an had erroneously been sup- 
posed to be a plural termination, and had been translated by 
s instead of ie. 

Craggan Cottage. Cottage near a little hill. Creagan, 
dim. of creag, hill. 

Craggan Hill. Little hill. Creagan, little hill, dim. of 
creag, hill, rock. 

Craggan Eour. Little red hill. Craggan, small rocky 
hill; ruadh, red. 

Craib Hillock (for Toman Craoibhe). Hillock of the 
tree. Toman, hillock; craoibhe, gen. of craobh, tree. 

Craibadona. Bad trees. Craobhan, plural of craobh, 
tree; dona, miserable, contemptible. 

Craib stone (for Craibston). When Gaelic passed away 
and names were required for new places they were frequently 
named after their owners or occupants. About 1200 a.d. 
people began to have more than one name, and the second 
was frequently indicative of their parentage or of the place 
where they resided. The name Craib had been given to a 
person who lived at a well-known tree. Craobh, tree; ton 
(English), town. 

Craich. Hill. Creach, mountain, hill. 

Craig. Hill. Creag, hill. 

Craig an Gobhair. Hill of the goat. Creag, hill ; an, of 
the; gobhair, gen. of gobhar, goat. 

Craig Andrew (for Creag an Treid). Hill of the herd 
of cattle. Creag, hill; an, of the; treid, gen. of trend, herd 
of cattle. 

Craig Brady. Summit of a steep rock. Creag, rock, 
cliff; braighe, top of something high. 

Craig Brock. Badger rock. Broc, badger. 

Craig Castle. Castle near a hill. Creag, hill. 

Craig Coillich (for Creag Coilich). Hill of the burn. 
Creag, hill; coilich, gen. of coileach, burn. 



116 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Craig Derry. Mountain beside Derry Burn. Craig, 
rocky mountain; doire, wood, grove, thicket. 

Craig Dhu. Black hill. Craig, hill; dubh, black. 

Craig Doin (for Creag Dun). Hill. Creag, hill; dun, 
hill. Both parts mean the same thing. Doin might be for 
doinnc, gen. of doinne, brownness. 

Craig Dorney. Stony hill. Creag, hill; dornach, stony. 

Craig Dunie. Hill with a small high summit. Creag, 
hill ; dunain, gen. of dunan, small hill. 

Craig Ewen. Rock of birds. Creag, hill ; eun, gen. plural 
of eun, bird. 

Craig Ferrar. Hill of the grassy shieling. Creag, hill; 
feuraich, gen. fern, of feurach, grassy; airidhe, gen. of airidh, 
shieling. 

Craig Glas. Green hill. Creag, hill; glas, green, grey 
green. 

Craig Gowan. Hill of the cattle-fold. Craig, hill; 
gabhainn (pronounced gowain), gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Craighall. Hill. Creag, hill; choill, coill asp., hill. 

Craig Headock (for Creag Chuidoig). Hill of the small 
fold. Creag, hill; chuidoig, gen. asp. of ciridog, small fold. 
C in ch is silent and had been lost. 

Craig Hill, Craighill. Hill. Creag, hill. 

Craig Hitham (for Creag Chuithain). Hill of the small 
fold. Creag, hill; cliuithain, gen. asp. of cuithan, small fold. 
C in ch is not sounded and had been lost. 

Craig Horror (for Craig Chorr Our). Cliff of the hill at 
the water. Creag, cliff; chorr, corr asp., hill; our, water. 

Craig Lash. Hill of the bonfire. Creag, hill; leois (pro- 
nounced losh), gen. of leas, light, blaze. 

Craig Leek. Rocky hillside. Craig, cliff, rock ; leac, 
hillside, declivity. 

Craig Meann. Hill of kids. Creag, hill; meann, gen. 
plural of meann, kid. 

Craig Megen (for Creag Meacan). Hill of mickens. 
Creag, hill; meacan, gen. plural of meacan, Meum atha- 
manticum, an aromatic root. 

Craig Mo seen. Hill covered with fragments of rock. 
Mosain, gen. of mosan, fragments of rock. 

Craig na Bo. Hill of the cow. Creag, hill, rock; na, of 
the; bo, a form of the gen. of bo, cow. 

Craig na Eoin. Hill of the bird. Creag, hill ; an, of the ; 
coin, gen. of eun, bird. 

Craig na Gour. Hill of the goat. Craig, hill; na, of the; 
gobhair, gen. of gobhar, goat. 

Craig na Laoigh. Hill of the calf. Creag, hill ; na, of 
the; laoigh, gen. of laogh, calf. 

Craig Nordie, Craignordie, (for Creag an Ordain). Hill 



Celtic Place-Navies in Aberdeenshire. IW 

of the hill. Crcag, hill; an, of the; ordain, gen. of ordan, 
dim. of ord, hill. 

Craig of Boreland. Hill of the big hill. Creag, hill; 
fcorr, great; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. 
M/t is silent, and d had been inserted after n. 

Craig of Bunzbach. Hill with a deep howe at the 
bottom. Creag, hill; bun, bottom; iochd, howe. 

Craig of Coirebhruach. Hill above Coirebhruach. 
Creag, hill. See Coirebhruach. 

Craig of Dalfro. Hill of the heathery field. Creag, 
hill; dail, field near a river; fraochach, heathery. 

Craig of Inchnabobart. Mountain above Inchnabobart. 
Creag, mountain; Inchnabobart, farm name; which see. 

Craig of Loinmuie. Mountain beside a gloomy moss. 
Creag, mountain; loin, gen. of Ion, moss; muige, gen. of 
muig, gloomy, black. 

Craig of Proney. Mountain of pounding. Creag, moun- 
tain; pronnaidh, gen. of pronnadh, pres. part, of pronn, to 
pound. See Proney. 

Craig of the Knock. Hill. Both parts mean hill. 
Creag, hill; cnoc, hill. 

Craig of the Linn. Hill of the Linn of Muick. Creag, 
hill. See Linn of Muick. 

Craig of Tulloch. Hill. Creag, hill; tulaich, gen. of 
tulacli, hill. Both parts mean hill. 

Craig of Westertown. Hill of Westertown. Creag, 
hill. 

Craig Ogston. Rock from which young coal-fish may be 
caught. These in Aberdeenshire are called haddocks, pod- 
lies, and saiths according to their size. They are very 
numerous on rocky coasts in autumn. Creag, rock; ugsan, 
plural of ugsa, coal-fish. 

Craig Roy. Red rock. Creag, rock; ruadh, red. 

Craig Shannoch. Rocky summit. Creag, rock; sun- 
nach, summit. 

Craig Snow. Rock white with the dung of sea-fowl. 
Creag, rock. 

Craig Starcie (for Creag Stor Sith). Hill of the steep 
cliff. Creag, hill; stor, steep cliff; sith, hill. Creag seems 
to be a late addition made to describe Stor Sith. 

Craig, The. The cliff. This is a steep face of rock in 
King-Edward. 

Craig Vallich. Hill of the road. Creag, hill; bhealaich, 
gen. asp. of bealach, road, pass. Bh is pronounced v. 

Craig Veann. Hill of the kids. Craig, hill; mheann, 
gen. plural asp. of meann, kid. Creag Mheann is the proper 
spelling of the name. 

Craig Walgan (for Creag a' Bhalgain). Hill like a 



118 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

blister. Creag, hill; a', of the (suppressed); bhalgain, gen. 
asp. of balgan, small swelling, blister. 

Craig Watch. Place where a watch against cattle 
thieves was maintained on a hill. Creag, hill. 

Craig Water (for Allt Craige). Burn of the hill. Allt, 
burn (translated and transposed); craige, gen. of creag, hill. 
Craig Well, Craigwell. Hill well. Creag, hill. 
Craig Wood. Wood on a hill. Creag, hill. 
Craigan Dide. Eocks of defence. Creagan, plural of 
creag, rock; didean, defence. 

Craigan Hat (for Creagan Chuit). Hillock of a cattle- 
fold. Creagan, small hill; chuit, gen. asp. of cuit, cattle- 
fold. After being asp. c had been lost. 

Craigancash. Hill with a steep ascent. Creag, hill; an, 
of the; cais, gen. of cas, ascent. 

Craigangower (for Creag nan Gobhar). Hill of the 
goats. Creag, hill; nan, of the; gobhar, gen. plural of 
gobhar, goat. 

Craigbank. Raised level ground at the foot of a hill. 
Creag, hill. 

Craigbeg, Craigbeg Hill. Little hill. Creag, hill; beag, 
little. 

Craigben. Hill. The second part is a translation of the 
first. Creag, hill; beinn, hill. 

Craigbrae. Brae of the hill. Craig, gen. of creag, hill. 
Craigculter. Hill of retired land. Creag, hill; cuil-tire, 
secluded land. Cuil, nook; tire, gen. of tir, land. 

Craigdam. Hill of the oxen. Creag, hill; da-mh, gen. 
plural of damli, ox, stag. 

Craigdorney. Stony hill. Creag, hill; domach, stony. 
Craigearn. Hill of alders. Creag, hill; fhearna, gen. 
plural asp. of fearna, alder. Fh is silent in Gaelic and had 
been omitted in passing into Scotch. 

Craigellie. Hill of the burn. Creag, hill; allain, gen. 
of allan, small stream. 

Craigend (for Creagan). Small hill. 
Craigendarroch. Hill of the oak grove. Craig, rocky 
hill, cliff; an, of the; daraich, gen. of darach, oak, grove of 
oaks. 

Craigendurrit. Little hill of swine. Creagan, little hill; 
durraidh, gen. plural of durraidh, sow. 

Craigengell. The original form had been Chuithail, 
cattle-fold. Chuithail, cuithail asp., fold, corrupted into 
Whitehall and turned into Gaelic by Creagangeal (creagan, 
dim. of creag, hill; geal, white). 

Craigenget Cairn (for Creagan Gaothach Cam). Small 
windy hill. Creagan, dim. of creag, hill; gaothach, windy; 
cam, hill. Craigen and Cairn both mean hill. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 119 

Craigengorie (for Creag an Goibhre). Hill of the goat. 
Creag, hill; an, of the; goibhre, gen. of gobhar, goat. Bh 
had become silent and had been lost. 

Craigenhar. Little hill of the shieling. Creagan, little 
hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Craigenhigh (for Creag an Chuith). Hill of the fold. 
Creag, hill; an, of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. In 
chuith c had been lost after aspiration; th is silent; and hui 
had been pronounced first hu-ee and afterwards hee. 

Craigenscore Hill. Hill of the pointed rock. Creag, 
hill; an, of the; sgoir, gen. of sgor, pointed rock. 

Craigenseat (for Suidhe Creagain). Place at a little hill. 
Suidhe, place; creagain, gen. of creagan, small hill. 

Craigentath. Warm little hill. Creagan, little hill; 
teth, warm. 

Craigentrindy (for Creagan Treine). Hill of strength, 
meaning a fortified hill. Creagan, hill; treine, gen. of treun, 
power, strength. D had been inserted for euphony. 

Craigfall (for Creag Choill), both parts of which mean 
hill. Creag, hill; choill, hill. Ch had been changed to ph, 
which is equivalent to /. 

Craigfintray. Craig's Fintray. The half of Fintray 
owned by a family named Craig. This name was given 
to a barony erected after the property was acquired by John 
Urquhart, commonly called The Tutor of Cromarty, who 
built the Castle of Craigston. 

Craigfold. Sheep-fold on a hill. Creag, hill. 

Craigford. Ford at a hill. Creag, hill. 

Craigforthie. Hill of the stone circle. Creag, hill ; 
Chorthain, gen. asp. of corthan, small circle. Ch had been 
changed to/, and ain had been translated into ic. 

Craighall. Hill. Creag, hill; choill, coill asp., hill. C 
in choill is silent and it had been lost. Probably coill had 
not been asp. till creag was prefixed to explain it because 
latterly coill came to mean wooded place. 

Craigharr. Hill of the shieling. Creag, hill ; h (eu- 
phonic; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Craighead. Hill of the fold. Creag, hill; chuid, gen. 
asp. of cuid, fold. C is silent after aspiration and liable to 
be lost. 

Craigheedy Hill. Hill of the cattle-fold. Creag, hill; 
chuidli, gen. asp. of cuidh, cattle-fold. See Craighead. 

Craighill, Craig Hill. Hill. Both parts of the name 
mean hill. Creag, hill. 

Craigie, Craigies. Small hill. Creagan, small rock, 
hillock. In Craigies an had been made both ie as a dim. 
termination and s as a plural. 



120 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Craigie Beg, Craigiebeg. Little hill. Creagan, small 
hill; beag, little. 

Craigie Daff. Little hill of the oxen. Creagan, small 
hill; damh, gen. plural of damh, ox, stag. 

Craigie Dot. Burnt hillock. Creagan, small hill, rock; 
doite, burnt. 

Craigie Ford, Craigieford. Ford of the little hill. 
Creagan, little hill. 

Craigie Scar. Small hill with a pointed rock on the 
summit. Creagan, small hill; sgoir, gen. of sgor, projecting 
rock. 

Craigie Stripe. Eivulet from a small hill. Creagan, 
small hill; stripe, small burn. 

Craigie Wood. Wood of the little hill. Creagan, small 
hill. 

Craigiebanks (originally Chuitail). Fold. Chuitail, 
cuitail asp., fold, corrupted into Whitehill and turned back 
into Gaelic by Creaganban (creagan, little hill; ban, white). 
Creagan became Craigie ; some added k to Ban for euphony ; 
others abnormally turned an into s ; and thus was produced 
Craigiebanks. 

Craigiebuckler. Little hill where cattle were watched. 
Creagan, little hill; buachailleach, pertaining to watching 
cattle. 

Craigiedarg. Eed little hill. Creagan, little hill; dearg, 
red. 

Craigiedows. Hill of the fir-wood. Creagan, dim. of 
creag, hill; giubhsaich, gen. of giublisach, fir-wood. 

Craigiefold. Fold of the little hill. Creagan, little hill. 

Craigiehead (for Creagan Chuid). Little hill on which 
there was a fold. Creagan, dim. of creag, hill; chuid, gen. 
asp. of add, fold. C, being silent, had been lost. 

Craigiehill. Hill. The second part is a translation of 
the first. Creagan, little hill. 

Craigielea, Craigieley. Grassy place on a small hill. 
Creagan, dim. of creag, hill; lea or ley, grassy level ground. 

Craigiepots (for Poitean Creige). Deep pools at a hill. 
Poitean, plural of poit, pot; creige, gen. of creag, rock. 

Craigies. Rocks, or little rock. In Gaelic the name 
had been Creagan, which might be the plural of creag, rock, 
and should be translated craigs or rocks ; or it might be the 
dim. of creag, a rock, and should be translated craigie or 
little rock ; but when it is translated craigies it is regarded 
as both a plural and a dim. word. Rocks seems to be the 
more appropriate meaning. 

Craigieshiels. The Gaelic form of the name had been 
Creagan Sealain, little hill of the shieling. Creagan, dim. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 121 

of creag, hill; sealain, gen. of sealan, shieling, summer hill 
pasture. 

Craigietocher. Hill near a causey. Creagan, dim. of 
creag, hill; tochair, gen. of tocJiar, causey. A causey was 
made in soft or wet ground by a road raised above the sur- 
face, or by stems of trees laid close together across the road, 
or by wickerwork. 

Craigievar (for Creag a' Bharra). Hill of the point. 
Creag, hill; a', of the; bharra, gen. asp. of barr, point. 

Craiginches. Enclosed place near the Craiglug. Creag, 
precipice; innis, enclosure. Final s is due to s of innis. 

Craiglaggan Burn. Burn of the hill of the little howe. 
Creag, hill; lagain, gen. of lagan, little hollow. 

Craiglarach. Hill where there are ruins. Creag, hill ; 
larach, site, ruins. 

Craiglash. Hill of the blaze. Creag, hill; leois (pro- 
nounced losh), gen. of leas, light, blaze. 

Craiglea Hill. Hill on which there was a grassy place. 
Creag, hill; ley, grass land. 

Craigleith. Grey hill. Creag, hill; Hath, grey. 

Craiglich. Both parts of the name mean hill. Creag, 
hill; lamh, hill. Lamh becomes lich in Giuslich, hill of firs, 
Morlich, big hill, and in several other names. 

Craigloch. Hill beside Loch of Leys. Creag, hill; loch, 
loch. 

Craiglogie. Hill beside a little howe. Creag, hill; 
lagain, gen. of lagan, little howe. 

Craiglug. Projection from a cliff. Creag, cliff, rock, 
hill; lug (Scotch), ear. 

Cratgmad, Craigmaud. . Hill where courts were held. 
Creag, hill; moid, gen. of mod, court of justice. 

Craigmahandle (for Creag a' Cheann Dail). Hill of the 
head of the waterside field. Creag, hill; a', of the; cheann, 
ceann asp., head; dail, for dalach, gen. of dail, field. 

Craigmancie. Settled hill. Creag, hill; mansaigh, 
settled. Though the hill is 631 feet high it is either wooded 
or under cultivation. 

Craigmill (for Creag Meall). Both parts mean hill. 
Creag, hill; meall, hill. 

Craigmire. Marsh at a hill. Creag, hill; mire, marsh. 

Craigmore. Big hill. Creag, hill; mor, big. 

Cratgmuir. Hill moor. Creag, hill. 

Craigmyle. Hill with a smooth top. Creaq, hill; maol, 
bald. 

Craignabo. Hill of the cows. Creag, hill; nan, of the; 
bo, gen. plural of bo, cow. 

Craignagour. Hill of the goats. Creag, hill; nan, of 
the; gobhar, gen. plural of gobhar, goat. 



122 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Craignarb. Hill of the roe. Craig, hill; na, of the; 
earba, gen. of earb, roe. 

Craignathunder. Hill of the joining of two streams. 
Creag, rock, hill; na, of the; chomair, gen. asp. of comar, 
meeting of burns. Ch had become th, and m had become n, 
to which d had afterwards been added. 

Craigneach. Hill of the ghost. Creag, hill; neach, 
ghost. 

Craignook. Nook of a hill. Creag, hill. 

Craignordie. Both parts of the name mean hill. Creag , 
hill ; na, of the ; ordain, gen. of ordan, hill. 

Craigour. Hill of goats. Creag, hill; gobhar, gen. 
plural of gobhar, goat. 

Craigouthorn. Hill of the fold. The oldest part is the 
last, which had been Carn Chuit. hill of the fold. Ch of 
chuit had been lost, and then creag, hill, had been prefixed 
to explain the name, and at the same time carn had become 
chuirn and had been put last, producing Creag Uit Chuirn. 
First c of ch had been lost, and then the name had lapsed 
into Craigouthorn. 

Craigrae Beg. Little hill rising from a plain. Creag, 
hill; reidhe, gen. of reidh, plain; beag, little. 

Craigrannoch. Ferny hill. Creag, hill; raineach, ferny. 

Craigs, The. The rocks. Creagan, rocks. 

Craigs of Eden. Steep rocks on the sides of a small 
stream near Eden Castle. Creagan, plural of creag, rock. 

Craigs of Logie. Hills or rocky places round a small 
howe. Creagan, plural of creag, hill, rock; lagain, gen. of 
lagan, small howe. 

Craigs of Longley. Bocks of the grassy moss. 
Creagan, plural of creag, rock, hill; Ion, moss; ley, grass 
land. Longleys sometimes means long grassy fields. 

Craigs of Pananaich. Cliffs on Pananaich hill. Creag? 
rock, cliff, steep hill. See Pananaich. 

Craigs of Succoth. Bocks with projecting points. 
Creagan, plural of creag, rock; socach, snouted, beaked. 

Craig sglen (for Gleann Craige). Glen of the hill. 
Gleann, glen; craige, gen. of creag, hill. 

Craigshannoch. Bock on the summit of one of the 
Bennachie hills. Creag, rock; sunnach (Irish), summit. 

Craigside. Hill side. Creag, hill. 

Craigsley. Grassy place at a hill. Creag, hill; ley, 
grassy place. 8 is superfluous. 

Craigston. Farm-town named after its owner, whose 
name was Craig. 

Craigston, Craigton, Craigtown. Town at a hill. 
Creag, hill; ton (English), town. The insertion of s in 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 



123 



Craigston had been made in the belief that Craig was a 
personal name, which it was not. 

Craigveg Plantation. Plantation on a little hill. 
Creag, hill; bhcag, little. 

Craigward. Enclosed place on a hill, where live stock 
could be protected against thieves and prevented from 
straying. 

Craigwell, Craig Well. Well on a hill. Creag, hill. 
Craigwillie, Craigullie. Hill at a curve in a long 
range. Creag, hill; uillne, gen. of uileann, elbow, corner. 
Craik. Hill. Creach, hill. 

Cramlet, The. The crooked hillside. Crom, crooked; 
Icathad, side of a hill. 

Crampstone. Stone of quarrel. Craimb, gen. of cramb, 
quarrel. The stone might have been set up after a quarrel 
about a boundary. 

Cranbog. Bog at a tree. Crann, tree. 
Cran Burn. Tree burn. Crann, tree. 
Cranford. Ford at a tree. Crann, tree. 
Cranhill. Hill of trees. Crann, gen. plural of crann r 
tree. 

Cranloch. Loch at a tree. Cran, tree; loch, lake. 
Cranna. Wooded. Crannach, growing trees. 
Crannabog. Tree of the bog. Cran, tree; na, of the; 
bog, bog. 

Crannach Hill. Hill growing trees. Crannach, 
wooded. 

Cranndail How. Tree field howe. Crann, tree; dail, 
field; howe, hollow. 

Cranniecatt Hill (for Cran na Cath Hill). Hill with a 
tree near a road. Cran, tree; na, of the; cath, drove road. 

Crannog. Site of a village on a raised mound, or on a 
platform resting on piles in a loch. Crannog (Irish), 
habitation. 

Cransdale. Perhaps Tree field. Crann, tree; dail, 
field, level piece of ground. So few trees grow at the edge 
of the sea that one would have been a distinctive mark for 
a place. 

Cransmill. This name might mean mill of a person 
named Cran. But it might be of Gaelic origin and mean 
wooded hill. Meall, hill, in the gen. form, mill; crann, gen. 
plural of crann, tree. 

Crantlach Well. Well at a tree on a hill. Crann, tree ; 
tulaich, gen. of tulach, hill. 

Craskins. The crossing. Crasgan, little crossing. The 
final s had been introduced under the mistaken belief that 
Craskin was a plural word. Craskins is in the mouth of a 



124 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

slack or hollow, where it would be convenient to cross the 
hill lying to the north. 

Crathes. Wooded or bushy place. Craobhan, plural of 
craobh, tree. An being a plural termination had normally 
become es. Asp. b had become asp. t, as in the Gaelic word 
faobhar, edge, which has become feather in English. 

Crathie. Wooded place. Creathach, underwood, brush- 
wood. 

Crathienaird (for Creathach an Aird). The bushy part 
•of a hill. Creathach, underwood, bushes; an, of the; aird, 
gen. of ard, hill, height. 

Craw Stane. Sculptured stone with a bird resembling 
a crow carved upon it. 

Crawfordswell (for Baile Ath Cra). Town at the ford 
where there were sheep-buchts. Baile, town; ath, ford; 
era, gen. plural of cro, sheep-fold, bucht. Baile had become 
Bhaile when it was put last, and this had become Well. 

Craw head. Both parts of the name mean fold, and the 
first had been added to explain the second. Cra, sheep-fold; 
chuid, cuid asp., fold. In cliuid c had been lost after 
aspiration. 

Creag a' Chait. Cliff of the cat. Creag, craig, cliff, 
rock; a', of the; chait, gen. asp. of cat, cat. In the Ord- 
nance Survey map (No 89), a has an accent instead of an 
apostrophe. 

Creag a' Chlamhain. Hill of the kite. Creag, rock, 
hill; a', of the; chlamhain, gen. asp. of clamhan, kite, 
buzzard. 

Creag a' Chleirich. Hill of the clergyman. Creag, 
hill; a', of the; chleirich, gen. asp. of cleireach, clergyman. 
Doubtless chleirich should be chlaraiche, bareness, making 
the name mean bare hill. 

Creag a' Choire Dhirich. Hill of the steep corry. 
Creag, rocky hill; a', of the; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry; 
dhirich, gen. asp. of direach, steep, perpendicular. 

Creag a' Ghlas-Uillt. Mountain of the green burn. 
Creag, mountain; a', of the; glas, green; uillt, gen. of allt, 
burn. 

Creag a' Ghobhainn. Hill of the cattle-fold. Creag, 
hill; a', of the; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Creag a' Mhadaidh. Bock of fox. Creag, rock; a', 
of the; mhadaidh, gen. asp. of madadh, fox, wolf. 

Creag Aighean. Hill place where heifers fed. Creag, 
rock, hill; aighean, gen. plural of agh, heifer, fawn. 

Craig an Airidh (for Creag na h-Airidhe). Hill of the 
shiel. Creag, hill; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. of 
airidh, shieling. 

Creag an Aonaich. Hill of the hill. This tautological 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 125- 

name must be post-Gaelic. Creag, hill; an, of the; aonaich, 
gen. of aonach, hill. The original form may have been an 
aonach, the hill. 

Creag an Dail Bheag, Creag an Dail Mhor. Hill of 
the little field and Hill of the big field. Creag, rocky hill; 
an, of the; dail, field; blieag, fern, of beag, little; mhor, fem. 
of mor, big. 

Creag an Diuciid. The duke's rock. Creag, rock, hill; 
an, of the; diuciid, duke. 

Creag an Dubh Loch. Cliff of the black loch. Creag, 
cliff; an, of the; dubh, black; loch, loch. 

Creag an Eunan. The original form of this name may 
have been An Innean. The hill. It is 2073 feet high, and 
conspicuous. Afterwards Creag had been prefixed because 
innean means both a hill and an anvil, making the name 
Creag an Innean, supposed to mean hill of the anvil. As 
this meaning is not appropriate an attempt to improve upon 
the name had been made in the second edition of the 
Ordnance Survey maps, and it is now Creag an Eunan. 
This phrase contains the grammatical error of'making eunan 
a genitive and no meaning can safely be suggested for it. 

Creag an Fhir-shaighde. Cliff of the bowman. Creag, 
cliff; an, of the; fhir-sliaighde, gen. asp. of fear-shaighde, 
man of the arrow, archer, bowman, soldier. 

Creag an Fhithich. Hill of the raven. Creag, hill; an, 
of the; fhithich, gen. asp. of fitheach, raven. 

Creag an Fhuathais. Hill of the spectre. Creag, rocky 
mountain; an, of the; fhuathais, gen. asp. of fuathas, 
spectre. 

Craig an Gobhair. Hill of the goat. Creag, hill; an, of 
the; gobhair, gen. of gobhar, goat. 

Creag an Loch. Hill near Loch Callater. Creag, rocky 
hill; an, of the; loch, loch. 

Creag an Lochain. Mountain of the little loch. Creag,. 
mountain; an, of the; lochain, gen. of lochan, small loch. 

Creag an Lurachain. Hill where a kind of garlic grows. 
Creag, hill; an, of the; lurachain, gen. of lurachan, ramsons, 
broad-leaved garlic. 

Creag an Sgor. Hill of the sharp rock on the summit. 
Creag, hill, rock: an, of the; sgoir, gen. of sgor, sharp rock. 

Creag an t-Seabhaig. Hill of the hawk. Creag, rock r 
hill; an t-, of the; scabhaig, gen. of seabhag, hawk. 

Creag an t-Sean-ruigh. Hill of the old shiel. Creag, 
hill; an t-, of the; sean-ruigli, old shiel. 

Creag Ba^ an Eas. Hill of the wood at the burn. 
Creag, hill; bad, wood, thicket; an, of the; eas, burn, 
waterfall. 

Creag Bad an t-Seabhaig. Hill of the bush of the hawk^ 



Creag, 


hill; 


Creag, 


hill; 


Creag, 


hill; 


damh, 


gen. 


Creag, 


hill; 


hill; do 


inne , 



126 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Creag, hill; bad, bush; an t-, of the; seabhaig, gen. of sea- 
bhag, hawk. Before grouse preserving began hawks and 
kites were numerous among the hills. 

Creag Beinne. Hill of the hill. Creag, rock; beinne, 
gen. of bcinn, hill. The second part had been added to 
explain the first. 

Creag Bhalg. Hill of the cattle-fold. Creag, hill; 
buileag, dim, of buaile, fold. 

Creag Bheag. Little hill. Creag, hill; bheag, fern, of 
beag, small. 

Creag Bhiorach. Sharp-pointed hill. 
bhiorach, fern, of biorach, sharp-pointed. 

Creag Choinnich. Hill of assembly. 
choinne, gen. asp. of coinne, meeting. 

Creag Clunie. Hill beside a valley. 
cluaine, gen. of cluain, river valley, meadow. 

Creag Damh. Hill of oxen. Creag, hill 
plural of damh, ox, stag. 

Creag De^arg, Creagdearg. Eed hill. 
-dhearg, fern, of dearg, red. 

Creag Doin. Hill of brownness. Creag, 
brownness. 

Creag Ghiubhais. Hill of the fir. Creag, hill; a', of 
the (suppressed); ghiubhais, gen. asp. of giubhas, fir, fir 
grove. 

Creag Leachdach. Cliff where the rock is in flat slabs. 
Creag, cliff, rock; leachdach, abounding in slabs. 

Creag Ltath. Grey hill. Creag, hill; Hath, grey. 

Creag Loisgte. Burned hill. Creag, hill; loisgte, 
burned. In dry summers the surface of hills sometimes 
burns for several months. 

Creag Mheann. Hill of kids. Creag, hill; mheann, 
gen. plural of rneann, kid. 

Creag Mhor. Big mountain. Creag, mountain; mhor, 
fern, of mor, big. 

Creag Mullach (for Mullach Craige). Summit of the 
hill. Mullach, summit; craige, gen. of creag, hill. 

Creag na Creiche. Hill of the boundary. Creag, hill; 
na, of the; criche, gen. of crioch, boundary. 

Creag na Dearcaige. Mountain of the little berry. 
Creag, mountain; na, of the; dearcaige, gen. of dearcag, 
small berry. 

Creag na Gamhna. Hill of the stirks. Creag, rocky 
hill; nan, of the; gamhna, gen. plural of gamhainn, yearling 
calf. 

Creag na Gaoithe. Windy craig. Creag, craig, hill; 
na, of the; gaoithe, gen. of gaoth, wind. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 127 

Creag na Meann. Hill of the kid. Creag, hill; na, of 
the ; meann, kid. 

Creag na Slice. Hill of the road. Creag, hill; na, of 
the ; slighe, path. A road over this hill joins the Mount Keen 
road. 

Creag na Slowrie. Hill of the cattle. Creag, hill; na, 
of the; sliabhre (Irish), cattle, herds. 

Creag na Spine. Hill of the thicket. Creag, hill; na, of 
the; spine, gen. of spin, thicket, bush, thorn. 

Creag na Sroine. Hill with a high projecting end. 
Creag, hill; na, of the; sroine, gen. of sron, nose, point. 

Creag nam Ban. Mountain of the women. Creag, 
mountain; nam, of the; ban, gen. plural of bean, woman. 
The name might have originated in the custom of women 
going to hill pasture with cows in summer. Or, Mountain 
of the fairies, ban being gen. plural also of ban, female fairy. 

Creag nan Gabhar. Hill of the goats. Creag, rock, 
hill; nan, of the; gabhar, gen. plural of gabhar, goat. 

Creag nan Gall. Hill of the rocks. Creag, hill; nan, 
of the; gall, gen. plural of gall, rock. 

Creag nan Leachda. Mountain of the flat stones. 
Creag, rocky mountain; nan, of the; leachda, gen. plural of 
leachd, flat stone. 

Creag Phadruig. Patrick's hill. Creag, steep hill; 
Phadruig, gen. asp. of Padruig, Patrick. 

Creag Phiobaidh. Mountain of piping. Creag, moun- 
tain; phiobaidh, gen. asp. of piobadh, piping. 

Creagan a' Choire Etchachan. Eocks of Corry Et- 
chachan. Creagan, plural of creag, rock; a', of the; choire, 
coire asp., corry; etchachan, little boisterous burn. See 
Etchachan. 

Creagan Kiach. Little grey hill. Creagan, little hill; 
riabhach, grey. 

Creagandubh. Little black rock. Creagan, little rock; 
dubh, black. As there are several rocks the name should 
be Creagan-dubha, black rocks. Creagan, plural of creag, 
rock; dubha, plural of dubh, black. 

Creaganducy. Hill of the fir. Creag, hill; an, of the; 
giubhais, gen. of giubhas, fir. 

Creagandummie (for Creag an Dunain). Hill with a 
hump on the summit. Creag, hill; an, of the; dunain, gen. 
of dunan, little hill like a hump. 

Creagantoll. Hill of the hole. Creag, hill; an, of the; 
tuill, gen. of toll, hole, pool, howe. 

Creagenhigh (for Creag an Chuith). Hill of the cattle- 
fold. Creag, hill; an, of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, 
cattle-fold. C and u of chuith having become silent had been 
lost, and th had become gh. 



J28 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Crespet. Long narrow place. Crios (pronounced cres), 
belt; pet, place. 

Crichie. Place where there was fine clay. Criathach 
(th silent), abounding in clay. The clay at Crichie was 
suitable for making domestic vessels and sepulchral urns. 

Crichie. Hill-top. Creachan, summit of a hill. An 
had been changed to ie in the belief that it was a dim. 
termination. 

Crichneyled (for Leathad Creachain). Slope of a hill. 
Leathad, slope, side; creachain, gen. of creachan, moun- 
tain. Ai and n of creachain had been transposed, and th of 
leathad, with its vowels, had been lost. 

Crimond. District which was a moor. Crioch, district; 
monaidh, gen. of monadh, moor, heath. in crioch is silent, 
and ch had also become silent and had been lost. Cri is pro- 
nounced cree. 

Crimond Hill. The three parts of the name all mean 
hill. Creach, hill; 'monadh, hill. Ch of creach had become 
silent, and monadh had been added to explain it. Crimond 
might also mean grey hill. Creach, grey; monadh, hill. 

Crimondgorth. Enclosed place in Crimond; which see. 
Gorth, enclosure. 

Crimondmogate. Level parts of Crimond; which see.- 
Maghach, consisting of plains. 

Crincle Den. Den of the round head. Cruinn, round; 
cill, for ceann, head. A knoll with a round head is con- 
spicuous at the head of the den. 

Crobhar. Sheep-fold on a projecting point. Cro, sheep- 
fold; bharra, gen. asp. of barr, point. 

Crockart Hill. The three parts of this name mean hill. 
Cnoc (pronounced crochg in some parts), hill; ard, hill. 

Crockleback Stone. A glacial boulder in the Dee at 
Peterculter. The meaning of the name is not known. 
Crockle may mean crooked. 

Croft of Muickan. Ground growing Meum athaman- 
ticum, baldmoney, Highland micken. It was used as a pot 
herb, and the root was dug up and chewed on account of its 
aromatic, pungent flavour. Croit, croft, small piece of 
ground; meacan, a tapering fleshy root. 

Croftmillan. Croft of the small hill. Croit, croft; 
millain, gen. of millan, dim. of meall, hill. Millan is formed 
from mill, the gen. of meall, instead of the nom. 

Croich Hill. Hill of the gallows. Croich, gallows. 

Crom Leitir. Crooked hillside. Crom, crooked; leitir, 
hillside. 

Cromarty. Crook of a hill. Cromadh, bending; ardain, 
gen. of ardan, low height. Cromarty is at a turn in a long 
ridge. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 129 

Crombie Cairn. Crooked hill. Crom, crooked; earn, 
hill. 

Crombiebrae. Curved brae. Cromaidh, gen. of crom- 
adh, curving, bending. 

Crombie 's Well (for Tobar Cromaidh). Well at a bend. 
Tobar, well; cromaidh, gen. of cromadh, turning. 

Cromlabank, Cromleybank. Crooked bank on the side of 
a hill. Crom, crooked; lamh, hill. 

Cromlet, Cromblet. Crooked side of a hill or burn. 
Crom, crooked; leth, side. 

Cromwellside (for Suidhe Crom Ail). Place on a crooked 
hill. Suidhe, place; crom, crooked; aill, hill. 

Crook a' Peel. Curve in the Ythan at a pool. Peel in 
Scotch sometimes means a fortified place, a stockade where 
cattle could be guarded. 

Crook o' Burn. Bend of the burn. 

Crookahill (for Cnoc a' Coill). Hill. Cnoc (pronounced 
crochg), hill; a', of the; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. Both 
the first and the last parts mean hill. 

Crooked Grain. Crooked little burn. Grain here means 
a branch of a burn. 

Crooked Hills. Hill. Crooked is a corruption of cnoc, 
hill, which is often pronounced crochg in Gaelic and be- 
comes crock and crook in Scotch. 

Crookednook (for Cuil a' Chnuic). Nook of the hill. 
Cuil, nook; a', of the; chnuic, gen. asp. of cnoc, hill. 

Crookfold, Crooktree. In these names crook represents 
cnoc, hill. Tree is triath {th silent), hill. 

Crookmore. Big hill. Cnoc, hill; mor, big. N after c 
in Gaelic is pronounced r. 

Cross Stone. Stone at the summit level of a road 
crossing a hill. Crasg, crossing. 

Crossfields. Fields whose longest side is perpendicular 
to the hollow where they end. 

Crouniehillock (for Toman Cruinne). Hillock of round- 
ness. Toman, hillock; cruinne, gen. of cruinne, roundness. 

Crow Well. Well at a sheep-fold. Cro, circle, wattled 
fold. 

Crowmallie. Circle at a little hill. Cro, circle; meal- 
lain, gen. of meallan, dim. of me all, hill. 

Crowness (for Cro an Eas). Fold at the burn. Cro, 
sheep-fold; an, of the; eas, burn. 

Crownhead. Bound fold. Cruin, round; chuid, cuid 
asp., fold. 

Cruchie. Round conical hill. Cruachan, dim. of cruach, 
round pointed hill. 

Cruden, Crudie, (for Cruach Dain). Knoll of judgment. 
Cruach, knoll, pile of stones; dain, gen. of dan, judgment. 

i 



130 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ach of cruach had become silent, and ain of dain had be- 
come ie. 

Cruich. Hill like a stack. Cruach, high, steep hill. 
Cruinn Choire. Bound corry. Cruinn, round; choire, 
coire asp., corry. 

Cryla. Fold. Croile, fold. 

Cuid and Cuit. Cattle-fold, in Scotch pumphal. By 
aspiration of the final letter the forms cuidli and cuith are 
obtained, and the initial c may also be aspirated, producing 
chuid, chuidh, chuit, chuith. The syllable ail (which 
perhaps represents ail of feadail, cattle) was sometimes 
annexed to some of the forms. These forms enter into more 
than a hundred names of places in or near Aberdeenshire. 
In many of these ch has been changed to other aspirated 
letters, and c of ch has frequently been lost. The aspirated 
forms ch, dh, and th have frequently become silent and 
have been lost. The following names all contain cuid or 
cuit in some of their forms: — Cow (sounded coo), Cowbog, 
Cowgate, Cowie, Cowesmill, Cay, Caie, Caiesmill, Key, Keys, 
Morkeu, Kidd, Fife, Fifehill, Fittie, Futtie, Fyvie, Fiddie, 
Faddan, Fiddes, Fuddes, Coats, Cotwell, Cotton, Couttie, 
Coutts, Cuttie, Craigenhigh, Duguid, Ewebrae, Outseat, 
Hythie, Bedhyth, Cowhyth, Quiddie, Keith and its com- 
pounds, White and its compounds, Hat, Hay, Head, Heath 
and their compounds. From forms of cuid, etc., with the 
termination ail added, come Quithel, Cuttle, Cothill, Cothal, 
Whitehill, Whythall, Whey well, Quittle, Goodall, Kettle, 
Keddle, Kittle, Wheedlemont, and Queel. Many English 
names from the same roots may be found, as Kew, Kettle, 
Whittlesea, Whitton, Hoo, Hythe, Hutton, Maidenhead 
(middle cattle-fold), Cowden, Outhgill, and Outwell. The 
name Asquith means burn at a cattle-fold. Other forms of 
it are Ayscough, Ascot, Escott, Scott. 

Cuidhe Crom (for Crom Cuidh). Circle of the cattle-fold. 
Crom, circle; cuidh, cattle-fold. There is an old round fold 
on Strone Baddoch. 

Cul nan Gad. The nook of the turns of the burn. Cuil, 
nook; nan, of the; gad, gen. plural of gad, twisted twig. 

Cul Biabhach. Grey nook. Cuil, nook; riabhach, grey, 
brindled. 

Cula Burn. Burn of the back or north side of a hill. 
Cula, secondary form of the gen. of cul, back. 

Culag Hill. Sod hill. Culag, mossy sod for the back 
of a fire. 

Culardoch. Heights at the north side of a mountain. 
Cul, back, north side; ardoch, abounding in heights. 

Culblean (for Cuil Bleoghainn). Nook where cows on 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 131 

hill pasture were milked. Cuil, nook; bleoghainn, gen. of 
bleoghann, milking. 

Culbyth. Nook growing birches. Cuil, nook; beath, 
gen. plural of bcath, birch-tree. 

Culchavie Burn. Burn of the eroded nook. Cuil, 
corner; chabhaich, gen. asp. of cabach, dug out. Both c and 
b in cabach have been aspirated. 

Culdearg. Bed nook. Cuil, nook; dearg, red. 

Culdrain (for Cuil Draighinn). Nook of the hawthorn. 
Cuil, nook ; draighinn, gen. of draighionn, hawthorn. 

Cdldubh. Black back. Cul, back, north slope of a hill; 
■dubh, black. # 

Culfork (for Cul Choirc). Nook fit for growing oats. 
Cul, nook; choirc, gen. asp. of core, oats. Ch had become 
ph, equivalent to /. 

Culfosie, Culfossie. Nook of rest. Cuil, nook; foise, 
gen. of fois, rest, leisure. 

Culhay. Hill of the cattle-fold. Coill, hill; chuith, 
gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. C and th in chuith had become 
silent and had been dropped. 

Cullerlie (for Cuil Airidhe). Nook of the shieling. Cuil, 
nook; airidhe, gen of airidh, shieling. 

Cullonach. Marshy corner. Cuil, corner; lonach, 
marshy. 

Cullyblean. Hill of milking. Coille, hill; bleodhainn, 
gen. of bleodJiann, milking of cows. There had been shiels 
on the hill, occupied by women who milked cows. 

Culmellie. Back of the little hill. Cul, back, north 
side; meallain, gen. of meallan, dim. of meall, hill. 

Culquhonny. Nook of the meeting. Cuil, nook, retired 
place; choinne, gen. asp. of coinne, meeting. 

Culquoich. Back hollow. Cul, back, north; etiach, 
cup, hollow. 

Culsalmond (Culsamuel, 1198). Pleasant nook on the 
hill, or on the brow of a hill. Cuil, nook; samh (mh silent), 
pleasant, sheltered; monaidh, gen. of monadh, hill; muile, 
gen. of muil, brow of a hill. 

Culsh. Ketired place. Cuilteach, retired, private. 

Culsten Burn (for Allt Cuiltein). Burn of the little glen. 
Allt, burn; cuiltein, gen. of cuiltean, dim. of cuil, nook, glen. 
S in Culsten represents tean, erroneously supposed to be a 
plural termination. Though tean had been allowed to re- 
main s had been inserted before it. 

Culstruphan (for Cuil Sruthain). Nook in a small 
strath. Cuil, nook; sruthain, gen. of sruthan, small strath. 
Sr at the beginning of Gaelic names became str in passing 
into Scotch. Th had become ph. Culstruphan may be cor- 
rupted into Coldstream. 



132 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Culter. Back land. Cut, back, north ; tir, land. 

Cultercullen (for Cul-tir Coillein). Back land of the 
little hill. Cul, back; tir, land; coillein, gen. of coillean, 
little hill. 

Culterty. Back lands. Cul, back; tirte, plural of tir, 
land. 

Culthibert Burn. Shepherd's nook burn. Cuil, nook; 
chibir, gen. asp. of cibeir, shepherd. 

Cultorden Hill. Perhaps the name should be Cul- 
lorden Hill, all the parts meaning hill. Coill, hill; ordan, 
little hill. If coill had been corrupted into cull then ordan 
might have been added to explain it. 

Cults. Little secluded place. Cuiltean, dim. of cuil r 
nook. Ean had been made s instead of ie. 

Culyarney (for Cuil Fhearna). Nook of alders. Cuil, 
nook; fhearna, gen. plural asp. of fearna, alder, arn (Scotch). 

Cuminestown. Town founded by a Cumine of Auchry. 

Cummer's Stone (for Clach Comair). Stone at the 
junction of two burns. Clach, stone (translated); comair, 
gen. of comar, meeting of two burns. Comar has some- 
times s added to it because it represents two burns coming 
together. 

Cummerton. Farm-town at a place where two burns or 
two roads meet. Comar, meeting, junction. 

Cummingstone. Stone of remembrance. Cuimhne, 
remembrance. 

Cumrie. Place where two opposite slopes meet. Co7nh, 
conjunction; ruigh, hill slope. 

Cunnach Moss. Moss growing cotton grass. Canach, 
catstail, cotton grass (Eriophorum). 

Cunning Wood. Rabbit wood. Coinean, rabbit. 

Cunningar. Eabbit warren. The appropriateness of this 
name is not obvious, as the knoll is a hard remnant left by 
a glacier. Coinicear, rabbit warren. 

Cunningar Hill. Hill of the rabbit warren. Coinicear, 
rabbit warren. 

Cunninghare. House on a shieling. Comhnuidh, per- 
manent residence; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. The 
ordinary shiels were deserted during winter. 

Cunrie Craig. Rock where the dog-rose grows. Coin- 
dris, dog-rose; creag, rock, hill. 

Cup Stone. Boundary stone of the Freedom of the City 
of Aberdeen. The city mark is usually called a saucer. 

Curbay. Hill of birches. Cor, hill; beith, gen. plural of 
beith, birch tree. 

Curbrotack. Hill of fattening of cattle. Corr, hill; 
brotachaidh, gen. of brotachadh, fattening, supplying good 
pasture. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 133 

Curr. Pool. 

Currach. Bog, fen where shrubs grow, plain, race- 
course. 

Currach Pool. Pool in a marsh. Currach, fen where 
shrubs grow. 

Currach Well. Well in a marsh. Currach, marsh. 

Currie's Haugh. Haugh of the marsh, marshy haugh. 
Curraich, gen. of currach, marsh. 

Curwich Burn, Curwick Burn. Burn of the pool at a 
corner. Curr, pool; uige, gen. of uig, nook. 

Cushieston. Farm abounding in rushes. Cuiseagach, 
full of rushes. S after i sounds sh. 

Cushlachie. Frosty hill. Cuisneach, frosty ; lamhan, 
dim. of lamh, hill. Asp. m had become asp. c, and an had 
normally become ie. 

Cushnie. Frosty place. Cuisneach, frosty. In the glen 
of Cushnie, 1000 feet above the sea, the grain crops are 
liable to damage from frosts at night in early autumn. 

Cutbeard Hill. Hill with a fold on the summit. Cuit, 
fold; bearraidh, gen. of bearradh, top of a mountain. 

Cuternach. Fold where cattle were watched at night. 
Cuit, fold; airneach, watching at night. 

Cuttacksnest. Cuckoo's nest. Cuthag, cuckoo. But 
the name is a corruption of Cuitag an Eas, small fold at the 
burn. Cuitag, dim. of cuit, fold; an, of the; eas, burn. 

Cuttieburn, Cuttie Burn, (for Allt Cuitan). Burn of 
the little cattle-fold. Alii, burn (translated); cuitain, gen. 
of cuitan, dim. of cuit, cattle-fold. 

Cuttieshillock. Knoll where there was a cattle-fold. 
Cuitan, dim. of cuit, cattle-fold. An had been made both 
ie and s. See Cuid. 

Cuttleburn Burn at a cattle-fold. Cuitail, cattle-fold. 
See Cuid. 

Cuttlecraig, Cuttlecraigs, (for Creagan Cuitail). Hil- 
lock of a cattle-fold. Creagan, dim. of creag, hill; cuitail, 
cattle-fold. Final s represents an of creagan, which, how- 
ever, is not a plural but a dim. termination. 

Cuttlehill. Cattle-fold hill. Cuitail, cattle-fold. See 
Cuid. 

Cuttyhill (for Tom Cuitain). Hill of the cattle-fold. 
Tom, hill (translated); cuitain, gen. of cuitan, dim. of cuit, 
cattle-fold. 

Dagie. Good place. Deagh, good. 

Daies, Dais. Sunny place. Deas, south, sunny, on the 
right hand to a person looking east. 

Dail a' Bhoididh. Field of the swearing. Dail, field; 



134 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

a', of the; bhoideich, gen. asp. of boideach, vow, promise,, 
solemnly swearing. 

Dail Damh Bhuidhe. Field of the yellow oxen. Dail, 
field; damh, gen. plural of damh, ox, stag; bhuidhe, buidhe 
asp., yellow. 

Dairy. Milkhouse. Deye (Old English), milkmaid, farm 
mistress. 

Dalau. Field near a stream. Dail, field; abh (pro- 
nounced au), river. 

Dalbagie. Big field. Bail, field; baghach, big. Ach is- 
represented by ie in Scotch names. 

Dalbeattie. Birch field. Dail, field; beathach, abound- 
ing in birches. 

Dalbing (for Dail Binne). Field of judgment. Dail, field; 
binne, gen. of binn, judgment. 

Dalbraidie. Field of the hill. Dail, field, meadow; 
braighe, for braghad, gen. of braighe, hill. Gh and dh, being 
sounded alike, are often interchanged. 

Dalchon (for Dail Chon). Field of dogs. Dail, field; 
chon, gen. plural asp. of cu, dog. This name seems to be a 
modern imitation of Tolquhon; which see. 

Daldownie. Field of the little hill. Dail, riverside 
field; dunain, gen. of dunan, small hill. 

Dalebrook. Field near a brook. Dail, waterside field. 

Dalfad. Long field. Dail, field; fada, long. 

Dalfling (for Dail Fliuchanach). Wet field. Dail, field; 
fliuchanach, wet. The asp. letters with their vowels have 
been omitted. 

Dalgarno's Croft (for Croit Dail Garbhanaiche). Croft 
of the rugged field. Croit, croft; dail, for dalach, gen. of 
dail, field; garbhanaiche, gen. fem. of garbhanach, rugged. 

Dalgowan. Field of the cattle-fold. Dail, riverside 
field; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. Bh is equiva- 
lent to u. v, or w. 

Dalgrassich. Field of the shoemaker. Dail, haugh, 
flat field; griasaiche, gen. of griasaich, shoemaker. 

Dalhaikie (for Dail a' Chaochain). Field of the little 
burn. Dail, field; a', of the; chaochain, gen. asp. of 
caochan, streamlet. 

Dalhebity. Feld with a channel eroded by running 
water. Dail, field; cliaobte, past part. asp. of caob, to bite, 
erode. 

Dalherick. Field of the sheep. Dail, field at the side 
of a river; chaorach, gen. plural asp. of caora, a sheep. 

Dallance Pot. Pot in the Deveron at a small field. 
Dalan, dim. of dail, field by a river. An had erroneously 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 135 

been regarded as a plural termination, and therefore s had 
been added to dalan. 

Dalliefour. Field of grass. Dalach, field; feoir, gen. 
of feur, grass. Dalach, the gen. form is used instead of the 
nom. daft, as is done with aird, blair, loin, and other nouns. 

Dallochy. Small field. Dalachan, dim. of dail, field, 
formed from the gen. dalach. An normally became y. 

Dalmadilly (for Dail an Dile). Field of the whortle- 
berry. Dail, field; an, of the; dile, whortleberry. 

Dalmaik. See Drumoak. 

Dalmochie. Early field. Dail, field; moiche, earliness. 

Dalmuinzie (for Dail Moine). Feld of the moor. Dail, 
field; moine, moor. 

Dalnabo. Field of the cow. Dail, field; na, of the; 
oo, cow. 

Dalphuil (for Dail a' Phuill). Field of the pool. Dail, 
field; a', of the; phuill, gen. asp. of poll, pool. 

Dalraddie. Field of the little road. Dail, field; radain, 
gen. of radan, dim. of rad, road. 

Dalriach. Grey field. Dail, field; riabhach, grey. 

Dalrossach. Place abounding in roses. Dail, level 
field; rosach, growing roses. 

Dalsack. Field of the willows. Dail, field; sauchs 
(Scotch), willows, a translation of seileach, gen. plural of 
seileach, willow. 

Dalvorar, Delavorar (for Dail a' Mhoraire). Field of 
the landlord. Dail, field; a', of the (suppressed); mhoraire, 
gen. asp. of morair, landlord. The name would be applicable 
to a haugh reserved for hay by a landlord when letting a 
farm to a tenant. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Dalvorar Corrie. Corry of the field of the landlord. 
Coire, corry. See Dalvorar. 

Dalweary (for Dail a' Bhiora). Field of the water. Dal, 
for dail, field by a river; a', of the (suppressed); bhiora, gen. 
asp. of bior, water. 

Dalwhing. Field of assembly. Dail, field by a river; 
choinnc, gen. asp. of coinne, meeting, assembly. In other 
names choinne has become honey or hind, as in Sunhoney, 
Hindstones. 

Damar (for Da Muir). Two seas. Da, two; mar, for 
muir, sea. 

Damil (perhaps for Meall Damh). Hill of the oxen. 
Meall, hill; damh, gen. plural of damh. ox. Probably what 
is called on the map a fort had been a cattle-fold. 

Dancing Cairns. The original name had been Sithean 
Dain. Mount of judgment. Sithean (th silent), mount; 
dain, gen. of dan, judgment. Th with ea had been lost, 
leaving sin. To explain this after its meaning had been 



136 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

forgotten caman, dim. of earn, hill, had been prefixed and 
the name had become Carnan Sin Dain. In Scotch caman 
ought to have become cairnie, but by mistake it had been 
made cairns. At this time the parts of the name had been 
rearranged and dain had been put first in the nom. form dan. 
Dancing Cairns had been the seat of a barony court. 

Danestone (probably for Clach Dain). Stone which was 
the seat of a barony court. Clach, stone; dain, gen. of dan, 
judgment. 

Danshillock (for Toman Dain). Hillock of judgment. 
Toman, hillock (translated) ; dain, gen. of dan, judgment. 
The place had been the seat of a barony court and the 
residence of a baron bailie. 

Danzig Shiel. Summer residence. It is said that a man 
concerned in the erection of this house called it Dantzig 
Shiel because Dantzig was his birthplace. Seal (pronounced 
shal), house used occasionally. 

Daralees (for Doire a' Lise). Thicket at the cattle-fold. 
Doire, grove, thicket; a', of the; lise, gen. of lios, cattle- 
fold. 

Dararach, Burn of. Burn giving out rattling sounds. 
Dararaich, gen. of dararach, rattling noise. It falls 250 feet 
in half a mile. 

Dardar (for An t-Ard Ar). The high land. An t-, the; 
ard, high; ar, land. When the article an was omitted t had 
been left and changed to d. 

Darley. Grassy place where oak trees grew. Darach 
(ach silent), gen. plural of darach, oak tree; ley (Scotch), 
grassy place. 

Darn Haugh. Stony haugh. Darn, small round stone. 
Dam also means ford. 

Darnabo. Ford for cows. Dam, ford; na, of the; bo, 
for boin, gen. of bo, cow. 

Darnford. Darn seems to mean ford, and the second 
part may be a translation of the first. 

Darnie Heuch. Steep rocky bank. Darnach and dor- 
nach, rocky, stony; heuch and hvugh, very steep bank. 

Darra. Wooded. Darach, abounding in oaks. Frag- 
ments of oak charcoal have been found in prehistoric graves 
at Darra. 

Darrahill. Hill of oaks. Darach, gen. plural of darach, 
oak-tree. 

Darroch Learg. Side of a hill growing oaks. Darach, 
oak; learg, hillside. 

Dartfield. Cattle field. Dart (Irish), herd of cattle. 

Dauch, Daugh, Davoch. Farm. Davoch, farm fit to 
carry a large herd of cattle and to furnish ten or twelve oxen 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 137 

for a plough, or oxen for two ploughs. Usually a dauch was 
held jointly by three tenants. 

Daugh of Aswanley (for Davoch a' Sughanach Leith). 
Large farm on the wet hillside. Dabhoch, large farm; a', of 
the; sughanach, watery; leith, gen. of leth, hillside. 

Dauch of Cairnborrow. Large farm held jointly by 
several tenants. Dabhoch, farm. Cairnborrow is composed 
of two parts — cam, hill; and bruch, hill, the latter having 
been added to explain the former. 

Dauch of Invbrmark. Farm district at the infall of the 
Markie Water into the Deveron. Dabhoch, large farm held 
jointly by several tenants; inbhir, infall; Markie, river name, 
derived from marc, horse, because horses were reared in the 
glens of the Markie. 

Daues Pot. Daues may be a corruption of gaws, dh and 
gh being sounded alike. See Ga Pot. 

Davah. Farm. Dabhach, portion of land. 

Davan. Two waters. Da, two; abhainn, water. Da 
abhainn is a dual form in which abhainn is singular. The 
two waters are Loch Davan and Loch Kinord, very near 
each other. 

David's Howe. Howe where oxen were pastured. 
Damh, gen. plural of damh, oxen. 

Davidson's Cairn. Heap of stones at the spot where 
the dead bodv of Davidson, a notorious poacher, was found 
in 1843. 

David ston. Perhaps this name had originally been 
Haile Dabhoich. Town of the dauch. Baile, town (trans- 
lated and transposed); dabhoich, gen. of dabhoch, large 
farm held conjointly by several tenants. 

Davies Hillock. Perhaps this name represents Toman 
Damhan. Hillock of the oxen. Toman, hillock; damhan, 
gen. plural of damh, ox. An may have been translated into 
both ie and s, producing Davies. Mh is equivalent to v. 

Davieshill. Hill of oxen, place where plough oxen fed. 
Da7nh (mh equivalent to v), gen. plural of damh, ox. >S 
had been added because davie was believed to be a man's 
name. 

Daviot. Howe where oxen grazed. Damh, gen. plural 
of damh, ox; iochd, howe. Formerly a in Daviot was broad, 
and Daviot was pronounced daw-vit. 

Davniescroft (for Dabhochan with croft added to ex- 
plain it). Dabhochan, dim. of dabhoch, farm. In dabhochan 
bh is equivalent to v, ch is silent, and an had become nie by 
transposition of a and n. S had been inserted to convert 
davnie into the English possessive. 

Dawache of Murriell. Farm of Murriell. Dabhoch, 
large farm. Murriell (for Murean AU1). Small hill. Murean, 



138 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

dim. of mur, hill; axil, hill. Ean had become ie, and aill 
had been added to explain murean after it had been cor- 
rupted. 

Dawmoor. Moor of oxen. Damh, gen. plural of damh r 
ox. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or iv. 

Dead Wife's Cairn. This cairn is on a boundary. Prob- 
ably an old woman had been found dead and had not been 
allowed to be buried in consecrated ground. Suicides were 
buried on the narrow strip between two lands, which was 
regarded as no man's land. 

Dee. Black river. Dubh, black. The river Dee is black 
whon in flood, and before peat-mosses were exhausted it was 
frequently dark coloured. 

Deelat, The. Line of division. Dealachd, separating. 

Deepheather (for Dubh Chuith). Black cattle-fold made 
of mossy sods. Dubh, black; chuith, cuith asp., cattle-fold. 
After aspiration c had been lost, and huith became heath, 
of which heather is an expansion. Final er might represent 
airidh, shieling, but it is not accented. 

Deepstane Pot. Black stone pot. Dubh, black. 

Deer. Wood. Doire, thicket, trees. Deer is the official 
name of a parish. Old Deer is the village at the church of 
Deer. New Deer is the name now given to the parish for- 
merly called Auchreddie, which was detached from Deer. 
New Deer is also the name of the village at the church of 
New Deer. 

Deer Hill (for Tom Doire). Hill of a grove. Tom, hill 
(translated); doire, grove, wood, thicket. 

Deer Eoad. Dera's road. The agent for the lands be- 
longing to a religious house was called a dera. The Deer 
Koad was on the margin of the lands belonging to the 
cathedral, under the dera. 

Deer's Den. Perhaps this was the name of a hollow into 
which deer were driven, where they were killed by spears 
or shot with arrows. 

Deer's Grain. Grain — same as groin — the space be- 
tween two branches of a stream. Anciently, deer were killed 
by driving them into a place with a wide mouth, and hem- 
ming them in till they could be shot with arrows or stabbed 
with spears. The Deer's Grain may have been a place where 
deer were killed. 

Delab. Field at a river. Dail, field, alluvial ground; 
abh, river. 

Delachaish. Field of the howe. Dail, field; a', of the; 
chois, gen. asp. of cos, hollow. Oi in Gaelic is sometimes 
sounded at, and s after i is sounded sli. 

Delachuper (for Dail a' Chuip Airidhe). Field of the 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 139 1 

hill of the shieling. Dail, field; a', of the; chuip, gen. asp. 
of cop, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Delau Burn. Burn of the field at a stream. Dail, field; 
abh (pronounced au), stream. Burn is a translation of abh. 

Delavaird. Field of the meadow. Dail, field near a 
river; a', of the; bhaird, gen. asp. of bard, meadow. 

Delavine (for Dail a' Bheinne). Burn of the field on the 
hill. Dail, field; a', of the; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. 

Delavoran Haugh (for Dail a' Mhorain Haugh). Haugh 
of the field of the meadow. Dail, field near a river; a', of 
the; mhorain, gen. asp. of moran, meadow. Haugh is a 
translation of mhoran. 

Delfrigs (for Dail Frighein). Field of the small deer 
forest. Dail, field; frighein, gen. of frighean, dim. of frigh, 
deer forest. An of frighean had erroneously been translated 
by s in the belief that it was a plural termination. 

Delgaty. Windy field. Dail, field; gaothach, windy. 

Delhandy (for Dail a' Fhanain). Field of the little slope. 
Dail, field; a', of the (suppressed); fhanain, gen. asp. of 
fanan, small sloping place. Fhanain lost / but h remained. 
Ain normally became y. D had been inserted after n for 
euphony. 

Delnadamph. Field of the oxen. Dail, riverside field; 
nan, of the; damh, gen. plural of damh (pronounced 
doic), ox. 

Delnine. Field of the washing. Dail, riverside field ; 
nigheachain, gen. of nigheachan, washing of linen. Only 
the first two and the last two letters are usually sounded. 

Delphorrie Stone. Stone in field in a corry. Dail, 
riverside field; choire, coire asp., corry. Ch had been 
changed to ph when Gaelic passed into Scotch. 

Den Burn, Denburn, (for Allt Dein). Burn of the den. 
Allt, burn (translated); dein, small valley, ravine. E has 
different sounds and it requires another vowel between it 
and a subsequent consonant to show its sound. Ei long is 
like a in date, ei short like e in debt. 

Den, Hill of. Hill of judgment. Dain, gen. of dan, 
judgment. This had been the seat of a barony court. 

Den of Boddam. Den of the ox-house. Dein, den; both, 
house; damh, gen. plural of damh, ox. 

Den of Fathie. Den of the green plain. Dein, den; 
fatha, gen. of fath, green level place. 

Den of Howie. Bavine at a cattle-fold. Dein, den; 
chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. C and th had been 
lost, and hui had been pronounced at first hoo-ee, which 
had lapsed into Howie. 

Den of Leggart. Den in which there was a milking- 



140 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

fold. Dein, den, burn valley; leigidh, gen. of leigeadh, 
milking; gart, enclosure, fold. 

Den of Muick. Den where mist was seen. Dein, den; 
miiiche, gen. of muich, mist. 

Den of Pitlurg. Kavine of a place on the side of a hill. 
Dein, den; pit, place; learg, hillside. 

Den Well (for Baile Dein). Town in a den. Baile, farm- 
town; dein, gen. of dein, den. Baile had been asp. and put 
last and had lapsed into well. Bh is equivalent to w. 

Denbrae. Brae above a den. Dein, den; brae, steep 
slope. 

Dencallie. Den of the hill. Den, gorge; choille, gen. 
.asp. of coille, hill. 

Denedoch. Den of the brae. Dein, den, ravine; 
uchdaich, gen. of uchdach, breast of a hill. 

Denhead. Den of the fold. Dein, den; chuid, gen. asp. 
oi cuid, cattle-fold. Ch lost c, and huid had been pro- 
nounced at first hoo-eed, afterwards heed, and now head. 
As an English name Denhead means head of a den. 

Denholm. Low-lying place in a den. Holm (English), 
flat land by a river. 

Denmore. Big den. Dein, den, burn valley; mor, big. 

Denny Duff (for Dunan Dubh). Black little hill. 
Dunan, dim. of dun, hill; dubh, black. An, the Gaelic 
dim. termination, had been changed to y, the Scotch dim. 
termination. 

Dens. Little den. Deinan, little den. There is only 
one den, and an is a diminutive termination. E in deinan 
is like e in debt. 

Densyburn (for Allt Suidhe Dein). Burn of a place at 
a den. Allt, burn (translated); suidhe, place; dein, den, 
burn valley. The parts of the name had been rearranged 
when allt was translated. 

Den ward. Enclosed place for cattle in a den. 

Deochrie, Deochry, (for Dubh Choire). Black corry. 
Dubh, black; choire, coire asp., corry. 

Derahouse. Residence of the dera. Dera was the title 
of the factor or land steward on the property belonging to a 
religious house. 

Derbeth. Birch grove. Doire, grove; beith, birch. 

Derbyhall. Farm-house in a birch grove. Doire, 
thicket, grove; beith, birch; hall, farm-house with a large 
kitchen. 

Derncleugh. This is an imported name. It may mean 
healthful place in the shelter of a cliff. Dern in Irish 
means health, and it might have been in old Gaelic with 
the same meaning. Cleugh is a Scotch word meaning steep 
bank, cliff. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 14* 

Derran Howe. Howe of the little burn. Der, little ; 

abhainn, burn. 

Derry Burn. Burn bordered by a wood. In the early 
part of its course the Derry burn is called the Etchachan 
burn, and it is called the Derry on reaching the low ground 
because it flows through a wood of fir-trees. It joins the 
Luibeg, and thereafter the united stream is called the Lui 
burn. Doirean, dim. of doire, wood. On the Ordnance 
Survey map the Derry is called Derr by mistake. 

Derry Cairngorm. Blue hill beside Glen Derry. Doire, 
grove, wood; cam, hill; gorm, blue, if applied to a distant 
hill. There is a fir-wood beside the Derry burn. 

Derry Dam. Dam made on Derry burn in the early part 
of last century for floating trunks of trees down the burn. 

Derry Lodge. Summer residence for sportsmen on the 
Derry burn. See Derry Burn. 

Deskie. South fold. Deas, south, sunny; cuith (th 
silent), fold. 

Deskry. South corry. Deas, south, on the right bank 
of a stream; coirc, corry. 

Deskryshiel. Summer residence for sportsmen on the 
Deskry burn. Seal (pronounced shal), summer residence. 

Dess Burn. Burn on the south side of a hill. Deas, 
south. 

Deuchrie, Dhuchrie, Duchery, Duchrie. Black corry. 
Dubh, black; choire, coire asp., corry. See Deochrie. 

Deveron (for Dubh Bhran). Black stream. Dubh, 
black; bhran, bran asp., stream. 

Devil's Den, Devil's Folly, Devil's Point, Devil's 
Stone, Devil's Study. Devil's in these names means super- 
human, extraordinarily great. The Devil's Point is an in- 
accessible promontory of Cairn Toul, above Glen Dee. The 
Devil's Study is a rock in the sea resembling a great anvil. 

Devana. This name is taken from Ptolemy's " Tables 
of the latitudes and longitudes of places in Scotland." The 
entry in which the name occurs when it is translated into 
English is : — " And farther east the Texaloi and the town 
Deouana." Neither the meaning of the name nor the 
situation of the place is known. The " Tables " were com- 
posed before the Eomans had explored Scotland north of 
the Grampians, and the names for Aberdeenshire are 
fictitious. 

Dewsford. Ford at a fir-tree. Giuthais, gen. of 
giuthas, fir-tree. Th is silent. 

Deystone. David's town. Daidh, David. Or, Dairy- 
woman's town. Deye (Middle English), dairywoman. 

Dhustrath. Black burn valley. Dubh, black; srath,. 
river valley, strath. 



142 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Dicken's Well. Drinking well. Deochan, plural of 
deoch, drink. An has been retained as en, and it has also 
been translated into s. See Dockenwell. 

Diery Hill. Steep hill. Dire, steepness. 

Dilly Hill. Hill of the whortleberry. Bile, whortle- 
berry — like the blaeberry but darker in colour. 

Dillybrae. Brae where the whortleberry grows. Dile, 
whortleberry. 

Dinnet, Dunnot (1696). Fort near a stream. Dun, 
hill, fort; net, stream. 

Dinaty (1656). Fort near a small stream. Dun, fort; 
netain, gen. of netan, dim. of net, stream. 

Dipplebrae. Black pool brae. Dubh, black; poll, pool. 

Disblair. South moor. Decs, south; blar, open moor. 

Dish Pot. South pot. Deas, south. 

Divot Hillock. Hillock where thin oval heathery sods 
were cut to be used in covering the roofs of houses. Divot, 
thin oval sod. 

Dockenwell (for Tobar Deochan). Well of drinks. 
Tobar, well; deochan, gen. plural of deoch, drink. Or (for 
Baile Deochan). Place of drinks. Baile, town; deochan, 
gen. plural of deoch, drink. Baile had been put last and 
asp., bhaile (pronounced waile), afterwards becoming well. 
See Deacons Well, and Dicken's Well. 

Dockington (for Baile Deochan). Town of drinks, ale- 
house. Baile, town (translated into ton and put last); 
deochan, gen. plural of deoch, drink. 

Dog Daughters. Dog may represent dubh, black, and 
Daughters may represent dubh tirean, black little piece of 
ground. Dubh, black; tirean, dim. of tir, land. Ean of 
tirean should have become ie but it had been changed into s. 

Dog Hillock, Doghillock, (for Dubh Chnoc). Black 
hill. Dubh, black; chnoc, cnoc asp., hill. In passing into 
Scotch n became I, producing chloc, and dubh chloc lapsed 
into Dog Hillock. 

Doire Braghad. Grove of the hill. Doire, grove; 
bhraghad, gen. asp. of braigh, hill. 

Dominie's Cairn. Cairn of stones collected to the spot 
where the dead body of a schoolmaster was found after a 
snowstorm in 1816. Dominie is for domine, the vocative of 
the Latin dominus, master, used instead of Sir in addressing 
the master of a school in which Latin was taught. 

Don. Brown river. Donn, brown, colour of peat-moss 
water. It flows through peat-mosses in the first part of its 
course. 

Donald's Stone. This may be the name of a memorial 
to a man named Donald. If it is of Gaelic origin it may 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 143 

represent Clach Dorm Allt, stone of the brown burn. Clach, 
stone; donn, brown; allt, burn. 

Donans, Donnons, (for Dunan). Small hillock. Dunan, 
dim. of dun, heap, hill. An had been supposed to be a 
plural termination and had been changed to s and added to 
■dunan, instead of being substituted for an. 

Doolie Bridge. Bridge at a dark pool. Doille, dark- 
ness. 

Doolie Burn. Dark burn. Doille, darkness. 

Doolies, The. The dark little pool. Doillean, dim. of 
doille, pool. An had been translated by s instead of ie. 

Dorbshill. Hill of grass. Doirbh, gen. of dorbh, grass. 
S had been inserted because doirbh is in the gen. 

Dorlaithers. Castle of Laithers. Torr, steep hill. See 
Laithers. 

Dorlethen (for Torr Leathan). Broad hill. Torr, steep 
hill; leathan, broad. 

Dorsell (for Doire Seileich). Willow grove. Doire, 
grove; seileich, gen. of seileach, willow, saugh. 

Dorsincilly. Small gorge in which there was dropping 
water. Dorsan, dim. of dorus, door, gap; silidh, gen. of 
sileadh, dropping. 

Doubledirks Howe (for Doubledikes Howe). Howe in 
a road between two dykes. 

Douglas Burn. Black stream burn. Dubh, black; 
glaise, stream, small burn. 

Douglas Slack. Howe of the black burn. Dubh, black; 
glaise, stream; slide, gen. of sloe, howe. 

Douglashead, Dougalhead (local). Cattle-fold of the 
black stone. Dubh, black; gall, stone; chuid, cuid asp., fold. 
■C in ch had been lost, and huid had become head. 

Doulich Burn (for Allt Dubh Laimh). Burn of the 
black hill. Allt, burn (translated); dubh, black; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill. 

Douls Burn. Boisterous burn. Do-aill y boisterous, 
raging. S is an addition made in the belief that Doul was 
a personal name. 

Doun of Invernochty. Hill of Invernochty. This is 
a place where the cattle of the district had been folded at 
night in ancient times to protect them from Highland 
thieves and to prevent them from damaging crops. There 
was a wall round the level area on the top, and there are 
indications of a hedge of elder trees outside the wall to 
shelter the cattle. Dun, hill, fort. See Invernochty. 

Doune. Hill. Dun, fort, hill, heap. 

Douneside. Place beside a hill. Dun, hill. 

Dour, The. The water. Dobhar, water, stream. Bh 
is equivalent to u, v, or w. 



144 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Dourie Well (for Tobar Dobhrain). Well of the small 
stream. Tobar, well; dobhrain, gen. of dobhran, small 
stream. Ain had normally become ie. 

Dowiestone Cave (for Clach Dubh Cave). Cave of the 
black stone. Clach, stone; dubh, black. 

Dowmin. Black moor. Dubh, black; moine, moor, 
moss. 

Downiehill, Downiehills. Little hill. Dunan, dim. 
of dun, hill. An normally became ie in passing into Scotch. 
In Downiehills it had also been regarded as a plural ter- 
mination, and s had been added to hill. 

Downie's Hole (for Dunan Choille). Hill. Both parts 
mean hill. Dunan, dim. of dun, hill; choille, coille asp., 
hill, added to Downie to explain it. By dropping c choille 
became hoille, which had lapsed into Hole. Then 's had 
been added to Downie in the belief that it was in the 
possessive. 

Downie's Howe. Howe of the little hill. Dunain, gen. 
of dun, hill. Ain became ie. 

Downingford. Ford at a little hill. Dunan, little hill. 

Downings of Buchaam. Little hill of Buchaam, 
Dunan, dim. of dun, hill. Dunan is also the plural of dun, 
hill, and s had been added to dunan in the belief that it was 
plural. 

Drakemire, Drakesmyre. Bog frequented by wild 
drakes. Drac, drake. After the breeding season wild 
drakes lose their wing feathers and resort to large marshes, 
where they remain till they are able to fly again. 

Dried Burn. This may be the name of a burn which 
is sometimes dry, or which runs for some distance below 
moss or disappears among gravel. Dried might represent 
draigh, sloe. 

Drinnies. Thicket of blackthorn bushes. Droighnean 
(gh silent), blackthorn thicket. Ean had been regarded at 
one time as a dim. and at another as a plural termination, 
and hence both ie and s had been affixed to drinn. 

Droichs Burn. Fairies' burn. Droich, dwarf, fairy. 

Drostan Leack. Drostan's stone. Drostan, Celtic 
saint; leac, stone, flat smooth rock. 

Drostan's Church. The church of Aberdour, dedicated 
to St Drostan. 

Droughty Crags (for Creagan Droiche). Crags of the 
fairy. Creagan, plural of creag, crag; droiche, gen. of droich, 
fairy. 

Drove Boad. Cattle road. Before the introduction of 
steamships and railways cattle reared in Aberdeenshire had 
to be driven over the Grampians to southern markets. In 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 145 

many places cattle roads were not used for any other pur- 
pose, hence the name. 

Druidsfield. Field of the Druids. The belief that 
stone circles were Druidical temples began in the end of 
the reign of Charles II. This was a mere guess by an 
antiquary named Aubrey. 

Druidstone. Part of an ancient sepulchral stone circle, 
erroneously supposed to have been erected by Druids as a 
place of worship. Late interments had been made within 
the circle, at which gold and silver coins had been thrown 
into graves. 

Druim a' Chaochain Odhair. Ridge of the yellow burn. 
Druim, ridge; a', of the; chaochain, gen. asp. of caochan, 
streamlet; odhair, gen. of odhar, yellow. 

Druim Bhuirich. Ridge of bellowing. Druim, ridge; 
bhuirich, gen. asp. of buirich, rutting, roaring. 

Druim Cholzie. Ridge of the hill. Druim, ridge; 
choille, gen. asp. of coille, hill. 

Druim na Cuaich. Hill on which there is a cup-shaped 
hollow. Druim, ridge, hill; na, of the; cuaich, gen. of 
cuach, cup. 

Druim na Feithe. Hill of the moss. Druim, hill, ridge; 
na, of the; feithe, gen. of feith, moss, moss burn, slow 
stream from a marsh. 

Druim Odhar. Dun ridge. Druim, ridge; odhar, dun, 
reddish yellow. 

Druim nan Saobhaidh. Ridge of the foxes' dens. 
Druim, ridge; nan, of the; saobhaidh, gen. plural of saobh- 
aidh, fox's den. 

Drum, Drum Hill. Long hill. Druim, ridge. 

Drum of Cartle. Ridge of the bend of the hill. Druim, 
ridge; car, turn; tulaich, gen. of tulach, hill. 

Drumallachie. Hill of the little river. Druim, hill 
allachain, gen. of allachan, small river. 

Drumallan. Hill of the water. Druim, long hill 
allain, gen. of allan, water. 

Drumanettie. Ridge of the little burn. Druim, ridge 
a', of the; netain, gen. of netan, dim. of net, burn. 

Drumargettie. Ridge of high wind. Druim, ridge; ard- 
gliaoithe, gen. of ard-ghaoth, high wind. 

Drumbarton Hill. Hill of the small enclosure. Druim, 
ridge, hill; bardain, gen. of bardan, dim. of bard, fort, en- 
closure. 

Drumblade. Milking hill. Druim, hill, ridge; bleodhann, 
milking. 

Drumblair. Hill of the open moor. Druim, ridge, long 
hill ; blair, gen. of blar, open moor. 

K 



146 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Drumbulg. Hill of the small fold. Druim, hill; builcag, 
dim. of buaile, fold. 

Drumdaig. Hill of fires. Druim, hill; daigh, gen. 
plural of daigh, fire. 

Drumdelgie. Hill of the thorn, thorny hill. Druim, 
ridge, hill; deilge, gen. of dealg, thorn. 

Drumdollo (for Druim Doille). Dark hill. Druim, 
ridge; doille, darkness. 

Drumduan, Drumdhuan. Hill of the black water. 
Druim, ridge, long hill; dubh, black; abhann, gen. of 
abhoinn, water, river. 

Drumdurno. Stony hill ridge. Druim, ridge of a long 
hill; dornach, stony. 

Drumel Stone. Stone on the ridge of a hill. Druim, 
ridge; aill, hill. 

Drumelrick (for Druim Kuigh Aill). The original form of 
the name had been Euigh Aill. Slope of the hill. Rxngh, 
slope; aill, hill. To this had afterwards been prefixed druim, 
ridge, and at the same time Ruigh and Aill had been trans- 
posed for the sake of euphony. 

Drumend. Small hill. Druman, dim. of druim, ridge 
of a hill. 

Drumfergue. Stormy hill. Druim, ridge, hill; fergach, 
stormy. 

Drumpinnie. Ridge of a little hill. Druim, ridge; 
finain, gen. of finan, dim. of fin, hill. 

Drumfold. Hill fold. Druim, hill, ridge of a long hill. 

Drumfork (for Druim Chore). Hill of oats. Druim, hill; 
chore, gen. plural asp. of core, oats. Ch had become ph, 
which is equivalent to /. If there is a gap in the sky-line of 
the ridge Fork represents fore, gap, fork. 

Drumfottie. Hill of the marsh. Druim, hill, ridge; 
fotliaich, gen. of fothach, marsh, lake. 

Drumfours. Hill of springs. Druim, hill; fuaran, gen. 
plural of fuaran, spring. An had been translated into s. 

Drumgarth. Hill of the enclosure. Druim, hill; garth, 
enclosure. 

Drumgoudrum (for Druim Chuith). Hill of the cattle- 
fold. Druim, hill, ridge; chuith. gen. asp. of cuith, cattle- 
fold. C had become g, as in Lesmahagow and Glasgow, and 
ith had become silent and had been lost. After the meaning 
of Druim Chuith, corrupted to Drum Gou, had been lost, 
druim had been added to explain it. 

Drumgowan. Hill of the cattle-fold. Druim, ridge; 
gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Drumhead (for Ceann Droma). Head of the hill. Ceann, 
head (translated and put last); droma, gen. of druim, hill, 
ridge. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 147 

Drumhead (for Druim Chuid). Hill of the cattle-fold. 
Druim, long hill; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, cattle-fold. C 
had been lost because it is not heard in pronouncing ch. 
Huid had been pronounced heed at first. 

Drumlasie. Eidge of the little blaze. Druim, hill, 
ridge; lasain, gen. of lasan, little flame, bonfire. 

Drumligair. Hill with a rough side. Druim, ridge, 
hill; leith, gen. of leth, side; gairbh, gen. of garbh, rough. 

Drummargettie. Eidge of the high wind. Druim, ridge ; 
na, of the; ard-ghaoithe, gen. of ard-ghaoth, high wind. 

Drumminor. Eidge of the moor of the shieling. Druim, 
ridge; moine, moor; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Drummy, Drummies, Drimmies. Little hill. Droman, 
dim. of druim, ridge. In Drummy an had been made y. 
In Drummies and Drimmies an had been made both ie 
and s. 

Drumnafunner (for Druim na Fin Airidhe). Eidge of the 
hill of the shieling. Druim, hill; na, of the; fin, hill; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Drumnagarrow. Hill of the enclosed place. Druim, 
hill; a', of the; garraidh, gen. of garradh, enclosure, garden. 

Drumnagesk, Drumgesk. Eidge of the fir-wood. Druim, 
ridge, hill; na, of the; giuthsaich, gen. of giuthsach, fir-wood. 
In giuthsaich th and some vowels have been lost. 

Drumnaheath. Hill of the fold. Druim, hill; na, of the ; 
■chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. C had been lost 
after aspiration. 

Drumnahive. Hill of the cattle-fold. Druim, hill; na, 
of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. In chuith, c had 
been silent and had been lost. Th had been turned into bh, 
which is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Drumnahoy. Hill of the cattle-fold. Druim, long hill; 
na, of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. In chuith 
neither c nor th is sounded and they had been lost, leaving 
hui, which had become hoy. 

Drumneachie (for Drumneachan). Hill of ghosts. 
Druim, hill; neachan, gen. plural of neach, ghost. 

Drumoak. Hill of the oak.. Druim, hill ridge. This is 
believed to be a comparatively modern form of an older 
name — Dalmayok. Field of the howe. Dail, field near a 
river; na, of the; iochd, howe, hollow near a stream. 

Drumore. Big hill. Druim, hill; mor, big. 

Drumquhill Burn (for Allt Druim Choill). Burn of the 
ridge of the hill. Allt, burn (translated and transposed); 
druim, ridge; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Drumriach. Grey hill. Druim, ridge; riabhach, grey. 

Drumrossie. Bed hill. Druim, hill; rosach, red, 
abounding: in roses. 



148 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Drums. Hills. Dromannan, plural of druim, hill, long 
ridge. The plural termination an is sometimes doubled. 

Drums. Small hill. Droman, dim. of druim, hill. An 
had been made s instead of ie. 

Drum's Cairn. Cairn marking the spot where the Laird 
of Drum fell at the battle of Harlaw, 1411. 

Drumside. Hillside. Druim, ridge, hill. 

Drumsinnie. Hill extending in length. Druim, hill; 
sinidh, gen of sineadh, extending. 

Drumstone. Stone where the Laird of Drum halted with 
his army on his way to oppose Donald of the Isles in 1411. 
There is now an inscription on the stone. 

Drumtochty. High hill. Druim, ridge, hill; toghte, 
raised up, high. This name had been imported from Kin- 
cardineshire into Aberdeenshire. 

Drumtootie. North hill. Druim, long hill; tuathach, 
northern. 

Drum wheels Burn (for Allt Cuilean Druim). Burn of 
the little nook of the ridge. Allt, burn (translated and put 
last); cuilean, dim. of cuil, nook; druim, for droma, gen. of 
druim, ridge, hill. Ean had been turned into s instead of ie. 

Drumwhindle. This name consists of three parts all 
meaning hill. Druim, long hill; fin, hill; aill, hill. 

Dry Ford. Ford in a burn dry in summer. 

Drybrae, Dryburn, Dry Slack, Drystripe. Places at 
which blackthorns grew. Draigh, gen. plural of draigh, 
blackthorn. Draigh is pronounced dri. 

Dryden's Cots (for Cuitan Dein Tiorma). Small fold in 
a den of dryness. Cuitan, dim. of cuit, cattle-fold; dein, 
den; tiorma, dryness. An of cuitan had become s instead of 
ie. When dein tiorma was translated into English it had 
been put first, as being the qualifying part. After becoming 
dryden it had been thought to be a noun in the possessive, 
and 's had been added to it. 

Drymill. Mill from which water has been cut off. 

Drymuir. Though this moor is dry the name can hardly 
be said to be distinctive. It might represent Draigh Moor, 
moor of thorntrees. Draigh, gen. plural of draigh, thorntree. 

Dual Burn. Black hill burn. Dubh, black; aill, hill. 

Dub Pot. Black pot. Dubh, black; poit, pot. 

Dubbieford (for Dubh Ath). Black ford. Dubh, black; 
ath, ford (translated). 

Dubbystyle (for Dubh Steall). Black rush of water. 
Dubh, black; steall, gushing spring, stream. 

Dubford. Black ford. Dubh, black, mossy. 

Dubh Alltan Beag. Black little burn. Dubh, black; 
alltan, little burn; beag, little. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 149 

Dubh Breac Hill. Black spotted hill. Dubh, black; 
breac, spotted, dappled. 

Dubh Chlais. Black gorge. Dubh, black; chlais, dais 
asp., trench, gorge, ditch. 

Dubh Choire. Black corry. Dubh, black; choire, coire 
asp., corry. Same as Duchrie. 

Dubh Ghleann. Black glen. Dubh, black; ghleann, 
gleann asp., glen. 

Dubh Loch. Black loch. Dubh, black; loch, loch. 

Dubh Lochain. Black little lochs. Dubh, black; 
lochain, plural of lochan, little loch. 

Dubh Lochan. Black little loch. Dubh, black; lochan, 
small loch. 

Dubrach. Black hill. Dubh, black; braigh, hill. 

Dubs (for Dubhan). Little black place. An had been 
made s instead of ie. 

Dubston, Dubstone, (for Baile Dubh). Black town. 
Dubh, black; baile, town. 

Duchery, Duchrie. Same as Dubh Choire; which see. 

Ducklepool (for Poll Dubh Choill). Pool of the black 
hill. Poll, pool; dubh, black; choill, coill asp., hill. 

Dud wick. Black nook. Dubh, black; uig, nook, retired 
hollow. 

Duelties (for Dubh Alltan). Black little burn. Dubh, 
black; alltan, small burn. An being a dim. termination 
had been changed to ie, and s had afterwards been added 
in the belief that it was plural. 

Duff Defiance. This place was so named because a 
family named Thain built there a hut in a night in defiance 
of Duff, Earl of Fife. 

Duiveoir Burn (for Allt Dhuibh Mheoir). Burn of the 
black branch. Allt, burn (translated); dhuibh, gen. of dubh, 
black; mheoir, gen. asp. of meoir, finger, branch. Dhuibh 
mheoir is pronounced like duiveoir. 

Duke's Chair. Rock resembling a chair, named after 
the Duke of Gordon. 

Duke's Pot. Black pool. Dubh, black; poit, pool. 

Dukeston (for Baile Dubh). Black town. Baile, town; 
dubh, black. Baile had been transposed and translated, and 
dubh had become duke with s added to make it possessive. 

Dukewell (for Dubh Bhaile). Black town. Dubh, 
black; bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is equivalent to u, v, 
•or w, and bhaile is frequently changed to well. 

Dulax (locally The Dulax). Two corries. Da, two; 
lag, hollow, corry. Da, being a dual word, takes a noun in 
the singular, but in post-Gaelic times s had been added to 
dalag to make it plural. Afterwards gs had lapsed into x. 



150 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Dulcerstone (for Dall Sear Clach). Black stone. Dall,. 
black; sear (Irish), dark; clach, stone. 

Dulridge (for Doille Buigh). Black hill slope. Doille, 
darkness, blackness; ruigh, hill slope. 

Dumbmill. Hill. Dun, hill; meall, hill. Both parts 
mean the same thing. 

Dumbraik, Dumbreck. Spotted hill. Dun, hill; hreac, 
spotted. 

Dumeath. Hill of the cattle-fold. Dun, hill; chuith, 
cuith asp., cattle-fold. Ch had become silent and had been 
lost. 

Dummies Howe. Howe in which lived a family, some 
of whom were deaf and dumb. 

Dummuies (for Dun Chuithain). Hill of the small fold. 
Dun, hill; chuithain, gen. asp. of cuith an, dim. of cuith, 
cattle-fold. Dun had become Dum ; ch and th had become 
silent and had been left out; ain had been made ie as a dim. 
termination and s as a plural. This produced Dum Uiies, 
which had combined and made Dummuies. 

Dumpston. The original form had been Baile Dunain. 
Town on a small hill. Baile, town; dunain, gen. of dunan, 
dim. of dun, hill. Baile had been translated and put last 
to get the accented part first in the English way. Dun had 
become dum, ain had become s by mistake instead of ie, and 
p had been inserted for euphony. 

Dun Mount. Both parts of the name mean hill. Dun, 
hill, fort, heap; monadh, mount, mountain, moor. 

Dun Muir. Moor on a hill. Dun, hill, fort surrounded 
by a ditch; muir (Scotch), moor. 

Dun na Chiaich. Hill of the pap. Dun, hill; na, of the; 
chioch, gen. asp. of ciocli, pap. The normal gen. of cioch 
is ciche. 

Dun na Cluaich. Hill of the battle. Dun, hill; na, of 
the; cluiche, gen. of cluich, battle, sport. 

Dunandhu, East and West. Black little hill. Dunan, 
little hill; dubh, black. 

Dunanfiew (for Dunan Chuith). Hillock of the fold. 
Dunan, hillock; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. Ch 
had become ph, equivalent to /; and th had become silent 
and had been lost. 

Dunbennan. Small hill. Dun, hill; beannan, dim. of 
beann, hill. Dun had been prefixed to bennan to explain it 
after its meaning had been lost. 

Dunbuy. Yellow rock. Dun, hill; buidhe, yellow. Dhe 
had become silent. The rock is a resort of sea-birds, whose 
dung colours the rock. 

Duncan Gray's Burn. Cattle-fold burn. Chuithail, 
cuithail asp., fold, corrupted into Whitehill, which had been 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 151 

retranslated into Gaelic by dun, hill, and can, white. Gray 
is a corruption of creag, hill, which had been added to explain 

dun. _ _ 

Duncan's Cairns, Duncan's Forest, Duncanston, Dun- 
canstown. Duncans had originally been chuithail, cuithail 
asp., fold. It had been corrupted into Whitehall and turned 
back into Gaelic by Duncan (dun, hill; can, white). 

Dundarg. Bed castle. Dun, fort, castle; dearg, red. 
Dundarg Castle is built of old red sandstone. 

Dundee, Little. Name given by Sir Charles Forbes to 
commemorate Viscount Dundee, who passed through Aber- 
deenshire in 1689. 

Dundonnie. Brown hill. Dun, fort, hill; duinne, brown- 

ness. 

Dunecht. The fortified hill of Echt. Dun, fort, hill; 
see Echt. The cattle-fold called The Barmekin was sup- 
posed to be an ancient hill-fort. 

Dunfeal. Hill of cattle. Dun, hill; feadail, cattle. 
The d of feadail had assumed its aspirated sound and had 
then been lost. , 

Dunnideer, Dunnydeer, Donidor (1195). Little hill ot 
the fort. Dunan, little hill; a', of the; dur (Irish), strong 
place. The strong place was the quadrangle with vitrified 
walls, which had been a cattle-fold. Deer in names usually 
represents doire, cluster of trees. Dor in Donidor might 
represent torr, steep little hill, flat on the top. 

Dunnideer Castle. Castle erected to protect the cattle- 
fold of Dunnideer. It is mentioned in a charter before 1195. 
See " Chartulary of the Abbey of Lindores," p. 152. The 
ridiculous name Gregory's Wall is given to the castle on 
the O.S. map. . . 

Dunriggs, Burn of (for ALU Dun Buighem). Burn of 

the hill slope. Allt, burn (translated); dun, hill; ruighein, 

gen. of ruighean, dim. of ruigh, slope at the bottom of a hill. 

Dunscroft. Croft on a small hill. Dunan, small hill. 

An had been made s instead of ie. 

Dunsdykes. Probably dykes round ancient seat of 
justice. Dan, judgment. 

Dunshillock. Dunan, dim of dun, hill. An, the dim. 
termination, had been made s in a mistake. The second 
part of the name is a translation of the first. 

Duns well (for Baile Dunain). Town on a small hill. 
Baile, town; dunain, gen. of dunan, small hill. When the 
exact meaning of the name had been lost dunain had gone 
into the nom. form dunan, and baile having been supposed 
to qualifv it had been put last and asp. to show that was 
a qualifying word. Then bhaile had in process of time be- 
come well, bh being equivalent to w. 



152 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Durie. Small stream. Dobhran (bh sounded ou), small 
stream. An had normally become ie. 

Durno. Stony place. Durnach, abounding in stones of 
the size of the fist. 

Dyce. South. Deas, south, sunny, right side of a stream 
going down. 

Dykehead, Dikehead. Dyke of a cattle-fold. Chuid, 
gen. asp. of cuid, tub, cattle-fold. C in chuid is not sounded 
and had been omitted, leaving huid, pronounced hu-eed, 
which had lapsed into heed and head. 

Dysart Bank (for Disert Chuit). Deserted fold. Disert 
(Irish), deserted; chuit, cuit asp., fold, corrupted into white 
and retranslated into Gaelic by ban, to which h had been 
added for euphony. 

Eag, The. The nick, notch, or gap in a mountain ridge. 
Through it passed a drove road from Corgarff to Glen Avon. 

Eag Dhubh. Black nick. Eag, nick, gap; dhubh, fern, 
of dubh, black. 

Eagle Plantation. Small wood on a brae. See Edge- 
hill. 

Eagles' Eock. Eock on which eagles sat that they 
might be able to take flight. The wings of the Golden Eagle 
are seven feet from tip to tip when expanded, and it cannot 
rise from level ground. 

Ealaiche Burn. Burn of abundance of swans. 
Ealaiche, abundance of swans. 

Ear Choire Sneachdach. East snowy corry. Ear, east ; 
choire, coire asp., corry; sneachdach, snowy. 

Earl of Mar's Eee. Camp of the Earl of Mar near 
Harlaw in 1411. Rath, circle, fortified enclosure. Rath 
became rabh (pronounced rav), and this became rieve, which 
had lapsed into ree. 

Earl's Hill. A mound at Ellon at which in feudal 
times the Earls of Buchan were invested in the lands of 
the earldom. 

Earl's Seat, Earlseat, (for Suidhe Airidhe). Site of a 
shiel. Suidhe, site; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shiel. The parts 
of the name had been transposed after suidhe had been 
translated. 

Earlsfield. Field where there had anciently been a 
shieling. Airidh, shieling, summer hill pasture. 

Earlsford. Ford of the shieling. Airidhe, gen. of 
airidh, shieling. 

Early. East side. Ear, east; leth (th silent), side. 

Early Brae. East side of a hill. Ear, east; leth, side; 
braigh, for braghad, gen. of braigh, hill. 

Earnhill. Watch hill. Airne (Irish), watching at night. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 153 

Earth House. Underground chamber on a shieling. 
See Introduction. 

Earthworks at Logie Newton. Parts of the earthworks 
still remaining indicate that an enclosure 800 yards in length 
and 500 in breadth had been made for farm animals on a 
high ground within a curve of the Ythan. It had contained 
an area of about 80 acres. 

Eas Allt a' Chlair. Burn of the burn of the level place. 
Eas, burn, waterfall; allt, burn; a', of the; chlair, gen. asp. 
of clar, level. Eas had been prefixed to the last part after 
its meaning had been lost. 

Easaiche Burn. Burn of abundance of cascades. 
Easaiche, abundance of cascades. 

Easg na Sliaseig (for Eas na Slioseig). Burn of the 
slope of the hill. Eas, burn; na, of the; slioseig, gen. of 
slioscag, gentle slope of a hill. 

Easgach. Abounding in marshes. The name is not 
appropriate and ought to be Easach, abounding in burns. 
The place called Easgach is a mountain nearly surrounded 
by burns. 

Easter Kirn. East ridge. Cirean, crest, ridge. The 
names Easter Kirn and Wester Kirn have been ascribed to 
burns, instead of to ridges separating burns. 

Ebbing Stone, Ebbing Stones. These are rocks near 
Collieston and Port Erroll. Apparently they are seen only 
when the tide has become low. 

Ebrie Burn. Muddy burn. Eabarach, dirty, miry. 
The water of the Ebrie is dark coloured. 

Echt, Eych (1220), Hachtis (1220), Hyth (1226). 
Cattle-fold. Chuith, cuith asp., cattle-fold. C is not 
audible in ch and hence it is sometimes left out. The 
English names Hyth and Hythe are of the same origin as 
the Scotch Hythie, and hyth in Bedhyth, and yth in Rosyth. 
These and many other names show that anciently the same 
language was in use in Scotland and England. 

Edderlick (for Eadar Da Leac). Between two stone 
circles. Eadar, between; da, two; leac, stone, sepulchral 
slab. Da takes a noun in the singular number. 

Eddieston. Edward's town. Or, Town on a brae. 
Aodann, brae, with ann made both ie and s. 

Eddle. See Edgehill. 

Eden. Steep brae on the east side of the river Deveron. 
Aodann, face, brow, brae. 

Edendiack. Good brae. Aodann, brae of a hill; deagh, 
good. 

Edgar's Grave (for Aod Garbh). Rough brae. Aod (o 
silent), brae; garbh, rough. Grave is a repetition of Garbh. 

Edgehill, Eddle, Eagle, Adziel. Fold. Originally the 



154 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

name had been chuithail, cuithail asp., fold, corrupted into 
Whitehill, which had been translated into Gaelic by Aodgeal 
(aod, hill face ; geal, white). Aodgeal (o silent) had been 
corrupted into Edgehill, Eddie, etc. 

Edinbanchory (for Coire Chuitail). Corry of the fold. 
Coire, corry; chuitail, cuitail asp., fold. Chuitail had been 
corrupted into Whitehill, which had afterwards been turned 
into Gaelic by Aodann Ban (aodann, brae, hill; ban, white). 
Coire had then been transposed to the end and had been 
aspirated. 

Edindurno. Stony brae. Aodann, brae; dornach, stony. 

Edingarioch. Hough hill face. Aodann, face, brow of 
a hill; garbh, rough. 

Edinglassie. Brae of ley land. Aodann, brae; glasaich, 
gen. of glasach, ley land. 

Ednib. Brae. Aodann, brae, face of a hill. A and nn 
had been transposed. 

Eelash Pool (for Poll Aolaise). Pool of slowness. Poll, 
pool; aolaise, gen. of aolais, slowness. 

Een (for Fhin). Hill. Fhin, fin asp., hill. Fh, being 
silent, had been omitted. 

Effedies (for Achadh Chuidain). Place of the small 
cattle-fold. Achadh, place; chuidain, gen. asp. of cuidan r 
dim. of cuid, fold. Ch of achadh and chuidain became fj ; adh 
of achadh was lost ; ain of chuidain became ie and afterwards 
s, which was added to ie. Effedies is not now a place of 
residence. 

Eggie Burn. Dying burn. Aogachaidh, gen. of 
aogachadh, dying, withering, fading. The burn sinks when 
it reaches the sand on the shore. The asp. letters with the 
intermediate vowels had become silent and had been lost. 

Egypt. The exact meaning of this word has not been 
discovered. Probably egy represents aod (o silent), brae. 

Egyptian Pot. The origin of the name is not known. 
Perhaps a criminal gipsy had been drowned in it. 

Einach. Junction of two streams. Aonachd, meeting, 
union. Einach is at the junction of the Burn of Coire 
Meacan with the Tanner burn. 

Elf House. Place where fairies were supposed to enter 
the ground to go to subterranean abodes. Elf (English), 
fairy. 

Elfin Hillock, Elphin Hillock, Elphinhillock. All 
the parts of these names mean hill. The original form of the 
name had been fin, hill. To this had after a time been added 
aill, hill. When the English word Hillock was added the 
other two parts of the name had been transposed, producing 
Aill Fin, now Elfin. The name Elfin is older than the belief 
in fairies. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 155 

Ellanduan. Green plain of the black water. Ailean, 
green plain; dubh, black; abhann, gen. of abhainn, water. 

Ellen Skellyis. Island rocks. Eilean, island; 
sgeilgan, plural of sgeilg (Irish), rock. An of sgeilgan had 
been made both yi (for ie) and s. 

Ellenburn, Ellen's Burn. Burn of the green plain. 
Ailean, green, meadow. Final s in Ellen's arose from 
assuming that ailean was a noun in the possessive. 

Ellengowan (for Ailean Gabhainn). Level green at a 
cattle-fold. Ailean, green plain; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, 
cattle-fold. This name is imported from " Guy Mannering," 
by Scott. 

Ellie. Small burn. Allan, dim. of all, burn. 

Elliewell. Source of a small stream. Allan, dim. of 
al, stream. A had become e, and an had been changed to ie. 

Ellishill. Alehouse hill. 

Ellismoss. Moss in a level plain. Ailein, gen. of 
ailean, plain. An had in error been changed to s. 

Ellon. Islands. Eilean, plural of eilean, island. There 
are several islands in the river Ythan above the bridge at 
Ellon. 

Elphillock. See Elfin Hillock. 

Elrick, Elrig, Alrig, (for Kuigh Aill). Slope of a rocky 
hill. Ruigh, slope near the base of a hill, the highest cul- 
tivated ground on a hillside ; aill, rock. Rocky places are 
sometimes called Elrick, though there is little slope at them. 
The accent on the first syllable shows that the parts of the 
name had been transposed. 

Elry Knowe (for Cnap Ruigh Aill). Knoll of the slope 
of the rocky hill. Cnap, knoll; ruigh, hill slope; aill, rock. 
The parts of the name had been transposed when Cnap was 
translated. 

Elspet's Cairn. Fairy cairn. Aillse, fairy; cam, 
cairn. Urns, celts, arrow-heads, and a stone cist were found 
on the site of the cairn. 

Emmerty Burn. Ant burn. Emmertine (Scotch), ant. 
The English word emmet, ant, had probably contained r 
originally for it is seen in pismire, the latter part of which 
means ant. The Greek word for ant, murmex, also con- 
tains r. 

Endovie. Black heath. Aonach, heath; dubh, black. 

Ennach Cairn. Boundary cairn. Aonach, meeting; 
earn, a pile of stones. It is on the boundary line between 
Aberdeen and Inverness. 

Ennet Hillocks. Hilly places. Aonach, hilly. Ch had 
become th and h had afterwards been dropped. Both parts 
of the name refer to a hill. 

Ennets. Places. Ionadan, plural of ionad, place. The 



156 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

name might refer to places at a cattle-fold, a church, a pro- 
prietor's residence, a barony court, or a mill. Ennets might 
also represent ionadan, dim. of ionad, place, and mean small 
place. 

Ennochie. Junction of two rivers. Aonachadh, union. 

Enzean. Hill. Innean, rock, hill. 

Erd House. Earth house, Pict's house. Erd is a 
fanciful name given to an underground house which had been 
•occupied by women in charge of cows at pasture among hills. 
From stone axes, ladles, whorls, and cup-marked stones 
found in or near them, earth houses seem to have been 
made in the Stone Age. They had been given up when 
single holdings took the place of large joint farms. A coin 
of the Eoman emperor Nerva was found in one in Strathdon. 

Ernan Water. Burn on whose banks sloes grow. Allt, 
burn (translated); airnean, gen. plural of airne, sloe, black- 
thorn. 

Ern's Criv. Place enclosed by wattles, where sheep 
were watched at night. Airne, watching at night; cruive, 
same as cro, sheep-fold made with wattles. 

Erroll. The name of a Scotch earldom. This name 
had been imported from Perthshire. 

Esset. Burn of the brae. Eas, burn; end, brae. 

Essie. Small stream. Easan, dim. of eas, burn, water- 
fall. An had become ie. The personal name Esson had 
been first given to persons resident at a place near a burn. 

EssiEniLLOCK. Hillock from which the Gough burn 
flows. Easan, small burn. 

Esslemont (for Monadh Iseil). Hill beside a hollow. 
Monadh, hill, moor; iseil, gen. of iseal, howe. The Hill of 
Esslemont is 100 feet above the valley of the Bronie burn 
at its base. 

Etchachan, Etichan. Little boisterous burn. Eitigh, 
boisterous; an, dim. termination. Ei sounds a. The 
Etchachan burn issues from Loch Etchachan, near the 
summit of Ben Macdhui, and after descending a steep brae 
it becomes the Derry burn. 

Etnach, Etnich, Ettnach, (for Aitionnach). Place 
abounding in juniper bushes. Aitionn, juniper; ach, place 
■of. Etnach or etnich is the Scotch name for juniper. 

Etry, Slack of. Hollow of the brae on the side of a hill. 
End, brae; ruigh, slope at the base of a hill. End is the 
primitive of eudann, face, brae. 

Ettenbreck. Spotted little place. Aitean, dim. of arte, 
place; breac, dappled. 

Everton (for Overton). Upper town. 

Evron Hill. Hill on which the cloudberry (Rubus cha- 
maemorus) grows. In Scotch it is called aivron. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 157 

Ewebrae (for Braigh Chuith). Hill of the cattle-fold. 
Braigh, hill; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. Ch had 
become silent and had been lost. 

Ewen's Croft. Croft at a small fold. Chuithan, 
cuithan asp., small fold. Ch and th had been lost, leaving 
Ilian, now become Ewen. 

Ey. Stream name. Abh, water, cognate with Latin 
aqua, water. 

Eye of Gullburn (for Allt Coill Chuith). Hill burn 
passing a fold. Allt, burn; coill, hill; chuith, gen. asp. of 
cuith, fold. The accent on Eye and the loss of radical con- 
sonants by aspiration indicate that the word which it repre- 
sents had originally been last. When allt was translated 
and put last the other parts of the name had been re- 
arranged. Coill had become gull, and chuith had lost its 
aspirated consonants. 

Eye of Poiten (for Poitean Chuith). Small pot at a 
fold. Poitean, dim. of poit, pot, deep hole connected with 
the sea by a tunnel; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. See 
Eye of Gullburn. 

Eye Stone (for Clach Chuith). Cattle-fold stone. Clach, 
stone (translated); chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. 
The consonants of chuith, being aspirated, had been lost. 

Factor's Skur (for Sgor Torr Eaicinn). Rock of the hill 
of watching. Sgor, rock; torr, steep abrupt hill; faicinn, 
gen. of faicinn, pres. part, of faic, to watch, see. 

Fae Quoich. Burn from a cup-shaped hollow. Feith, 
slow-running burn, bog burn; cuaiche, gen. of cuach, cup, 
hollow. 

Faemewell (for Baile na Feith). Town on a moss burn, 
Baile, town; na, of the; feith, moss burn. In post-Gaelic 
time the parts of the name had been transposed, and it had 
become Feith am Bhaile. Bhaile is pronounced waile, which 
had become well. Th is silent. 

Faenicreigh. Burn of the boundary. Feith, slow- 
running burn; na, of the; criche, gen. of crioch, boundary. 

Faddan Hill (for Coill Chuidain). Hill of the fold. 
Coill, hill; chuidain, gen. asp. of cuidan, small fold. Asp. 
c had become /. 

Fadliedyke. Dyke of a cattle-fold. Dig, dyke; chuidail r 
gen. asp. of cuidail, cattle-fold. Ch had become ph, equi- 
valent to /; and ai and I had been transposed. 

Fafernie (for Fath Chairneach). Green place among" 
hills. Fath, green place; chairneach, belonging to hills. C 
had been asp. after th of fath, and subsequently asp. c had 
been changed to asp. p, which is equivalent to /. 



158 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Faich Hill, Faichla, (for Lamh Faicille). Hill of a 
guard. Lamh, hill; faicille, gen. of faicill, guard, watch. 

Faichfields, Faichfolds. Enclosed field. Faichean, 
dim. of faich, field; fold, pumphal, enclosed field of small 
size. Final s represents ean, which had erroneously been 
regarded as a plural termination. 

Fairlea, Fairley. Grassy land on a hill. Faire, hill; 
lea or ley, grassy land. 

Fairney Hill. Hill where the alder-tree grows. Fear- 
nach, growing alders. 

Fairy Hillock, Fairyhillock. Hillock where fairies 
were supposed to have entrances to underground abodes. 
The knolls at which barony courts were held were frequently 
called fairy hillocks. 

Fallamuck Burn. Burn of the fold of the pig. Fal, 
fold; a', of the; muic, gen. of rnuc, pig. 

Fallow Hill. Hill of the fold. Fala, gen. of fal, fold, 
circle. The normal gen. of fal is fail. 

Farburn. Burn of the land. Far, cultivated land. 

Farburntland. This name is the same as Farburn with 
the addition of land to explain far. T is a euphonic 
insertion. 

Fare. Hill. Fair, hill, ridge. 

Farewell (for Baile Faire). Town of the hill. Baile, 
town; faire, gen. of fair, hill. By transposition and aspira- 
tion of baile the name became Fair Bhaile. Bhaile is pro- 
nounced waile and had lapsed into well. 

Farquhar's Croft (for Croit Far Chor). Croft of land 
on a hill. Croit, croft; far, land; chor, gen. asp. of cor, 
round hill. 

Fasheilach. Place of willows. Fath (th silent), place; 
seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

Fasnadarach. Uncultivated land growing oaks. Fas, 
waste land; nan, of the; darach, gen. plural of darach, 
oak-tree. 

Fathie. Little green place. Fath an, dim. of fath, 
green place. 

Fatson's Loch. Loch said to have been named after a 
man called Fatson or Whatson. Fatson might be a corrup- 
tion of chuit sean for sean chuit, old fold (sean, old; chuit, 
cuit asp., fold). Sean made son and chuit made fat would 
have been transposed and made Fatson. 

Fauld. Fold for cattle or sheep. Fauld is sometimes a 
small enclosed field under cultivation. 

Fawn Pot. This name might mean pot where there is 
a gentle slope of the sea shore. Fan, gentle slope. 

Fawells. Town in a plain. Baile, town; fatha, gen. of 
fath, green plain. The parts of the name had been trans- 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 159 

posed, and baile had been asp. and corrupted into well, 
which had become wells. 

Feardar Burn. Burn of the hill of oaks. Fair, hill ; 
dair, gen. plural of dair, oak-tree. 

Fechel, Fechil, Fichlie. Watching place. Faicill, 
watch, guard. 

Fedderate, Fedderat, Fedreth (for Airidh Chuid Rath). 
Shieling of the fold. Airidh, pasture ground; chuid, gen. asp. 
of add, fold; rath, circle, fold. Ch had become / and the 
meaning of fuid having been lost rath had been added to 
explain it, and the parts of the name had been rearranged. 

Feindallacher, Findallacher. Hill of the field of 
summer pasture. Fin or feun, hill; dalach, gen. of dail, 
riverside field; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling, hill pasture, 
level ground among hills. 

Feith an Laoigh. Calf's burn. Feith, small rivulet 
draining a bog; an, of the; laoigh, gen. of laogh, calf. 

Feith Bhait. Moss of the boat used in crossing the 
Don. Feith, moss, moss burn; bhait, gen. asp. of bat, boat. 

Feith Mhor Bhan. Big clear moss burn. Feith, moor 
burn; mhor, big; bhan, clear, white. 

Feith Seileach. Bog of the willows. Feith, bog, moss 
burn; seileach, gen. plural of seileach, willow. 

Feith Well. Well of the moss. Feith, moss. The 
well is a sulphurous spring. 

Felagie. Place where there are berries of the wild rose. 
Faileagan, berries or hips of wild roses. 

Felasgie. Fold in a wet place. Fail, fold; easgach, 
watery, full of marshes. 

Fenzie Burn. Burn of the fank. Faing, gen. of fang, 
fank. After g final a sound of y is also heard. 

Fergach. Place at a rushing burn. Fergach, im- 
petuous. 

Ferintosh. Land of the chief. Far, land; an, of the; 
toisich, gen. of toiseach, chief. 

Ferneybrae. Brae where ferns grew. 

Ferneystrype. Small burn near which alders grew. 
Fearna, alder. 

Fernyhowe. Hollow where alders grew. Fearna, alder. 

Fernieslack. Howe in which ferns grew. Slochd, 
slack, howe. 

Ferrar (for Fair Airidhe). Ridge of the shieling. Fair, 
hill ridge; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling, hill pasture. 

Ferretfold. Grassy field. Feurach (pronounced fer- 
rach), grassy; fold, enclosed field. 

Ferrowie. Pasture ground. Feurach, grazing, grassy. 

Ferryhill. Hill near Wellington Bridge, where there 
was a ferry over the Dee. 



160 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Fervey. Ridge of the cattle-fold. Fair, ridge; chuith, 
gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. Ch had become bh, equi- 
valent to v ; and th had become silent and had been lost. 
This left fair vui, which had lapsed into Fervey. 

Fetach. Full of bogs. Feithach, marshy, boggy. 

Fetterangus (for Fo-thir Aonaich). Land in front of a 
hill. Fo, under; thir, tir asp., land; aonaich, gen. of 
aonach, hill. 

Fetterletter (for Fo-thir Leitire). Land in front of a 
hill side. Fo, under; thir, tir asp., laud; leitire, gen. of 
leitir, side of a hill. 

Fetternear (for Fo-thir na Airidhe). Land in front of 
the shieling hill. Fo, under; thir, tir asp., land; na, of the; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Feugh. Burn with wooded banks. Fiodh (pronounced 
feugh), wood. 

Fiaclach. Having pointed projections on the sky-line. 
Fiaclach, toothed. 

Fiatach is a mis-spelling for Fiaclach. 

Fichlie Hill (for Tulach Faicille). Hill of watching. 
Txdach, hill; faicille, gen. of faicill, watch, guard. 

Fichlie Peel. A peel was a fold made by planting 
trunks of trees upright in the ground. Peall, skin, hide, mat. 
To protect the cattle in a fold from inclement weather mats 
and skins of cattle and sheep were attached to the outside 
of the tree trunks. The Peel of Fichlie is a flat area on the 
top of a knoll, where cattle could have been protected against 
thieves. 

Fichnie. No Gaelic word resembles this name. It 
may, however, be traced to cuithan, small cattle-fold, 
through the following forms: — Cuithan, Chuithan, Fuichan, 
Fuichna, Fichnie. The aspirated forms ch and th had been 
changed to ph or / and ch, and the letters in an had been 
transposed. 

Fiddes (for Chuidan). Small cattle-fold. Chuidan, 
cuidan asp., dim. of cuid, cattle-fold. Ch had become ph, 
equivalent to /; and an had been translated by mistake 
into s instead of ie. 

Fiddesbeg. Little Fiddes. See Fiddes. Beag, small. 

Fiddie. Small fold. Chuidan, cuidan asp., small fold. 
Ch had become ph, which is equivalent to /. An became ie. 

Fiddler's Green. It is said that a man named Fidler 
lived at this place. However, Fiddler seems to be com- 
pounded of feudail, cattle, and airidh, shieling; and Green 
might mean a green grassy place at a shiel. 

Fielding. The accent is on field, which had been last. 
The original form had perhaps been Dun Feille, hill of the 
market. Dun, hill; feille, gen. of feill, market, festival. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 161 

Fife Hill, Fifeshill. Cattle-fold. Chuithail, cuithail 
asp., cattlefold. Ch and th had both become ph, equi- 
valent to /. Hill represents ail in chuithail. S in Fifeshill 
had been inserted in the belief that Fife was a personal 
name in the possessive. 

Findlatree (for Leitir Fine). Side of a hill. Leitir, 
side; fine, gen. of fin, hill. The parts of the name had been 
transposed. 

Findlay Farm. Hill farm. Fin, hill; lamh, hill. The 
two parts of the name mean the same thing, and the one 
had been added to explain the other. They ought both to 
be in the nom., but lamh being in the qualifying place had 
assumed the genitive form laimh. 

Findlay's Muir. Moor of the hill. Fin, hill; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill. Both parts mean hill. 

Findrack. Hill of thorn trees. Fin, hill; draigh, gen. 
plural of draigh, thorn tree. 

Fingask. Bushy hill. Fin, hill; gasach, bushy. Phin- 
gask near Fraserburgh represents faingan, small fank, in 
which an had been made both ie and «s, and the name is 
pronounced feengies. 

Finglenny. Hill of the glen. Fin, hill; glinne, gen. of 
gleann, glen. 

Finlate (for Leathad Fine). Side of a hill. Leathad, 
slope; fine, gen. of fin, hill. Th and its vowels had become 
silent and had been lost. 

Finlets. Broad hill. Fin, hill; leathan, broad. An 
had by mistake been regarded as a plural termination and 
had been turned into s. 

Finnarcy, Finnercy. Hill of the shieling. Fin, hill; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling, hill pasture. Final cy repre- 
sents dhe strongly sounded. 

Finnygauld (for Fin a' Gall). Hill of the rock. Fin, 
hill; an, of the; gall, rock, stone set up. 

Finnylost. Hill of the burning. Fin, hill; an, of the; 
losgaidh, gen. of losgadh, burning. In very dry summers 
hills set on fire burn slowly for months till the fire is ex- 
tinguished by autumn rain. 

Fintock (for Fin an-t Soc). Hill of the snout. Fin, 
hill; an, of the (suppressed); t (euphonic); soc, for suic, 
gen. of soc, snout, projecting rock on the top of a hill. 

Fintray, Fintry (for Fionn Traigh). Pleasant side of a 
stream. Fionn, pleasant; traigh, bank of a stream. 

Finzean. Hill of sand. Fin, hill; gainimh (imh silent), 
gen. of gaineamh, sand. Finzean is on a raised sea beach, 
400 feet above sea level. 

Firbog, Firbogs, Firholes. Mosses in which the stems 

L 



162 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

of fir-trees were found by probing. These were resinous 
and were valuable for giving light when split up and burned. 

Firbriggs Hill, Little and Meikle. Little and big 
hills, near which were boundary stones between Towie and 
Glenbucket. Fir-bhreig , false men, upright stones like men. 
Fir, men; bhreig, false. 

Fireach, The. The high bare ground. Fireach, ac- 
clivity, top of a bare hill. 

Firley Moss. Moss of the grassy place. Feur, grass; 
ley, grass land. 

FlSHERBRIGGS, FlSHERFORD, FlSHERIE, FlSHRIE, FoHES- 

terdy (1369). In these names Fish represents feith, slow 
burn; and er, erie, and rie represent airidhe, gen. of airidh, 
shieling. Fohesterdy might represent fo-eas tirte, lands in 
front of a burn. Fo, before; eas, burn; tirte, plural of tir, 
land. 

Fishfur Bridge, near Maud Junction. Grassy burn 
bridge. Feith, burn; feoir, gen. of feur, grass. Th had 
become sh, and oi had been sounded like u, which frequently 
happened. 

Fishtown (for Baile Feith). Town on a moss burn. 
Baile, town (translated and transposed); feith, moss burn. 
Th had been changed to sh. 

Fittie, Futtie, Footdee, Footie. Small cattle-fold, 
milking fold. Chuitan, cuitan asp., dim. of cuit, cattle-fold, 
fold where cows were penned at mid-day and milked. The 
steps from cuit to the modern forms had been: — Cuitan, 
Chuitan, Fuitan, Fuitie, Futtie, Fittie, Footdee, Footie. 
Footdee is a modern attempt to account for the origin of 
Fittie, based on the erroneous assumption that it was on the 
river Dee, whereas it was on the Den Burn. Futtie was the 
form in use in 1661, and Fittie is more modern. There are in 
Aberdeenshire four places named Fittie, one of which is also 
called Whitehill. See Cuid and Whitehill. The way to 
the fold was called the Cowgate. 

Fittie Brae. Brae of the cattle-fold. Chuitan, cuitan 
asp., small fold. Ch had been changed to ph, equivalent 
to /; and an had become ie. 

Fittie Ford. Ford at a cattle-fold. Chuithan, cuithan 
asp., cattle-fold. Ch had become ph, equivalent to /; and 
the aspirate h after t had been lost. See Cuid. 

Flecky's Meadow. Windy meadow. Flaicheach, 
windy. 

Fleshiewall Cave (for Uamh a' Fhliuchaidh Bhalla). 
Cave of the wet wall. Uamh, cave (translated and put last) ; 
c', of the (suppressed); fhliuchaich, gen. asp. of fliuchach, 
wet; bhalla, gen. asp. of balla, wall. In fhliuchach, h had 
been lost, ch had become sh, and ach had become ie. In 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 163 

bhalla, bh is sounded like u, v, or w, and bhalla had been 
pronounced walla, which had become wall. 

Fleuchat, Fleuchats. Wet places. Fliuch, wet; 
achadh, place; achaidean, plural of achadh. Ean had be- 
come s. Other forms with the same meaning are Flobbans 
and Flobbets. 

Flinder (for Fliuchan Airidhe). Wet place on a shiel- 
ing. Fliuchan, wetness; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 
The asp. consonants had become silent and had been lost, 
along with their vowels. D is a euphonic insertion. At 
Kettle Howe, cattle-fold howe, on Flinder Hill there is a 
wet place at the source of a burn. 

Flinthills (for Toman Fliuchain). Hills of wetness. 
Toman, hills (translated and put last); fliuchain, gen. of 
fliuchan, wetness. Fliuchain had lost ch with its flanking 
vowels. Toman may be the dim. of torn, hill, and then 
-final s would need to be ock. 

Flobbans (for Fliuchanan). Wet places. Flhichanan, 
plural of fliuchan, wetness, wet place. Ch had become bh, 
and final an had become s. 

Flobbets (for Fliuch Achaidhtean). Wet places. 
Fliuch, wet; achaidhtean, euphonic plural of achadh, place. 
In fliuch ch had become bh, and h had afterwards been 
dropped. Chaidh in achaidhtean had been lost, and ean 
had become s, producing fliubats, which had lapsed into 
Flobbats. 

Floors, Flooders, Fluthers, (for Fliuch Airidhean). 
Wet pastures. Fliuch, wet; airidhean, plural of airidh, 
pasture far away from a farm. Th in Fluthers represents ch 
in fliuch. Final s represents ean in airidhean. Perhaps the 
term Fleeds applied to wet ends of rigs is of the same origin 
as Floors. A fuller form of Floors is seen in the last part of 
Auchleucheries. 

Flushing. Wet place. Fliuchan, wet spot. 

Fochel, Feochel, Fechil. Watch. Faichill, faicill 
with c asp., watch, guard. Formerly Feochel was pro- 
nounced fuffel, ch having been changed to ph, equivalent to 
/, and doubled. 

Foggieley. Foggy grass land. 

Foggyburn. Burn in a peat-moss. Foide, gen. of foid, 
peat. 

Foggymill. The name had originally been Muileann 
Foid. Mill of sods. Muileann, mill; foid, gen. plural of 
fod, a mossy sod. Foid with d asp. is pronounced foi-ye, 
and so also is foigh. Thus foid might pass through these 
forms: — foidh, foigh, foige, foggy. 

Foggymoss (for Bac Foide). Moss of the peat. Bac, 



164 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

moss; foide, gen. of foid, peat. Foide and foggy are very 
nearly alike in sound. 

Folla Kule. Ketired place on the slope of a hill. 
Folach, concealment, cover; ruigh, slope of a hill where 
cultivation begins; aill, hill, rock. 

Fontainebleau, Fountainbleau. Clear fountain. Fon- 
taine (French), fountain, spring; bleu, clear. 

Footie, Futtie. Chuitan, small fold. Ch became ph y 
equivalent to /, and an became ie. See Fittie. 

Forbes. The consonants suggest that the last form of 
the name in Gaelic had been Chor Ban, but the aspirate 
and the accent show that it had previously been Ban Chor. 
This is a post-Gaelic translation of Whitehill, which is a 
corruption of cliuithail, fold. In England the name has but 
one syllable, and it had probably been spelled forbs at first. 
In Scotland it has two syllables, which is a mistake, for an 
as a plural termination becomes s. It was, however, a 
mistake to regard an as a plural termination. Forbes might 
represent Forbies, in which an had been made ie by some and 
s by others. See Cum and Corbsmill. 

Forbridge. South hill or south side of a hill. For, 
front, south side; braigh, hill. 

Ford a' Fowrie (for Ath a' Fuarain). Ford of the burn. 
Ath, ford (translated); a', of the; fuarain, gen. of fuaran t 
spring, burn. 

Ford of Logie. In Gaelic this name had been Ath 
Lagain. Ford of the little howe. Ath, ford (translated) ; 
lagain, gen. of lagan, little howe. An, the Gaelic dim. ter- 
mination, becomes ie in Scotch. 

Fordalehouse, Fordale House. Alehouse at a ford. 

Fordie (for For-Dun). In front of a hill. For, under, 
beneath, in front of; dun, hill. TJn had been regarded as 
a dim. termination and had become ie. 

Fordley. Grassy place at a ford, hey, grassy place. 

Fordoun Burn. Burn on the front of the hill. For, in 
front of; dun, hill. The front was the side next Fyvie. 

Foregarrach, as distinguished from Backgarrach, seems 
to mean East rough place. For, in front of, lying to the 
east; garbhach, abounding in rough places. 

Forehill. Hill in front of another larger hill. 

Forest, The. Place reserved for deer. Forestis (Latin), 
open hunting ground. Forest sometimes represents fior- 
uisge, clear water, pure spring. 

Forest of Bunzeach. A deer forest. See Bunzeach. 

Forgue. Place in front of a hill slope. For, below, in 
front of; ruigh, slope of a hill. The Howe of Forgue curves 
round the base of a hill. In some old forms of the name 
medial r is doubled. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 165 

Forkings, The. Place where two branches of a burn 
meet. 

Forle Den (for Dein For-Lamh). Den under a hill. 
Dein, den; for, in front of, below; lamh (mh silent), hill. 

Formartine. This name may mean the land in front of 
the big hill. The Formartine district seems to be limited 
to the area between the Ythan on the north, and the Foud- 
land and Culsalmond range and its eastern extension on the 
south. Formartine may represent For Mor Dhun, before 
the big hill. For, before, in front of; mor, big; dhun, dun 
asp., hill. often became a before r, as in gart for gort, 
marcus for morcus, farthing for fourthing. 

Fornet, Fornety. Land in front of a burn. For, in 
front of; net, burn; netan, small burn. An of netan had 
been changed to y. 

Forntree (for Tir Chairn). Land of the hill. Tir, land; 
chairn, gen. asp. of cam, hill. Ch had become ph, equiva- 
lent to /, when the parts of the name were transposed. 

Forshalloch Burn. Burn before willow-trees. For, in 
front of; seileach, plural of seileach, willow. 

Fort. Oval enclosure which, from its situation, was 
probably a cattle-fold. Fortis (Latin), strong. 

Fort on Bennachie. Enclosed space on the east summit 
of Bennachie. It had been a fold for cattle pasturing on the 
hill ; but afterwards it came to be regarded as a fort. 

Fortree, Fortrie, Fortry. Front land, probably mean- 
ing an out-lying piece of ground belonging to a farm. For, 
in front of, before; tire, gen. of tir, land. 

Forvie, Furvie. Grassy place at a cattle-fold. Feur, 
grass; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. Ch had become 
bh, equivalent to v, and th had been lost, producing vui, 
which had become vie. 

Foss Braes. Braes of quietness. Foise, gen. of fois, 
rest, peace. 

Fosse. Ditch round a fortified place. Fosse (French), 
ditch, from Latin fossa, ditch. The fosse at Glenkindie was 
a ditch round a fold. 

Fouchie Shank (for Sithean Chuithan). Hill of the small 
fold. Sithean (pronounced shan), hill; chuithan, cuithan 
asp., small fold. K added to shan made it Shank ; ch became 
ph or /; th became ch, both t and c being silent; and an 
normally became ie. Fuichie is now Fouchie. 

Foudland (perhaps for Lamhan Foid). Hill of peats or 
turf. Lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill; foid, gen. plural of foid, 
peat. In post-Gaelic times the order of the parts of a name 
was often changed to get a word supposed to be the gen. 
sing, first, in imitation of the English method of connecting 
nouns. Foid is like a gen. sing, in form, and it had been put 



166 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

first. Lamhan might be pronounced Ian. Land in Pent- 
land probably means hill, the two parts meaning the same 
thing. 

Foulcausey. Causey through a pool. Phuill, gen. asp. 
of poll, pool, muddy place; calceata (Latin), shod, road made 
with stones and gravel through a soft wet place. 

Foulertown. Town of the fowler or falconer. If the 
name is ancient it must represent Baile Pholl Airidhe, town 
at a pool on a shieling. Baile, town; pholl, poll asp., pool; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Dh with its vowel is silent. 

Foulmire (for Lon Phuill). Marsh at a pool. Lon, 
mire, marsh; phuill, gen. asp. of poll, pool. When Lon was 
translated Phuill had been put first. Ph is equivalent tc /. 

Foulpool. Both parts of the name mean the same 
thing, the second having been added to explain the first. 
Pholl, poll asp., pool. Ph is equivalent to /. before 11 
is usually sounded ou, hence pholl had become foul. 

Foulrigs (for Buighean Phuill). Slope of the pool. 
Ruighean, dim. of ruigh, slope at the base of a hill; phuill, 
gen. asp. of poll, pool. The accented syllable had originally 
been last. Rigs is a corruption of ruighean. Ean had been 
mistaken for a plural termination and had been made s. 

Foulzie. Originally the first part had been last, as is 
shown by the position of the accent. The name had been 
Cuith Phuill. Cattle-fold at a pool or burn. Cuith, cattle- 
fold; phuill, gen. asp. of poll, pool, burn. Subsequently the 
parts of the name had been transposed, and the new last 
part had been aspirated, making Phuill Chuith. Ph became 
/; ch became gh, now represented by z; and final th being 
silent had dropped off. There remained Fuillzui, which 
had lapsed into Foulzie, formerly pronounced foul-yie, now 
Fowlie as a personal name. 

Fourman Hill (for Monadh Feoir). Hill of grass. 
Monadh, hill; feoir, gen. of feur, grass. Probably in post- 
Gaelic time feoir had been supposed to be the adj. fuar, 
cold, and this had led to transposition of the parts of the 
name. 

Foveran. Fountain. Fuaran, spring, well, burn. 

Fowlershill. Hill on which sportsmen used to catch 
game by means of hawks. Foivler, catcher of birds. If the 
name is ancient it represents Tom Pholl Airidhe, hill of the 
pool on a shieling. Tom, hill; pholl, poll asp., pool; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Fowlis. Burn. Pollan, dim. of poll, pool, burn. P 
had become ph, equivalent to /; o had become ou before 11; 
and an had been regarded first as a dim. termination and 
made ie, and afterwards it had been regarded as a plural 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 167 

termination and s had been added to ie, making it ies. 
Afterwards e had been omitted and i is not sounded now. 

Fowls' Heugh. Steep bank on the Aven, in which 
birds bred. Heugh (Scotch), steep bank. 

Fowmart Well (for Tobar Chuith Mart). Well of the 
fold for cows. Tobar, well; chuith, cuith asp., fold; mart, 
gen. plur. of mart, cow. 

Fox Cairn. Cairn in which a fox had a lair. 

Fraser Castle. Castle which is the residence of the 
Fraser family. Castellum (Latin), small fort; Friseal, 
Fraser. The coat of arms of the family shows three straw- 
berry leaves because there is in French frasier, strawberry 
plant, which resembles Fraser. But this does not prove 
that the name is derived from the plant. Fraser, if a Gaelic 
name, had originally been Airidh Chraisg, shiel where two 
roads crossed. Airidh [idh silent), shiel; chraisg, gen. asp. 
of crasg, crossing. In passing into Scotch ch often became 
pli or /, and if chraisg is made fraisgh with final g asp. a 
combination of letters is produced whose sound resembles 
the first syllable of Fraser as formerly pronounced in Scot- 
land. A Gaelic-speaking person often alters the arrange- 
ment of the syllables of English words and of Gaelic words 
whose meaning he does not understand. He makes book- 
seller sell-booker, with sell first and er last. Airidh Chraisg 
changed to Air Fraisgh he would readily make Fraisghair, 
which would lapse into Fraser. 

Freefield (for Achadh Treith). Field of the hill. 
Achadh (dh silent), place, field; treith (th silent), gen. of 
triath, hill. Asp. t is liable to be changed to asp. p, which 
is equivalent to /. 

Frendraught. The position of the accent indicates that 
the parts of the name had been transposed, and therefore 
probably the present first syllable had been aspirated. The 
original form of the name may have been Drochaid an 
Threith. Bridge at a hill. Drochaid, bridge; an, of the; 
threith, gen. asp. of triath (th silent), hill. Th had become 
-ph, equivalent to /. 

Fridayhill. Rough hill. Friodhach, rough. 

Friends' Burial Ground. Cemetery for the religious 
body called Friends by themselves and Quakers by others. 
They objected to being buried in consecrated ground and 
hence had cemeteries for themselves. Till 1851 the Friends 
did not allow gravestones in their burying-grounds. 

Froghall. Cheerful place. Frogail, merry, cheerful. 
Froghole Quarry. If this name is English it means a 
hole in which there are many frogs. Frogs often accumulate 
in great numbers in old quarries. If it is of Gaelic origin it 



168 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

means large hole, marsh. Frog, hole, chink. The frog 
of a horse's foot should be the groove in the sole. 

Frogmore. Big hole. Frog, hole, marsh ; trior, big. 

Frostynib. Point at the Dorth-west corner of Mormond, 
400 feet above the sea. 

Fuar Braighe. Cold hill. Fuar, cold; braighe, hill. 

Fuaran Mor. Big spring. Fuaran, spring; mor, big. 

Fuaran nan Aighean. Spring of the fawns. Fuaran, 
spring, well; nan, of the; aighean, gen. plural of agh, hind, 
fawn. 

Fuie, Burn of. Burn of the cattle-fold. Chuith, cuith 
asp., cattle-fold. Ch had been changed to ph, and this to 
/; and th had dropped off. 

Furrach Head. Head where a watch was kept. 
Fair each,, watchful. 

Futtie, Footie, Fittie. Cattle-fold. Chuitan, cuitan 
asp., small fold. Ch had become ph, equivalent to /, and 
an had become ie. See Fittie. 

Futtlie Stripe. Burn at a cattle-fold. Chuitail, cattle- 
fold. Ch had become ph, equivalent to /, and ai and I had 
been transposed. See Cuid. 

Fyvie. Small cattle-fold. Cuithan, dim. of cuit, fold. 
Ch had become ph, equivalent to /, and an had become ie 
in passing into Scotch. The first castle of Fyvie had been 
a guard-house for protecting a cattle-fold against Highland 
thieves. There was a Fyvie also in Ellon. See " Anti- 
quities," III., pp. 31, 37. 

Fyvie and James Croft (for Croit Chuithain and Croit 
Seamhais). Croft of the small fold and Croft of prosperity. 
Croit, croft; chuithain, gen. asp. of cuithan, small fold; 
seamhais, gen. of seamhas (pronounced shevas), prosperity. 
In chuithain, ch had become ph, equivalent to /; th had 
become bh, equivalent to v ] and ain had become ie. In 
seamhais s is pronounced sh, which had become j in Scotch; 
and m lost the asp. The croft had borne both names, but 
not at the same time. 

Ga' Pot. This is a pot in the Don, called also The Daues. 
Perhaps this should be The Gaws. The name implies that 
there is on the margin of the river a shallow pool after a 
flood. See Gow's Pot. 

Gadie, Gaudie, Gaudy. Treacherous. Gabhdach, 
cunning, deceitful, and hence dangerous. Bh is silent, 
and ach had become ie or y. This etymology requires 
that a should have its long and broad sound. 

Gadle, The. The field. Geadhail, field, park. 

Gadle Braes, Geddle Braes. Braes of the field. 
Geadhail, field. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 169 

Gaidley Cairn. Cairn of the field. Cam, cairn; geadh- 
ail, field. Ai and I had been transposed. 

Gairn. Bough or rushing burn. Garbh, rough ; ab hainn, 
water. 

Gairn Hill (old form Gardyne). Eough hill. Garbli, 
rough; dun, hill. 

Gairney Water. Bough burn. Garbh, rough; abhainn, 
water. Ai and ann had been transposed. 

Gairnieston. Dalgarno's town. The estate of Fintray 
having been sold it was purchased by two persons named 
Craig and Dalgarno. Their portions were called Craig- 
fintray and Dalgarnofintray. These were subsequently 
called Craigston and Gairnieston. 

Gairnshiel. Summer residence near the Gairn for 
women in charge of cows at pasture far away from a farm. 
Gairn, for garbh abhainn, rough water; seal, temporary 
residence among hills. See Gairn. 

Gait, Rumbling. A deep narrow opening in a rocky 
coast where large volumes of water rise up from the bottom. 
Gait is the same as Gwight or Gight. 

Gall Well. Well at a stone. Gall, rock, pillar, stone. 
Well might here represent bhaile, farm-town. 

Galla Hill, Gallahill, Gallow Hill, Gallows Hill, 
Gallow Top. Hill on which was a gallows for hanging 
criminals sentenced to death by a barony court. Galga 
(Anglo-Saxon), gallows. Final s shows that provision had 
been made for hanging more than one person at a time. 
The Gallow Hill was near the seat of the court. 

Gallaford, Gallabog, Gally Bank, Gally Hill. These 
names had originally been Ath Gealach, Began Gealach, 
Bruach Gealach, Coill Gealach. Gealach is a late trans- 
lation into Gaelic of tvhite, a corruption of cuith, fold. 

Gallon of Water. Rock. Gallan (Irish), rock. 

Gallowgate. Way from the town-house of Aberdeen 
to the place where criminals were hanged. It included 
Broad Street. The gallows was erected at the north end, 
on the east side of the Gallowgate. 

Galton. The meaning of this name is not obvious. 
From its situation between two burns it may come from 
gabhal, fork between two burns, with English ton added. 
Bh is equivalent to u, v, or iv, and it is often silent. Gallton 
would represent Baile Gall, town at a stone. Baile, town 
(translated and put last); gall, stone, rock, pillar, monu- 
mental stone. 

Gamack, Burn of. Burn of the bend in the Don at 
Buchaam. Carnag, little crook. 

Gamrie (for Cam Ruigh). Curving slope. Cam, 
crooked; ruigh, slope of a hill. Or, for Geamrachadh, winter 



170 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

feeding of cattle or sheep. The asp. consonants with the 
intermediate vowel might have become silent. 

Gangie's Cairn (for Cam Fhangain). Cairn of the small 
fank. Cam, cairn; fhangain, gen. asp. of fangan, small 
fank. Fh had become gh, and the aspirate had afterwards 
been lost. Ain had become ie, to which s had afterwards 
been added because Gangie had been thought to be a 
personal name in the possessive. 

Gannoch. Sandy place. Gainneach (Irish), sandy. 

Garbet (for Garbh Bad). Rough bushy place. Garbh, 
rough ; bad, thicket, grove. 

Garbh Allt. Rough burn. Garbh, rough, rushing ; 
allt, burn. The adjective here precedes its noun, which 
intensifies its meaning. 

Garbh Choire, Garchory. Rough corry. Garbh, rough; 
choire, coire asp., corry. 

Garbh Choire Mor. Big rough corry. Garbh, rough; 
choire, coire asp., corry; mor, big. 

Gardenshillock, Gardensmill. In these names Garden 
represents gartan, small circle, enclosure; and s is a late 
addition to make Garden possessive. 

Garble. See Garpelhead. 

Gardlebog. Rough field bog. Garbh, rough; dail, 
field; bog, marsh. 

Gardnerhill, Gardnershill. Hill of a shieling where 
there was an enclosure. Gartan, dim. of gart, stone circle, 
fold, fank; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. S in Gardners- 
hill is a late addition, made in the belief that Gardner was a 
personal name. 

Garioch, The. The rough howe. Garbh, rough; iochd, 
howe. The name The Garioch has been omitted on the 
O.S. maps, though it is well known. The Garioch compre- 
hends the district drained by the Ury and its tributaries the 
Shevock and the Gadie. 

Gariochsburn, Gariochsford, Gerriesford. The first 
part of these names represents garbh, rough. The insertion 
of s indicates that it was thought to be a noun in the 
possessive. See Garioch. 

Garlet, Garlot. Rough hillside. Garbh, rough; 
leathad (th silent), side of a hill. 

Garleybrae. Brae on the side of a rough hill. Garbh, 
rough ; leth (th silent), side of a hill without another 
facing it. 

Garlogie. Rough howe. Garbh, rough; lagan, howe, 
little hollow. 

Garmaddie. Rough little field. Garbh, rough; madhan f 
little field. In Irish magh, plain, is also made madh. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 171 

Garmond. Rough moor. Gurbh, rough; monadh, moor,, 
hill. 

Garmonend Ford. Ford of the rough hills. Garbh r 
rough; monean, gen. plural of monadh, moor, hill. 

Garnet Hill. Hill where garnets are seen in the rocks. 
They are found in metamorphic rocks, especially in Glen- 
bucket and the neighbouring part of Strathdon. If the 
name is Gaelic, Garnet must represent Garbh Net. Rough 
burn. Garbh, rough; net, burn. 

Garpelhead, Garplabrae, Garble, Garbel. In these 
names the first part is garbh, rough, and the second is prob- 
ably pla, green place. In the first name Head represents 
chuid, fold. C is not sounded in ch and had been lost. The 
original pronunciation of Huid had been hoo-eed, which had 
become first Heed and is now Head. 

Garples Pot. Garples may represent Garbh Phollan. 
Rough little pool. Garbh, rough; phollan, pollan asp., little 
pool. An had become s instead of ie. 

Garrach, Garrack. Rough place. Garbhach, rough. 
Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w. Here it is silent. 

Garral Burn, Garrol Burn. Rough burn. Garbh, 
rough ; allt, burn. 

Garran Burn. Rough water burn. Garbh, rough; 
abhainn, water. Bh of garbh and of abhainn had become 
silent and had been lost. 

Garrieswells (for Baile Garbh Abhann). Town on a 
rough burn. Baile, town; garbh, rough; abhann, gen. of 
abhainn, burn. Bh and abh had become silent and had 
been lost. Arm had been made both ie and s, though it is 
neither a dim. nor a plural termination. Baile had been 
asp. and put last. Afterwards it had lapsed into Well and 
later into Wells. 

Garromuir. Rough moor. Garbh, rough; muir 
(Scotch), moor. 

Garron, Meikle. Big nail. This name has been given 
to a long tapering piece of rock on Keith Inch. 

Garthdee. Place in or near the Dee surrounded by 
water or by a fence. Garth, gart with t asp., enclosed place ; 
Dee, river name. 

Garthy. Small enclosure. Garthan, dim. of garth,. 
enclosure, circle. 

Gartly. Rough hill. Garbh, rough; tulach, hill. 

Gartnach Hill. Hill of the circle at a mound. Gart, 
circle; an, of the; acha, mound. There are tumuli on the 
hill. 

Garveclash Burn (for Garbh Clais Burn). Burn of the- 
rough gorge. Garbh, rough; clais, trench-like gorge. 

Garvel. Rough burn. Garbh, rough; allt, burn. 



172 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Garvelside. Farm on the side of a rough burn. Garbh, 
rough; allt, burn. 

Gash of Philorth. Burn of Philorth. Gals (pro- 
nounced gash), burn, hollow of a burn. See Philorth. 

Gask. Point. Gasg, long narrow tail of land, as at 
Balnagask. See Balnagask. 

Gateside. Windy site. Gaothach, windy; sulci he, seat, 
place. 

Gatherdam. Dam for collecting a large supply of water 
for feeding a small dam at a mill. But see Gathering 
Cairn. 

Gathering Cairn (for Cam Gaothar). Windy hill. 
Cam, hill; gaothar, windy. The parts of the name had 
been transposed. 

Gauch Hill. Windy hill. Gaothach, windy. Th had 
become silent. 

Gaucyhillock. Bushy hillock. Gasach, bushy. 

Gaul Burn. Burn formed by the junction of two 
streams. Gobhal, fork between two burns. See Gouls. 

Gaun's Hill. Hill of the fold. Gabhann, fold. Bh is 
sounded ou. The insertion of s shows that ann had been 
regarded as a plural termination, and the apostrophe had 
been a later addition. 

Gaval. Place where cattle were penned. Gobhal, fold. 

Geal Charn, Gealaig (for Gealach) Hill. White hill. 
Geal, white; gealach, white; charn, cam asp., hill. These 
names had originally been Chuithail, cattle-fold, which had 
been corrupted into Whitehill, and this had afterwards been 
translated into Gaelic by geal, white; gealach, white; and 
cam, hill. 

Gearlan Burn. Burn of the sharp-pointed hillock. 
Geur, sharp-pointed; lamhaln, gen. of lamhan, hillock. 

Gearrach, Gearick. Short dry heather. Giorrach, 
short heath. 

Ged Pot. Pike pot. Geadas, pike, ged (Scotch). 

Gedjack. Small portion. Cuideag, small portion. 
Gedjack is in a corner between two roads. 

Gelder Burn. Clear water burn. Geal, white; dobhar, 
water. 

Gelder Shiel. Summer residence on the Gelder Burn. 
Geal, white; dobhar, water; seal (pronounced shal), shiel, 
temporary residence. 

Geldie Burn (for Allt Gealaidh). Burn of whiteness. 
Allt, burn; gealaidh, gen. of gealadh, whiteness. White 
applied to water means clear, pure. 

Geldie Lodge. Temporary residence for sportsmen on 
the Geldie Burn. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 17& 

Gellan. Little white place. Gealan, dim. of geal t 
white. 

Gellie Wood. Gellie is a corruption of gealach, white. 
White is itself a corruption of chuit, asp. form of cuit, cattle- 
fold. Gellie Wood, therefore, means wood growing on a 
place where anciently there had been a cattle-fold. 

Gellybrae. White brae. Originally the name had been 
Chuithail, cattle-fold. By corruption into English this be- 
came Whitehill, which translated into Gaelic became Geal 
Braigh (geal, white; braigh, hill). Afterwards Geal became 
Gelly and Braigh became Brae, making Gellybrae. 

Gexechal. A corruption of Sean Choille. Old wood. 
Sean, old; choille, coille asp., wood. 

German Ocean. This is a translation of the Latin term 
Oceanvs Germanus. Though appropriate for the sea on the 
coast of Germany it is not appropriate for the sea on the 
east coast of Britain, and it is seldom used. 

Gerriesford. Bough ford on the Brindy burn. Garbh, 
rough. Gerrie had in recent time been supposed to be a 
man's name. 

Geskin Slack. Hollow in a pine wood. Giubhsachain, 
gen. of giubhsachan, pine wood; slochd, long hollow. 

Geusachan Burn. Burn of Glen Geusachan. Giubh- 
sachan, dim. of giubhsach, pine-wood. 

Gibb's Kush (for Gibeach Ruigh). Rough hillside. 
Gibeacli, rough, bushy; ruigh, slope of a hill. Perhaps from 
giubhas, fir tree. 

Gibseat. Gilbert's place of residence. Perhaps from 
giubhas, fir. 

Gibson's Croft. Croft occupied by a tenant called 
Gibson. Perhaps from giubhas, fir. 

Gibston. Gilbert's town. Gibs might be a derivative 
from giubhas, fir. 

Gight. Windy place. Gaothaeh, windy. 

Gight Cairns. Windy hills. Gaothaeh, windy; carnan T 
plural of cam, hill, rock, cairn. 

Gight Castle. Castle on a windy height. Gaothaeh t 
windy. 

Gight, Silver. Inlet among rocks, which had been used 
as a cattlefold. Gight, same as Gait and Gwight, from 
Norse gja, chasm. 

Gilbert Pot. Pot at Whitehaugh. Poit, pot; geal, 
white; bhaird, gen. asp. of bard, haugh. White had been a 
corruption of cuith, fold, and it had been translated into 
Gaelic by geal, white. 

Gilcomston. Gillecalum's town. Gille, servant, fol- 
lower; columan, dove, St Columba. This is the name of a 
district in Aberdeen, bounded on the north and east by the 



174 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

West Burn of Gilcomston and on the south by the Denburn 
and a tributary — no longer visible — which rose at the west 
■end of Morningfield Eoad and joined the Denburn at 
Whitehall Eoad. It was called Gilcomston Burn. 

Gilderoy, Cairn of. Cairn commemorating Gilderoy, 
the red lad. Gille, lad; ruadh, red. 

Gilgather Bush (for Bad Cinn Ghaothar). Bushy place 
-on a windy height. Bad, bush; cinn, gen. of ceann, head; 
ghaothair, gen. of gaothar, windy. 

Gilkhorn (for Geal Charn). White hill. Geal, white; 
charn, cam asp., hill. But Whitehill was a corruption of 
chuithail, cattle-fold, and it had been translated back into 
Gaelic by geal, white, and earn, hill. 

Gill Burn. White burn. Geal, white. Originally Geal 
had been Chuith, which had been corrupted to White, and 
it had been translated into Gaelic by geal, white, corrupted 
to Gill. 

Gill Well. White well. Geal, white. See Gill Burn. 

Gillahill, Gillowhill. Cattle-fold. Chuithail, cattle- 
fold. Chuithail had been corrupted into Whitehill, and White 
had been translated into Gealach, which had been corrupted 
into Gilla and Gillow. See Geal Charn and Geallaig Hill. 

Gillamount Cave. Cave used as a cattle-fold. Chuithail, 
fold. This had been corrupted into Whitehill. Subse- 
quently White had been turned into Gaelic by Gealach and 
Hill by Monadh. Gealach Monadh had been corrupted into 
Gillamount. 

Gillespie's Well. Well of the servant of the bishop. 
Gille, lad, servant; easpuig, bishop. 

Gillha Wood (for Geal Choille Wood). Wood of White- 
hill. Geal, white; choille, coille asp., hill. Whitehill is a 
corruption of chuithail, cattle-fold. See Cuid. 

Gillie Gae. Cattle-fold. Both parts of this name 
represent chuith, fold. The first had been corrupted into 
White, which had been translated into Gaelic by gealach, 
white, subsequently corrupted into Gillie. The second had 
been added to Gillie to explain it, but it also had been cor- 
rupted. Chuith by change of ch into gh and loss of the 
aspirate became Guith. Final th is silent, and Guith be- 
came Gui, which had lapsed into Gae. 

Gillies Point (for Rinn Gealain). Point of whiteness. 
Rinn, point; gile, whiteness. 8 had been added to make 
Gillie possessive. 

Gillree Burn. The original form of the name Gillree 
had been Chuit Rath. Cattle-fold enclosure. Chuit, cattle- 
fold; rath, enclosure, circle. Chuit had been corrupted into 
White, and Rath into Ree, making the name White Ree. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 175 

Then White had been translated into Gaelic by geal, white, 
and Geal had lapsed into Gill. 

Gilmorton (originally Baile Chuit Mor). Town at the 
big cattle-fold. Baile, town; chuit, cattle-fold; mor, big. 
Chuit had been corrupted into White, and this had after- 
wards been translated into geal, white. Baile had been 
translated into Town and put to the end. These changes 
produced Geal Mor Town, white big town, which became 
the modern Gilmorton. 

Gimpston Wood. Fir-wood. Giumhas (for giubhas), fir. 
BJi and mh are both equivalent to v, hence there is a risk 
of mis-spelling words containing bh or mh. 

Ginashart (for Cinn Eas Ard). Head of the burn of the 
hill. Cinn, head; eas, burn; ard, height. 

Gingomyres (for Cinn Cuith Myres). Marsh at the head 
of a cattle-fold. Cinn (for ceann), head; cuith, fold; myre 
(Scotch), marsh. C in Cinn and Cuith had become g. Th 
final is silent. Ginngui had lapsed into Gingo. 

Ginshie Burn (for Allt Cinn Sithe). Burn on the head 
of a hill. Allt, burn; cinn, gen. of ceann, head; sithe (pro- 
nounced she-ae), gen. of sith, hill. Ginshie burn rises on 
the top of Bennachie and is soon lost in the ground. 

Gird Pot. Short pot. Poit, pot; giorraid, gen. of 
giorrad, shortness. 

Girdle and Bakebread. This name would be appro- 
priate for two seaside rocks, one of them round and the 
other square. A girdle is a round plate of iron on which 
bread is fired, and a bakebread is a square board on which 
■dough is kneaded. 

Girnall, Girnel. Place where meal paid as rent by 
farmers was stored. Gairneal, large meal chest. 

Girnock. The little rushing burn. Garbh, rough; 
abhainn, water; og, little. The Girnock is small compared 
with the Muick and the Dee. 

Glaaick Burn. Burn of the hollow. Glaic, gen. of glac, 
hollow, gorge. 

Glac, The. The hollow. Glac, hollow between two 
hills. 

Glac an Lochain. Hollow of the little loch. Glac, 
hollow; an, of the; lochain, gen. of lochan, lochan, small 
loch. 

Glac an Lochain (for Glac nan Lochan). Hollow of the 
lochans. There are two small lochs of equal size, and the 
Glac is between them. Glac, hollow; nan, of the; lochan, 
gen. plural of lochan, small loch, tarn, lochan. 

Glac Anthon (for Glac an Chona). Glack of the cats- 
tail grass. Glac, glack, hollow; an, of the; chona, gen. asp. 
of cona, cotton-grass, catstail grass. Ch had become th. 



176 Celtic Place-Navies in Aberdeenshire. 

Glac na Far. Eavine of the hill. Glac, ravine; na, of 
the; faire, gen. of fair (pronounced fa-er), hill, ridge. 

Glac na Moine. Hollow of the moor. Glac, howe, 
gap; na, of the; moine, moor, moss. 

Glac Eiach. Grey howe. Glac, hollow between 
heights; riabhach, grey. 

Glack. Long hollow. Glac, gap in a hill range. 

Glacks (for Glacan). Small hollow. Glacan, dim. of 
glac, hollow. An had become s instead of ie. 

Glackentore (for Glac an Torr). Gap of the hill. Glac, 
hollow; an, of the; torr, steep abrupt hill. 

Glackfolu. Cattle-fold in a hollow between two hills. 
Glac, narrow valley. 

Glackhead. Glack where there was a cattle-fold. Glac, 
glack; chuid, gen. asp. of add, fold. C of Chuid is not 
audible, and it had dropped off, leaving Huid (pronounced 
hoo-ed), which had afterwards become Heed and then Head. 

Glack 's Well (for Tobar Glaic). Well in a gap between 
two hills. Tobar, well; glaic, gen. of glac, gap. 

Glacks of Balloch. Little howe through which a road 
passes. Glacan, dim. of glac ; bealaich, gen. of bealach, 
road, pass. An had become s by mistake, instead of ie. 

Glackshalloch. Hollow in which willows grew. Glac, 
hollow in a hill range; seileach, gen. plural of seileach, 
willow. 

Glamlach. Gorge in a hillside. Glamhus, glack; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill. 

Glanderston. Town of the cleanser. Glanadair, 
cleaner. Probably at this place wool and cloth had been 
scoured. 

Glas Allt. Green burn. Glas, green; allt, burn. 

Glas Allt Beag, Glas Allt Mor. Little and Big green 
burns. Glas, green; allt, burn; beag, small; mor, big. 

Glas Allt Shiel. Summer residence near the Glas 
Allt burn. Glas, green; allt, burn; seal, shiel, summer 
residence among hills. 

Glas Choille. Green hill. Glas, green; choille, coille 
asp., hill. 

Glas Choire. Green corry. Glas, grey, green; choire, 
coire asp., corry. 

Glas Maol. Green round hill. Glas, grey, green; maol, 
blunt, round, bare hill. Perth, Forfar, and Aberdeen meet 
on Glas Maol. 

Glas Tiiom. Grey green hill. Glas, green; thorn, torn 
asp., hill. 

Glasachdhu. Black little howe. Glaiseag, little howe; 
dhu, black. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 177 

Glaschul, Glasschill. Green hill. Glas, green; 
choille, coille asp., hill. 

Glasco Forest, Glasgow Forest. Green fold in the 
forest of Kintore. Glas, green; cuith (ith silent), fold. In 
some cases a fold was formed by planting trunks of trees 
vertically in the ground. To shelter cattle a bank of earth 
growing grass had been piled up outside the ring of tree- 
trunks. 

Glascoego, Glasgowego. Green fold for heifers. Glas, 
green; cuith (ith silent), fold; aighe, gen. plural of aighe, 
heifer. See Glasco Forest. 

Glash. Bay. Glas, embrace, lock. Two places called 
North Glash and South Glash are bays with narrow mouths. 

Glashie. Grass land. Glasach, grassy ground. Ach 
becomes ie in Scotch. 

Glashmore (for Clais Mor). Big trench. Clais (pro- 
nounced clash), trench-like hollow; mor, big. 

Glaspits. Green places. Glas, grey green; pitean, 
plural of pit, place. 

Glass. Grey place. Glas, grey, wan. In Irish glas 
means green, and this appears to. be its meaning in Scotch 
names of places. 

Glassel (for Glas Allt). Green burn. Glas, green; 
allt, burn. 

Glasslaw. Green hill. Glas, grey green; lamh, hill. 
Mh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Glasterberry. Wet green land. Glas, green; tir, 
land; biorach, wet. 

Gleann an t-Slugain. Glen of the little slug. Gleann, 
glen; an t-, of the; slugain, gen. of slugan, little gorge, 
small gap. 

Glebe. Small farm held officially by the minister of a 
parish. Gleba (Latin), clod, land. 

Gledsgreen. Grassy place frequented by kites, in 
search of mice. Glcd, kite, buzzard. 

Glen. Steep-sided river valley. Gleann, glen. 

Glen Beg, Glen Beag. Small glen. Gleann, glen; 
beag, small. 

Glen Cat. Glen of the drove road. Gleann, glen; cat, 
road, way. 

Glen Clunie. Glen of the Clunie water. Gleann, glen; 
cluaine, gen. of cluain, meadow, green valley. 

Glen Dee. The deep valley of the Dee. Gleann, glen, 
deep valley; Dee, dubh, black. 

Glen Derry. Wooded glen. Gleann, glen; doireach, 
woody. 

Glen Dhualt. Glen of the black burn. Gleann, glen; 
dubh, black; allt, burn. 



178 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Glen Lui. Glen of the small water. Gleann, glen; lue, 
smallness. Lue is normally formed from the adj. lu, small. 
The Lui is small compared with the Dee. 

Glenbardy. Glen of the meadow. Gleann, glen; bar- 
dain, gen. of bardan, small meadow. 

Glenbogie. Glen of the Bogie water. Gleann, glen. 
See Bogie. 

Glenbucket, Glenbuchat. Glen of the knoll. Gleann, 
glen; buiceid, gen. of bucead, knob, boss. The glen takes 
its name from a small hill in the middle. Glenbuchat, a 
meaningless old spelling, has been revived for the official 
name of the parish. 

Glenbucket Mains. Farm at Glenbucket Castle, 
originally occupied by the proprietor of the estate. See 
Mains. 

Glencairn. Glen of the hill. Gleann, glen; cairn, gen. 
of cam, hill. 

Glencarvie. Glen of roughness. Gleann, glen; gar- 
bhaidh (dh silent), gen. of garbhadh, roughness. 

Glencoe. Glen of the mist. Gleann, glen; ceo, mist, 
fog. In frosty calm winter mornings there would be mist 
in this hollow after sunrise. 

Glenconrie, Glenconrea. Glen of grey dogs. Gleann, 
glen; con, gen. plural of cu, dog; riabhach, grey. By grey 
dogs rabbits are meant. Cu means any small quadruped, 
as water-rat, squirrel, rabbit, dog, fox, wolf, and also an eel. 

Glencuie. Glen of the cattle-fold. Gleann, glen; 
cnith (th silent), cattle-fold. 

Glendaveny. Glen of the two burns. Gleann, glen; 
da, two; aibhne, gen. of abhainn, burn. 

Glendronach. Glen of burn rising in a long ridge. 
Gleann, glen; dronnaige, gen. of dronnag, ridge of a hill. 

Glendui. Black glen. Gleann, glen; dubh, black. 

Gleneilpy. Glen of the mountain. Gleann, glen; ailp, 
gen. of alp, mountain. 

Glenesk. Glen of the water. Gleann, glen; uisge, 
water, burn. 

Glenfenzie. Glen of the Fenzie burn. Gleann, glen; 
faing, gen. of fang, fank. 

Glengarry. Kough glen. Gleann, glen; garbh, rough. 

Glengerrach (for Glen Giorra). Short glen. Gleann, 
glen; giorra, gen. of giorra, shortness. 

Glenhead. Glen of the fold. Gleann, glen; chuid, gen. 
asp. of cuid. fold. C had been lost because silent, and huid 
had been pronounced successively hoo-eed, heed, and head. 

Glenhouses. Houses in a glen. If the name is old and 
accented on the last part it represents Glen Chuithain, glen 
of the small fold. Gleann, glen; chuithain, gen. asp. of 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 179 

cuithan, small fold. C had been lost; th had become s; and 
in had become s. 

Glenkindie, Glenkinie (local). Glen of the little fold. 
Gleann, glen; cuithan (th silent), dim. of cuith, fold. A and 
n had been transposed, and a had become ie. D is a euphonic 
insertion not always sounded. 

Glenlaff Hill. Glenlaff is for Gleann Laimh. Glen 
of the hill. Gleann, glen; laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. 

Glenlogie. Glen of the little howe. Gleann, glen; 
lagain, gen. of lagan, little howe. 

Glenmellan, Glenmillan. Glen of the little hill. 
Gleann, glen; meallain, gen. of meallan, dim. of me all, hill. 
Millan is a derivative from mill, the gen. form of meall, hill. 

Glenmore. Big glen. Gleann, glen; raor, big. 

Glenmuick. Glen of mist. Gleann, glen; muich, mist. 
See Muick. 

Glennieston. Town of the little glen. Gleannan, little 
glen. An had normally become ie. 

Glenny. Little glen. Gleannan, dim. of gleann, glen. 
An had become ie as usual. 

Glenquithle. Glen of the cattle-fold. Gleann, glen; 
cuithail, fold. 

Glenshalg. Glen of hunting. Gleann, glen; seaZg 
(pronounced shalg), hunting, fowling. 

Glenshee. Quiet glen. Gleann, glen; sithe (pro- 
nounced she-ae), gen. of szt/i, peace, quietness. 

Glenskinnan. Glen of the little drove. Gleann, glen; 
sgannain, gen. of sgannan, little drove. 

Glentanner, Glentanar, Glentana House, Glen Tana 
School. The narrow glen. Tana, slender, narrow. The 
O.S. maps have Glentanner, but in Aberdeen the name is 
made Glentanar. 

Glentilt (for Gleann Tlaithe). Glen of tranquility. 
Gleann, glen; tlaithe, mildness, calmness. The aspirate and 
its vowel had been lost, and I and ai had been transposed, 
producing Tailt, which had lapsed into Tilt. 

Glen Ton. Glen of the Ton burn. Gleann, glen; ton, 
bottom of a howe. 

Glenton. Town in a glen. Gleann, glen. 

Glentough. Glen of the hill. Gleann, glen; tulaich, 
gen. of talach, hill. In Scotch I is often omitted after a long 
vowel, as in maid for malt; and it may sometimes be found 
after a long vowel where it ought not to be. 

Glisters, The. Narrow places where rocks approach 
each other. Glaiste, locked, past part, of glais, to lock, 
embrace. 

Gloie's Dam. Dam of preparation. Gleois, gen. of 
glens, provision, readiness. 



180 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Glory Well. Well making a noise like speaking. 
Glorach (Irish), talkative, prattling. 

Goauch Wood. Wood growing on a windy hill. Gao- 
thach, windy. 

Gobaneala Pot. Pot in the river Ythan, shaped like 
the neck of a swan. Goban, bill, neck; ealaidh, gen. of eala, 
swan. 

Gobhals, Govals, Gouls. Space between two branches 
of a burn or two roads. Gobhlan (for gobhalav), dim. of 
gobhal, fork between meeting burns or roads. Bh is equi- 
valent to v or ou, and an had become s instead of ie. 

Gog, Gogan. Tub-shaped hollow. Gog, tub (primitive 
of gogan); gogan, small tub. 

Gonar, Gownar. Cattle-fold on a shieling. Gabhann, 
fold; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Bh is equivalent to 
v or ou, and sometimes it becomes silent. 

Gonarhall. Farm-house with a public kitchen, near the 
Gonar burn. 

GOOKHILL, GOUKSTYLE, GoUKSWELL, GOWKSTONE, GoWK 

Stane, Gowks Stone. On high ground the first part of 
these names represents cnoc, hill. Gowkswell represents 
Baile Chnuic, town on a hill. Baile, town; chnuic, gen. 
asp. of cnoc, hill. The parts had been transposed; Baile had 
been aspirated and pronounced waile, lapsing into Well; and 
Chnuic had been corrupted into Gowk. On level ground 
Gowk, etc., may mean cuckoo. 

Goose Croft, Goosehillock. In Gaelic names Goose 
and Geese represent giubhas (bh silent), fir. See White 
Geese. 

Gorbals Pot (for Garbh Allan Pot). Kough water pot. 
Garbh, rough; allan, dim. of all, stream. An had been 
made s instead of ie. 

Gordon Mill, Gordon's Mills, Jeannie Gordon's 
Well. In these and many other names Gordon represents 
gortan, dim. of gort, enclosure, sepulchral stone circle, fold, 
etc. In many cases 's has been added to Gordon to make it 
possessive. Jeannie Gordon's Well represents Tobar Sine 
Gortain, well of the old cattle-fold. Tobar, well (trans- 
lated and put last); sine, old; gortain, gen. of gortan, fold. 

Gorehead (for Cuid Gobhar). Fold for goats. Cuid, 
fold; gobhar, gen. plural of gobhar, goat. Perhaps from 
change in the position of the accent the parts of the name 
had been transposed, and cuid had been asp., producing 
Gobhar Chuid. Bh and c becoming silent had been lost, and 
Goar Huid had lapsed into Gorehead. 

Gorehill, Goreyhill. Hill of the goat. Gobhair, gen. 
of gobhar, goat; goibhre, second form of gen. of gobhar. 

Gormack Burn. Green burn. Gormach, green. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 181 

Gourachie (for Corrach Achadh). Steep place. Cor- 
rach, steep; achadh, field, place. G and c were frequently 
interchanged in Gaelic, but g oftener became c than c 
changed to g. Perhaps from giorrach, short dry heather. 

Gorthfielu. Field of the enclosed place. Gorth, gort 
with t asp., fold, stone circle. 

Gothie. Windy. Gaothach, windy. 

Goughburn. Hill burn. Cnoc, hill. Gnoc was liable 
to be corrupted into other words which could be pronounced 
with the vocal organs in the same position as for sounding 
cnoc. 

Goul Loch. Loch of the cattle-fold. Gobhal, fold. Bh 
is equivalent to ou. 

Gouls. See Gobhals. 

Gourdas. Enclosed space beside a burn. Gort, en- 
closure; eas, burn, waterfall. T and d were frequently 
interchanged. 

Gourdieburn (perhaps for Allt Gortain). Burn of the 
small fold. Allt, burn (translated and put last); gortain, 
gen. of gortan, dim. of gort, enclosed place. T had become 
d, and ain had become ie. 

Gourock Burn. Burn in a place where goats pastured. 
Gabharach, frequented by goats. Bh is equivalent to ou 
or v. 

Goval. Place in the fork between two streams. Gobhal, 
fork. 

Govals. See Gobhals. 

Gowan Hole, Gowan Lea, Gowanbrae, Gowanfold, 

GoWANHILL, GoWANSTONE, GoWAN WELL, GoWNIE. In 

these names Gowan represents gabhann, cattle-fold. In 
Gownie a and nn had been transposed. Hole is a gwight or 
gap in the rocks of the coast, which had served as a cattle- 
fold. Gowan Lea must be a modern name. In Gowanfold 
both parts have the same meaning. Gowanstone is for 
Gowanstown. Gowanwell represents Baile Gabhainn, with 
baile transposed and aspirated and afterwards corrupted 
into well. The name, therefore, means town at a cattle- 
fold. The Scotch name for a daisy, gowan, had been given 
to the flower from its resemblance to a fold formed of tree- 
trunks stuck into the ground, forming a Stocket Head; 
which see. 

Gowdie (for Cuidan). Small cattle-fold. Cuidan, dim. 
of add, cattle-fold. C had become g, and an had be- 
come ie. 

Gowkor. See Gonar. 

Gowrie. Place of goats. Achadh, place (understood); 
goibhre, gen. of gobhar, goat. Bh is equivalent to u or v. 

Gow's Pot. Pot at a fold. Cuith, fold. C had become 



182 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

g, and ith had been lost, leaving gu, which had at first been 
pronounced goo and afterwards gow. In Glasgow cu has 
become gow, pronounced go. 

Gow's Prison (Robie). The place is at the seaside 
among rocks and might have been fenced in for a cattle- 
fold, which, after going out of use, had been thought to be a 
prison. The name might have been Eoibeach Cuith, filthy 
fold. Roibeacli, filthy; cuith, fold. Roibeach might have 
become robie, and cuith, after losing ith, might have become 
gow. See Gow's Pot. 

Grainhill, Grainhow. Sandy hill, Sandy howe. 
Graine, sand. Grainhow is 400 feet above sea, at which 
level there are in many places raised sea beaches. 

Grains of Tanner. Branches of the Tanner Water. 
Grain being the same as groin should mean the space be- 
tween the branches. 

Grampians. A range of mountains south of the Dee. 
The name is taken from Mons Grampius, named by Tacitus 
in his Life of Agricola. The episode in which it occurs 
appears to be fictitious. 

Grandhome, Granden (1306-1329), Grandowne (1391), 
Grandown (1466), Grandome (1475), Grandoun (1504), 
Grandon (1506), Grandhom (1696), Grandam (1732). The 
oldest forms represent Dun Graine, hill of sand. Dun, hill; 
graine, sand. The last part of the present form represents 
torn, hill. Grandholm Mill was originally part of Grand- 
home. 

Grange. Barn, farm-house on church land. Granum 
(Latin), corn. 

Granney, Burn of. Sandy burn. Grainne, sand. The 
burn flows across a raised sea beach, 400 feet above sea. 

Grant's Hillock. Probably for Toman Graine, hillock 
of sand. Toman, hillock; graine, sand. 

Grassieslack. Grassy howe crossing a road. Slochd, 
hollow, slack. 

Graystone, Greystone. These common names repre- 
sent Clach Riabhach and Clackriach. Clach, stone; riabli- 
ach (bh silent), grey. Where there is solid rock Gray and 
Grey represent creag, rock. 

Green Brow, Greencrook, Greenhill, Greenhole, 
Greenlaff, Greenland, Greenlands, Greenlaw, Green- 
leaves. All these names mean green hill. Brow is for 
bruch, hill; Crook for cnoc, hill; Hole for choille, hill; Laff 
and Law for la?nh, hill; Land, Lands, Leaves for lamhan, 
dim. of lamh, hill. D is a euphonic addition to n, and s 
represents an of lamhan regarded as a plural termination. 
In Lands an remains though s had been added, but in 
Leaves s has been substituted for an . 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 183 

Green Craig. Sandy hill. Graine, sand; creag, hill. 

Green Kaims. Green sharp ridges. Kaim (Scotch), 
comb of a cock, medial moraine left after a glacier made up 
of two more glaciers has ceased to be formed. Kaim may 
mean a lateral moraine with a steep face. 

Green Lake. Green smooth ice-polished rock. Leac, 
flat smooth stone. 

Green Koad. Grass-grown old drove road, now out 
of use. 

Greenee. Sandy place. Graine, sand. Greenee is at 
the same level as the 200 feet raised sea beach. 

Greenheads. Small fold with a green bank outside. 
Gorm Chuidan, green little fold. Gorm, green; chuidan, 
cuidan asp., small fold. Guidan had been asp. because gorm 
preceded it. An ought to have been made ie. 

Greeninches. Green enclosed space. Innis, enclosed 
place. The termination es represents s in innis, which, 
however, is not plural. 

Greenkirtle. Kirtle represents Car Tulaich, curve of 
the knoll. Car, turn, bend; tulaich, gen. of tulach, knoll. 
Green may have been gorm, green, blue; or perhaps graine, 
sand. Green was put first because it was an English 
adjective. 

Greenness. Green burn. Eas, stream. Green might 
represent graine, sand. 

Greens of Harystone. Green places at a stone where 
there had been a shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

Greens or Savoch. Green places at Savoch; which see. 

Greenshiels (for Gorm Sealan). Green shieling. 
Gorm, green; sealan, shieling. An in sealan had been mis- 
taken for a plural termination and had been made s. A 
shiel was a hut on a shieling. 

Greenstile. Green burn. Steall, gushing spring, 
stream. 

Greentree Lodge. This place is 400 feet above sea, the 
level of a raised beach, and Green may mean sandy, and 
Tree may represent triath (th silent), hill. 

Greenwellheads (for Tobar Uaine Chuidain). Green 
well at a little fold. Tobar, well; uaine, green; chuidain, 
gen. asp. of cuidan, small fold. C of chuidan, being silent, 
had dropped off. Ain had improperly been made s instead 
of ie . 
■ Gregory's Wall. Part of an old castle on Dunnideer, 
built to protect a fold on the hill. Boece, " The Father of 
Lies," asserted that a King Gregory lived and died in the 
castle, and the O.S. officials have adopted this incredible 
statement. 



184 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Greigsford (for Ath Creige). Ford on the hill. Ath, 
ford; creige, gen. of creag, hill. 

Grey Ewe (for Creag Chuith). Hill of the fold. Creag, 
hill; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. G of creag had been 
asp. before ch of chuith and had thus been lost. Ch and th 
of chuith had been lost. 

Grey Mare. Hill by the sea. Creag, hill; mara, gen. of 
muir, sea. 

Greymore. Big hill. Creag, hill; mor, big. 

Grennoch Burn. Sandy burn. Grainneach, sandy. This 
burn crosses the 400 feet raised sea beach. 

Gressiehill. Common hill. Gresach, common to 
several persons jointly. 

Grians Well (for Tobar Grianain). Well at a walk over 
a hill. Tobar, well ; grianain, gen. of grianan, walk with a 
sunny prospect. 

Grilsay Howe. Howe where fish are caught. Greal- 
sach, fish, apparently of the salmon kind. 

Grilsay Nouts. Small river abounding in fish. Greal- 
sach, fish; nethan, dim. of neth, stream. An had been made 
s instead of ie. 

Groaning Stone (for Clach Chruinn). Eound stone. 
Clach, stone; chruinn, fern, of cruinn, round. 

Groddie. Place near Groddie Burn. 

Groddie Burn. Rapid foaming burn. Grodan, dim. of 
grod, foam. 

Grugaldikes. Dykes of the crooked burn. Grugach, 
wrinkled ; allt, burn. 

Grumack Hill. Gloomy hill. Gruamach, gloomy. 

Guaves, The. The quiet place. Guaimeas, quietness, 
comfort. M in guaimeas had been asp., and mh is equivalent 
to v. 

Guestrow. Eow of dwelling-houses with gardens, in 
which distinguished visitors to Aberdeen were lodged. 

Gueval. Quiet hill. Guaimh, quiet; mheall, meall asp., 
hill. 

Gueval Cottage. Cottage on a quiet hill. See Gueval. 
On the O.S. map this name has been made Gravel Cottage. 

Guild Street. Street named in honour of Dr William 
Guild, Principal of King's College, who bought the Trinity 
Convent property and presented it to the Incorporated 
Trades in Aberdeen. 

Guise. Place where pine trees grew. Giubhas, pine tree. 

Gulbyth (for Culbyth). North Byth. Cul, back, north; 
beathach, growing birch-trees. Gulbyth is a mistake on the 
O.S. map for Culbyth. 

Gullburn (for Allt Coill). Burn of the hill. Allt, burn; 
coill, hill. C had been changed to g. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 185 

Gullie Burn (for Allt Coille). Burn of the hill. Allt, 
burn; coille, hill. 

Gully. This represents coille, hill. It seems to have 
been the name of a large farm on the high ground between 
the burns on the east and west of the modern village of New 
Byth. It had been broken up before 1696 into three parts 
mentioned in the Poll Book — Oldgully, Midgully, and New 
Gulley. The last is probably that now called Gulbyth in the 
O.S. map by mistake for Culbyth. Oldmill may represent 
Midgully, and Oldgully was probably where the village 
now is. 

Gullymoss (for Coille Mosaiche). Hill of dirtiness. 
Coille, hill; mosaiche, dirtiness. Mosaiche is accented on 
the first syllable and might become Mossie or Moss. It may 
be the original form of Moss, which seems to be hardly an 
English word. In their natural state mosses are often with- 
out vegetation and are exceedingly filthy. 

Gummies Well (for Tobar Guameis). Well of quietness. 
Tobar, well; guaimeis, gen. of guaimeas, quietness, comfort. 

Gunhill (for Coill Gamhainn). Hill of the fold. Coill, 
hill; gamhainn, gen. of gamhann, fold. Mh is sounded ou. 

Gurge Pot. Pot at a narrow passage in a river. Gurges 
(Latin), whirlpool, narrow passage. 

Gushetnook. The piece of ground, tapering to a point, 
left in ploughing a field whose sides are not parallel. Gousset 
(French), gusset. 

Gutcher Stone. Monolith marking a prehistoric grave. 
Gutcher, grandfather. 

Gutter. Passage for water. Guitear, water-channel. 

Gutter of Neish (for Guitear an Eas). Passage for the 
water. Guitear, channel; an, of the; eas, water. 

Guttrie Hill (for Coill Cuit Buigh). Hill of the fold on 
the slope. Coill, hill; cuit, fold; ruigh, slope at the base of 
a hill where cultivation ends. 

G wight. Narrow chasm in rocks into which the sea 
enters. Gja (Norse), chasm, rift. 

Ha' Stone (for Clach a' Choill). Stone of the hill. 
Clach, stone; a', of the (suppressed); choill, gen. asp. of 
coill, hill. 

Habbershaw. Goats' wood. Ghabhar, gen. plural asp. 
of gabhar, goat; shaw, thicket, wood. 

Habbie's Howe. Bushy hollow. Roibeach, bushy. 
Boibeach had been corrupted into Bobbie, which is further 
corrupted to Habbie. 

Hackleburnie Well (for Tobar Alltan Achadh Laimh). 
Well of the burnie from the field on the hill. Tobar, well ; 



186 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

alltan, little burn; achadh, field; laimh (mh silent), gen. of 
lamh, hill. 

Hackley Burn. Burn of the grassy place. Achadh, 
place; ley, grassy level place. 

Hackney Thicket (for Bad an Achaidhein). Thicket of 
the small field. Bad, bush, wood; an, of the; achaidhein, 
gen. of achaidhean, small field. H had been prefixed to 
achaidhein for euphony; dh, being silent, had been lost 
along with its preceding vowels, and ein by transposition of 
ei and n had become nei. By these means was produced 
liachnei, which had become hackney. 

Hauagain, Haudagain (for Achadh a' Gabhainn). Field 
of the cattle-fold. Achadh, field; a', of the; gabhainn, gen. 
of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Haddo, Haddoch (for Baile a' Chodach). Town at the 
fold. Baile, town; a', of the; chodach, gen. asp. of cuid, 
cattle-fold. Baile and a', though necessary for aspirating 
codach, had afterwards been suppressed. By loss of silent 
c chodach became hodach, which had afterwards become 
Haddo and Haddoch, but o retains locally the sound of a 
as in codach. See Mount Haddoch. 

Haddo House. Mansion-house at Haddo. 

Haggieshall (for Achaidhean a' Choill). Small place 
on the hill. Achaidhean, dim. of achadh, field; a', of the; 
choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. An became both ie and s. 

Haining Well. Well at a small fold. Fhaingan, faingan 
asp., dim. of fang, fank, sheep-fold, circle. F in fh is silent 
and had been lost. Faingan had been formed from faing, 
the gen. of fang, instead of the nom. From faing asp. comes 
also henge, meaning circle of stones, in Stonehenge. 

Hairyhillock (for Toman na h-Airidhe). Hillock of the 
shieling. Toman, hillock; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. When toman was translated and 
put last na was lost, and h coalesced with airidhe. 

Hallforest. Castle of the forest of Kintore. It had 
been built by a proprietor who had afterwards opposed 
Eobert Bruce and had been forfeited when he became king. 
It was given to Sir Robert Keith, who surrendered it to the 
crown in 1324 and got a regrant. The park, in which 
probably there was a herd of deer, was reserved by the king. 

Hallgreen, Hallgreens. Grassy place at a castle or 
mansion where horsemen dismounted. 

Hallhead (for Coille a' Chuid). Hill of the fold. Coill, 
hill; a', of the; chuid, cuid asp., fold. Coill became hall, 
and c of ch dropped off, being silent. 

Hallhill. Hall is a corruption of coill, hill. 

Hallmoss. Moss where tenants cast peats for use in 
the proprietor's house. Hall means the part of a house 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 187 

open to all the inmates, as the great hall of a castle formerly 
was. 

Hanging Heugh. Heugh of the small fank. Fhangain,. 
gen. asp. of fangan, dim. of fang, fold, fank. 

Hanging Stone. Stone with a hole into which the 
gallows was set. 

Hanging Well (for Baile Fangain). Town at the small 
fold. Baile, town; fhangain, gen. asp. of fangan, small fold. 
Bailc had been asp. and put last. Bhaile had become ivett, 
and fhangain had lost initial /. Well, however, might mean 
spring. 

Hannet (for Cheann na Net). Head of the burn. 
Cheann, ceann asp., head; na, of the (suppressed); net, 
stream. 

Happyhillock. Both parts of the name have the same 
meaning. Chnapan, cnapan asp., hillock. C and n have 
been lost, and an has become y, both being dim. termina- 
tions. 

Hardbedlam. Hill of Bedlam; which see. Ard, hill. 

Hardford. Hill ford. Ard, hill. 

Hardgate. Koad to a hill. Ard, hill, with h, a late 
addition made after the meaning of ard had been lost. 
Hardgate in Aberdeen means a road made with broken stones 
and gravel. 

Hardhead (for Ard a' Chuid). Hill of the cattle-fold. 
Ard, hill; a', of the (suppressed); chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, 
cattle-fold. C of ch had been lost, being silent. 

Hardhill, Hardhillock. The second part is a trans- 
lation of the first. Ard, hill, hillock. 

Hard Shouther. Hill of the shieling. Shouther is the 
oldest part of the name and represents Sith Airidhe. Sith, 
hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Sith had been sounded 
sliccth, and idhe of airidhe had been lost. The name had 
then been sounded sheether and its meaning had almost been 
forgotten. Then ard, hill, had been put before Sith to ex- 
plain it, and afterwards ard had been converted into the 
English word Hard. 

Hardslacks (for Slochd Ardain). Long narrow hollow 
on a little hill. Slochd, gorge, wet hollow crossing a road; 
ardain, gen. of ardan, knoll, small hill. Ain of ardain had 
erroneously been supposed to be a plural termination, and 
s had been added to Slack. H initial facilitated pronuncia- 
tion. When Ard became Hard it was put first, as being an 
English adjective. 

Hardweird. The two parts of this name are corruptions 
of the same word, ard, -height. Hard is ard with h prefixed, 
and uird is the gen. of ard. It had been added in post- 
Gaelic time to explain the first. The whole name means- 



188 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

the hill. It is, however, now given to a row of houses at 
the foot of the height on the south side of the Denburn. 

Hardyards. Hill. Both parts of the name mean the 
same thing, and both are derivatives from ard, hill, and 
ardan, little hill, in which an has become s. 

Hareetnach Burn (for Allt na h-Airidhe Aitionnaich). 
Burn of the juniper shieling. Allt, burn; na, of the; h 
(euphonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling; aitionnaich, gen. 
fern, of aitionnach, growing junipers. 

Hare Cairn, Hare Cairns, Hare Creag, Hare Stone, 
Hareburn, Harecraig, Harehill, Haremire, Haremoss, 
Harewood, Hares Howe, Hareshillock, Harestone, 
Harestones, Hares wood. In these names Hare and Hares 
represent na h-airidhe, of the shieling. Na, of the; h (eu- 
phonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. They had origin- 
ally begun with the Gaelic words for cairn, etc., and these 
had been translated and put last. Then na had been 
dropped, and h had been incorporated with airidhe, in which 
idhe is silent. 

Harlaw (for Lamh na h-Airidhe). Hill of the 
shieling. Lamh, hill; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling. After the transposition of the parts of 
the name na was omitted and h was incorporated with 
airidhe. 

Harper Brae (for Braigh na h-Airidhe). Hill of the 
shieling. Braigh, hill; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. After the translation and transposi- 
tion of the first part na was omitted and h became incor- 
porated with airidhe. Dh had become ph and the aspirate 
had afterwards been dropped. 

Harper's Stone (for Clach na h-Airidhe). Stone of the 
shieling. Clach, stone; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. See Harper Brae. 

Harry's Cairn, Harry's Hill, Harrystone. In these 
names the last part was, in Gaelic, na h-airidhe, of the 
shieling. When the first part was translated and put last 
na was omitted and h was incorporated with Airidhe, which 
became Harry's. 8 came from sounding dhe as ghe. 

Harry's Jennie (for Airidhe Sithne). Pasture on a hill. 
Airidh, shieling; sithne (pronounced she-ne), genitive of 
sithean, hill. 

Harthill, Harthills (for Ardhill). Ard, height. The 
second part of the name is a translation of the first. 

Hassack's Croft (for Croit Chasaich). Croft on a brae. 
Croit, croft; chasaich, gen. asp. of casach, steep brae. 

Hasses, The. Dangerous rocks. Chasan, plural asp. 
of casan, difficulty. C of ch had been lost, being silent, and 
■an had become es. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 18£ 

Hassiewells (for Baile Chasain). Town at a roadside. 
Baile, town; chasain, gen. asp. of casan, road. Baile had 
been asp. and put last. Then bhaile (pronounced waile) had 
become first well and then wells. Ch had lost c and. ain 
had become ie. Hassie might represent casacli, brae. 

Hassy, The. The dangerous place. Chasan, casan asp., 
difficulty. G of ch, being silent, had been lost; and an had 
improperly been changed to y. The Hassy is a rock pro- 
jecting into the sea near Rattray Head. 

Hatterseat (for Suidhe a' Chathair). Place on boggy 
ground. Suidhe, place; a', of the; chathair, gen. asp. of 
cathar, wet place. C, being silent, had been lost. 

Hatton. Small fold. Chuitan, ciritan asp., dim. of 
cuit, fold. C of ch had been lost. 

Hatton Hill. Hill of the fold. See Hatton. 

Hattoncrook (for Cnoc a' Chuitain). Hill of the fold. 
Cnoc, hill; a', of the (suppressed); chuitain, gen. asp. of 
cuitan, dim. of cuit, fold. See Cnoc. 

Hatton slap (for Sliabh a' Chuitain). Hill of the fold. 
Sliabh, hill; a', of the (suppressed); chuitain, gen. asp. of 
cuitan, dim. of cuit, fold. 

Haw Hill. Haw represents choill, coill asp., hill, and 
hill is a translation of choill. 

Hawes, The. The hawse or throat, passage between 
rocks in the sea. 

Hawk Law, Hawkhall, Haw^khill, Hawkhillock. Hill 
frequented by hawks. Before grouse-preserving began 
hawks were numerous. On uncultivated hillocks they found 
mice, beetles, etc., and the hillocks afforded a good outlook 
for birds. Hawkhall might be compounded of choill, gen. 
asp. of coill, hill, corrupted to haw, and choill added to haw 
to explain it. 

Haws, The. If this is an English name it means the 
hawthorns. If Gaelic it represents choillean, coillean asp., 
little hill. C in ch is silent and had been lost, and hoill had 
become ha. An ought to have become ie, but being 
erroneously regarded as a plural termination it had been 
turned into s. 

Hawthornhead (for Coill Cam Chuid). Hill of the fold. 
Coill, hill; cam, hill; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. These 
words had passed through the following forms : — Coill, Choill, 
Hoill, Holl, How, Haw; Cam, Cham, Tharn, Thorn; Cuid, 
Chuid, Huid, Head. Coill is a late addition made to explain 
cam after it had been corrupted. In Scotch oil usually 
becomes oiv as in boll, bow; knoll, knowe; poll, pow. 

Haybogs, Hayfarm, Hayfield, Hayhillock, Hayton. 
In these names Hay represents chuidh, cuid asp. both at 



190 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

the first and last letters. C in ch is silent and had been lost. 
Dh is equivalent to y. 

Hazlehead (for Cuithail Cuid). Both parts mean fold, 
and the second had been added to explain the first after 
it had been corrupted. Cuithail might have had the following 
forms: — Cuithail, Chuithail, Huithail, Huishail, Husail, 
Hazle. Cuid may have been Cuid, Chuid, Huid, Head. 
Cuid had been at first in the nom. form, being in apposition 
to Cuthail, but being in the qualifying place it had afterwards 
been asp. to indicate that it was in a dependent relation to 
Cuithail. 

Headinsch. Cattle-fold enclosure. Chuid, cuid asp., 
cattle-fold; innis, enclosure. 

Headiton, Headitown, (for Baile a' Chuidain). Town 
of the little fold. Baile, town; a', of the; chuidain, gen. 
asp. of cuidan, small fold. Baile became ton and town; a' 
was lost when baile was transposed; chuidain lost c, and ain 
became i for ie. 

Headroom (for Druim a' Chuid). Hill of the fold. 
Druim, long hill; a', of the; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. 
C being silent had been dropped, leaving huid, which be- 
came head and was put first, retaining the accent. A' was 
lost when chuid was put first. 

Headroom s (for Druman a' Chuid). Small ridge of the 
fold. Druman, dim. of druim, ridge; a', of the; chuid, gen. 
asp. of cuid. An had been made s instead of ie. 

Heatherbrigs. If this is a Gaelic name it had originally 
been Braigh Chuith Airidhe. Hill of the fold on a shieling. 
Braigh (corrupted into brigs), hill; chuith, cuith asp. 
(corrupted into heath by loss of c), fold; airidhe (idhe 
dropped), gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Heatherwick (for Uig Chuith Airidhe). Corner of the 
fold on a shieling. Uig, nook, corner; chuith, cuit asp., fold; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Dh is usually silent, and it 
had been lost along with the contiguous vowels. 

Heatherybanks. Heathery represents Chuith Airidhe. 
Fold of the shieling. Chuith, cuith asp., fold; airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling. Banks represents chuit, cuit asp., fold. 
The second part had been added to the first aftc r it had been 
corrupted and its meaning had been forgotten. Chuit be- 
came White and was turned into Gaelic by ban, white. 
Some added 7c for euphony, and others, regarding an as a 
plural termination, changed it into s, and thus was produced 
Banks. 

Heatherybrae. Brae represents braigh, hill, and the 
name means hill where there was a fold on a shieling. See 
Heatherybanks. 

Heathfield (for Achadh Chuith). Field of the cattle- 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 191 

■fold. Achadh, place, field (translated and transposed); 
chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. C had become silent 
and had been lost. 

Heath-hill. Cattle-fold. Chuithail, cuithail asp., 
cattle-fold. After aspiration c had been dropped. 

Heatiilaxd. Cattle-fold. Chuithail, cuithail asp., fold 
for cattle. This had been corrupted to Heathhill, and hill 
had been turned into Gaelic by lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill, 
and Lamhan is now Land. 

Hee Cross (for Crasg a' Chuith). Crossing on the top 
of a hill at a cattle-fold. Crasg, crossing; a', of the; chuith, 
gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. C and th had become silent 
and had been lost. This is the name given to the summit 
of a hill in King-Edward, where it is crossed by a road. 
Though locally supposed to mean high it is pronounced hee. 

Helenamore Croft. Croft of the big green plain. 
Ailean, green meadow; mor, big. An had been changed to 
ie, corrupted to a. 

Helen's Chambers (for Ailean Seamhachd). Island of 
quietness, smallness. Ailean, island; seamhachd, small- 
ness, peacefulness. Seamhachd, with h after m dropped, 
would be pronounced shamachd. Final s in Helen's had 
been added because it was thought to be a personal name. 

Hell's Lum. Place at the inner end of a long sea cave 
or tunnel, where the roof had fallen in. The hole thus 
formed had some resemblance to the lum in a cottage, and 
was therefore called Hell's Lum. 

Herd's Hillock. Herd's is a corruption of airidhe, which 
means both a shieling and a hut on a shieling. The O.S. 
map shows at this place the site of a tumulus " or mound, 
which may have been that of a fold or a hut near the fold. 

Hermit Seat. Perhaps this name had originally been 
Suidhe Armuigh. Seat of the buzzard. Suidlie, seat; 
armuigh, buzzard. Buzzards and kites were very numerous 
on hills before game-preserving began, and the rocks called 
Hermit Seat had seldom been without a bird on the watch. 

Hermitage. This is a fanciful name given to a summer 
house on the top of a high knoll in Old Aberdeen. Eremites 
(Greek), dweller in a desert. 

Heron Croft (for Croit a' Chaorruinn). Plot of the 
rowan tree. Croit, plot of ground; a', of the; chaomiinn, 
gen. asp. of caorrunn, rowan tree. 

Herrtck's Cairn (for Cam Chaorach). Sheep's Cairn. 
Cam, cairn; chaorach, gen. plural of caora, sheep. The 
cairn was on a boundary. 

Heuch Head. Place at the top of a steep bank. Heiich 
(Scotch), craig, cliff, steep place. 

Heugh- Shelter under a steep bank. 



192 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

High Law, High Wood, Highpield, Highlands, High- 
muir, Highness. In these names High represents chuith t 
cuith asp., fold. Law is for lamh, hill; Lands for lamhan r 
dim. of lamh, hill; and Ness is for an eas, the burn. Chuith 
had lost c, which was silent; th had also been lost because 
silent; and hui had become high. 

Hill Folds. Small enclosed fields on a hill, for penning 
sheep in at night. 

Hill of Airlie. Hill of the shieling on the side of the 
hill. Airidh (idh silent), shieling; leth (th silent), side. 

Hill of Dumeath. Hill of the ford. Dun, hill; an, of 
the; ath, ford. There is a ford at Walla Kirk at the foot of 
the hill. 

Hill of Forrest. Forrest refers to the ancient forest of 
Cardenauche. 

Hill of John's Cairn. John's represents dun, hill, with 
s added to obtain a possessive. 

Hill of Macknagran. Hill of the plain of sand. Magh r 
plain; na, of the; grainne, sand, gravel. The top of this hill 
rises nearly to the level of an ancient sea beach. 

Hill of Marcus. Hill of the big cattle-fold. Mor, big;: 
chuith, cuith asp., cattle-fold. 

Hillar (for Ard Lar). High land. Ard, high; lar, land. 

Hillocks Burn. Eivulet. Clwileach, coileach asp.,, 
rivulet. After aspiration the c had been dropped. 

Hindhill, Hindhillock, Hindland, Hindrum, Hind- 
stones. In all these names Hind represents choinne, coinne 
asp., meeting-place. Land is lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill; 
Drum is druim, long hill; and Stones may be sepulchral 
stone circle, as it is in Balquhain, town of the meeting-place. 
C in ch, being silent, had been lost. 

Hip Slack (for Slochd Chip). Long hollow on the top of 
a hill. Slochd, hollow; chip, gen. asp. of ceap, top. 

Hippyhillock. Top of a small hill. Cheapan, ceapan 
asp., small hill. C, being silent, had dropped off, and the 
dim. termination an had become y. Ceapan is the dim. of 
ceap, top of a hill. 

Hirnley (for Leth Chairn). Side of the hill. Leth, 
side; chairn, gen. asp. of cam, hill. C, being silent, had 
been lost. 

Hobshill (for Hopshill). Chop, cop asp., hill. C silent 
had been dropped, and s had been inserted to make Hop 
possessive. 

Hoggin (for Ogan). Small place. Ogan, dim. of og t 
little. 

Hoggshillock, Hogholm, Hog's Well, Hogshillock, 
Hogston. In all these names Hog means "little" and 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 193 

represents og, small, young. Holm is a corruption of torn, 
hill; and Well may be a corruption of bhaile, baile asp., 
town. 

Holadonish Burn. Burn of the devil's hill. Clwille, 
coille asp., hill, wood; a', of the; donais (pronounced don- 
ash), gen. of donas, devil, bad luck, mischief. 

Holburn, Hol Burn. Burn of the hollow. Tholl, toll 
asp., hollow. T asp. is silent and liable to be lost. It is 
formed by the junction of the two Eubislaw burns at 
Aberdeen. 

Hole, Mill of (for Muileann a' Choill). Mill of the hill. 
Muileann, mill (translated); a', of the (suppressed); choill, 
gen. asp. of coill, hill. C of choill had been lost after 
aspiration. 

Hole an Dirkie. Hole of the cave. Toll, hole (trans- 
lated); an, of the; dearcain, gen. of dearcan, little cave. 

Hole of Haughton. Howe of Haughton. Tholl, toll 
asp., howe. T in th is silent and liable to be lost. 

Hole of Morlass. Hill of the big fold. Choill, coill 
asp., hill; mor, big; Use, gen. of lios, circle, enclosure, fold. 

Holemill. Mill of the howe. Tholl, toll asp., howe. 
T had been lost after aspiration. 

Holland Bush, Holland Hill. Holland means hill. 
Choill, coill asp., hill; lamhan, small hill. C had been lost 
after aspiration ; mh had become silent and had been lost ; 
and d had been added to n for euphony. 

Hollow Burn. Burn of the howe. Tholl, toll asp., 
howe. T in th is silent. 

Hollow-dyke (for Choille Dubh, originally Dubh 
Choille). Black hill. Dubh, black; choille, coille asp., hill. 

Holly Linn (for Linne Thollain). Waterfall in a little 
howe. Linne, waterfall; thollain, gen. asp., of tollan, small 
howe. T of thollain, being silent, had dropped off. 

Holm, Holm's Hill, Holm's Wood, Holmsburn, 
Holmsmill. In these names Holm and Holms mean low 
island in a river, or haugh land near a river. Holm is an 
Early English word. 

Holmhead, Homehead. Hill of the fold. Tom, hill; 
chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. T of torn had been asp. and 
then it had been lost. C of chuid had also been lost after 
aspiration. 

Holy Shore. Black hill. Choille, coille asp., hill; scar 
(pronounced shar), black. C in ch is silent, and it had been 
lost. 

Holy Well. Chalybeate spring which, having been 
blessed, was visited by sick and infirm persons on the first 
Sunday of May. 



194 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Holylind. Hill. Choill, coill asp., hill; lamham, dim. 
of lamh, hill. C had become silent and had been lost after 
aspiration. Mh had been asp. and had been lost. 

Holymill. Same as Holmsmill. 

Home (The). Home Wood. In these names home 
represents thorn, torn asp., hill. After aspiration t becomes 
silent and is liable to be dropped. 

Honeybarrel, Honeyneuk, Honeynook. In these names 
Honey represents choinne, coinne asp., place of meeting. 
Barrel is blar, open space, with I transferred to the end. 

Hope Farm, Hopewell. Hope represents chop, cop 
asp., hill; with c lost after aspiration. Well is bhaile, baile 
asp., farm-town, with bh changed to w. 

Horn Born, Horn Ford, Horndoyne, Horne's Loaning, 
Horn's Well, Hornscroft, Horntowie. In these names 
Horn represents cliairn or chuirn, gen. asp. of cam, hill. 
Doyne is an t-abhainn, the river; and towie is tollan, dim. 
of toll, howe. 

Horner, Horneyfield. Horner and Horney represent 
carnach, abounding in cairns or stones. 

Horse Eock. Bock like a horse lying. 

Horsewell (for Baile Chraisgh). Town at a crossing on 
a hill. Baile, town; chraisgh, gen. of crasg, crossing, asp. 
at the beginning and the end. C, being silent, had been 
lost, and gh had also been lost. Then hrais had become 
horse and being an English qualifying word had been put 
first. Baile, being then last, had been asp., and bhaile had 
become ivell, bh being equivalent to w. 

Hospital Wood. Wood on an estate belonging to 
Gordon's Hospital (now Gordon's College), Aberdeen. 

Houff, The Howff. A disused burial ground. Hof 
(Dutch), walled enclosure, princely residence, farm, inn, 
place of security, mean lodging, burial ground. 

Houndhillock. Hill of meeting. Choinne, gen. asp. of 
coinne, assembly. 

House Craigs (for Hawse Craigs). Kocks among which 
there are water passages resembling necks or throats. 
Hawse (Icelandic), neck; creag, rock. 

Housedale. If of English origin the name might mean 
Bell in which a house is situated. If of Gaelic origin it 
probably represents Dail a' Chois, field of the howe. Dail, 
field; a', of the; chois, gen. asp. of cos, hollow. 

Housieside (for Suidhe Chuith). Site of a fold. Suidhe, 
site; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. C had been lost after 
aspiration, and th had become sh. 

How Burn. Burn in a hollow. 

How Ford, Howe Ford. Ford in a hollow. 

How, Howe, Hol, Hole. At the beginning of names 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 195 

these words represent tholl, toll asp., hollow. After being 
aspirated t had dropped off, having become silent. 

Howdman. This is a rock two or three hundred yards 
from land. It may have been larger two or three thousand 
years ago, and sheep or cattle might have been sent to it 
to feed. The name seems to mean hill of the fold. Man, 
hill; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. Man, hill, is seen in 
Longmanhill, Steinmanhill, and some other names. The 
order of the parts had been changed. 

Howe Homach. Hollow containing knolls. Thomach, 
tomach asp., abounding in knolls. 

Howe Moss. Moss in a hollow. 

Howe of Badifoor. Howe of a grassy wood. Badan, 
grove; feoir, gen. of feur, grass. An had become ie. 

Howe of Low^nie. Howe of a wet place. Fhliachain, 
gen. asp. of fiiuchan, wet place. Fh was silent and had been 
lost. Ain had become nai by transposition of letters. 

Howe Loup (for Chuith Luib). Cattle-fold bend. 
Chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold; luib, bend, turn in 
the coast line. C and tli of chuith had become silent and 
had been lost. See Den of Howie. 

Howe of Mar, Howe o' Mar. Mar may represent Magh 
Airidhe, plain of the shieling. Magh, plain, hollow; airidhe, 
gen. of airidli, shieling. Gh and dh are often silent. 

Howe of Slug. Slochd, slug, has the same meaning as 
hoive. 

Howff of Blair. Disused burial ground at Blair, 
Bourtie; now farm name. 

Howeshalloch. Hollow of the willows. Seileach, 
willow. 

Howets (for Chuithan). Little fold. Chuithan, dim. of 
cuithan, cattle-fold. In chuithan c had become silent and 
had dropped off ; and an had been made s in the belief that 
it was a plural termination. 

Huckster Row. Street in Aberdeen (now abolished) 
in which there was an inn. Osda, inn. 

Humble Cairn. Low round cairn not rising to a point. 
Humble (English) and hummel (Scotch) mean without horns 
or points projecting upwards. 

Humlie. Bock in the river Ythan, perhaps smooth on 
the surface and hence called hummel or humble. 

Hummel Cow Latch. In Gaelic this name might have 
been (C)hom(hdh)ail Cu(ith) Lat(hai)ch. The letters within 
parentheses had been silent. Meeting-place at a cattle-fold 
in a how r e. Chomhdhail, comhdhail asp., meeting-place; 
cuith, cattle-fold; lathaich, gen. of lathach, latch, hollow. 

Hummel Craig. Flat-topped rock. Hummel (Scotch), 
humble, without projecting points; creag, roek. 



196 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Hummel Stone. Stone without projecting points. 
Hummel (Scotch), humble, smooth -headed. 

Hummock. Rock smoothed by ice passing over it, but 
with upstanding humps. Thomacli (t silent), humpy. 

Humpherey's Well (for Tobar Comh-Airidhe). Well of 
the common shieling. Tobar, well; comh-airidhe , gen. of 
comh-airidh, shieling common to more than one proprietor. 
The well is now on a boundary line. Comli had been aspi- 
rated, and c had become silent and had dropped off. 

Hungry Hoy. The three parts of the name all mean fold 
for cattle or sheep. Fang, faak, sheep-fold; rath (th silent), 
circle, enclosure; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold, en- 
closure. C and th had become silent and had been lost. 

Hunt Hill. Hill on which men assembled to hunt wild 
animals with dogs. In ancient times deer were hunted by 
men on horses attended by dogs. See sculptured stones. 

Huntly (for Tulach Choinne). Hill of assembly. 
Tulach, hill; choinne, gen. asp. of coinne, meeting. C, 
having been aspirated, became silent and had been lost. 
Initial h shows that this part of the name had been aspirated 
and had been at the end. 

Husband Hillock. Fold hillock. The name had been 
originally cuit, fold, and subsequently Chuit, Huit, White, 
Ban (white), Band. The first part had been prefixed to the 
second to explain it after it had been corrupted and trans- 
lated. It had passed through the forms Cuit, Chuith, Huith, 
Huish, Huis, Hus ; and the two parts together make husband. 
G in ch is silent and liable to be omitted. Th had become 
sh, and the aspirating h had afterwards been lost. Ban is a 
translation into Gaelic of White and must be late. D is a 
euphonic addition to n. 

Huxter Stone. Stone at an inn to enable riders to 
mount their horses. Osda, inn. 

Hythie. Fold. Chuitlian, cuithan asp., small fold. 
C had been lost after aspiration, being silent ; and an had 
become ie. 

Iar Choire Sneachdach. West snowy corry. Iar, west; 
choire, coire asp., corry; sneachdach, snowy. 

Ides Burn. Burn of the little fold. Chuidan, cuidan 
asp., little fold. Ch had been lost, an had improperly been 
made es, and uides had become ides. 

Idoch. Brae. Uchdach, brae of a hill. 

Inch, Insch. Space surrounded by water, land, fence, 
wall, dyke, ditch, hills; cattle-fold, sheep-fold, field, garden, 
lake, island, sepulchral stone circle. 

Inch Biggie. Small island. Innis, island; beagh, little. 

Inch Geck. Very small island. Gig, root of gigean, 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 19? 

dwarf, something insignificant. Hence English term gig, 
light boat, light carriage. 

Inch Haugh. Haugh surrounded by a river. Innis, 
island. 

Inch More. Big island. Innis, island; mor, big. 

Inch Rocks. Rocks surrounded by water. Innis, island, 
surrounded place. 

Inchbrae. Enclosed slope. Innis, enclosure; brae 
(Scotch), slope. 

Inchdonald. Brown burn island. Innis, island; donn, 
brown; allt, burn. 

Inches. Innis, island. The Inches were alluvial sand- 
banks in the estuary of the Bee, between the river and the 
Benburn. 

Inchgarth. Sandy island in a river. Innis, island; 
garth, enclosure. 

Inchgreen. Enclosed grassy place. Innis, enclosure. 

Inchley. Bevel grassy enclosed place. Innis, enclosure; 
ley (Scotch), level grassy place. 

Inchmore. Big enclosure for sheep or cattle. Innis, en- 
closure ; mor, big. 

Inchnabobart (for Innis a' Botha Mhairt). Enclosure at 
a cow-house. Innis, enclosed space; a', of the; botha, gen. 
of both, house; mhairt, gen. asp. of mart, cow. The mean- 
ing of this name is now locally unknown. This had arisen 
from both, house, being confounded with bo, cow; and from 
mh being changed into bh, with subsequent loss of the 
aspirate h. The place seems to have been a summer shieling 
with a fold where cows were penned by day to rest and be 
milked, and a house for them at night. 

Inglis (for An Bios). The fold. An, the; lios (pro- 
nounced lees), fold. is not sounded, but it serves to 
prevent s from being pronounced as sh. 

Inglistown (for Baile an Bise). Town of the fold. 
Baile, town; an, of the; Use, gen. of lios (pronounced lees), 
fold. Baile had been translated and put last, and this pro- 
duced An Bise Town, now made Inglistown. 

Ininteer (for Tir Innin). Band of the hill. Tir, land 
innin, gen. of innean, hill. 

Inkhorn (for An Cam). The hill. An, the; earn, hill. 

Innes Brae, Innesbrae. Enclosed brae. Innis, en- 
closure; brae (Scotch), slope. 

Innes Cairn (for Cam an Innse). Hill of the fold. 
Cam, hill; an, of the; innse, gen. of innis, enclosure, cattle- 
fold, sheep-fold. 

Innes Well (for Tobar Innse). Well of the cattle-fold. 
Tobar, well (translated); innse, gen. of innis, cattle-fold. 

Inneshewen (for Innis [a'] [C]hui[th]ain). Enclosure 



198 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

of the small cattle-fold. Innis, enclosure; a', of the; chui- 
thain, gen. asp. of cuithan, dim. of cuitli, cattle-fold. The 
letters within brackets had been lost. 

Inschannochie. Enclosed place between two branches 
of a stream. Innis, enclosure; aonachaidh, gen. of 
aonachadh, junction of streams. 

Inschtammack. Enclosed place for rest. Innis, enclo- 
sure; taviach, restful. 

Inver. Farm at the junction of the Ton burn with the 
Don. Inbhir, infall of a stream into a larger or into the sea, 
ford, outflow of a lake. 

Inverallochy. Infall of the little burn. Inver, infall; 
allacliain, gen. of allachan, dim. of allacli, stream. 

Inveramsay, Inveralumsy (1485), (for Inbhir Allain). 
Infall of the small stream. Inbhir, infall; allain, gen. of 
allan, small stream. The 1485 form suggests that the last 
part of the name represents allan with an changed both to s 
and to ay or y. The small stream is the Stratlmaterick burn. 

Invercamey. Infall of the crooked burn. Inver, infall; 
camaidh, gen. of camadh, crook, curve. 

Invercauld. Infall of the small burn. Inbhir, infall; 
caoil, gen. of caol, narrow, small. 

Invercauld Arms Inn. Inn showing the coat of arms of 
the Invercauld family on a signboard. 

Inverchandlick. Infall of a stream from a narrow glen 
into a river. Inbhir, infall; chunglaich, gen. asp. of 
cunglach, defile, glen. 

Inverden. Mouth of the Den of Kildrummy. Inbhir 
mouth. 

Inverdon. Infall of the river Don. Inbhir, infall; Don 
river name. 

Inverebrie. Infall of the Ebrie burn. Inbhir, infall 
Ebrie, stream name. 

Inverenzie. Infall of the Fenzie burn. Inbhir, infall 
Fenzie, stream name ; which see. Fhenzie, Fenzie asp. 
becomes Enzie by loss of fh. 

Inverernan. Infall of the Ernan. Inbhir, infall 
Ernan, stream name. 

Inverey. Infall of the Ey burn. Inbhir, infall; Ey 
stream name. 

Invergelder. Infall of the Gelder burn. Inbhir, infall 
Gelder, stream name. 

Inverkindie. Infall of the Kindie burn. Inbhir, infall 
Kindle, stream name. 

Invermossat. Infall of the Mossat burn. Inbhir, infall 
Mossat, stream name. 

Invermarkte. Infall of the Markie water. Inbhir, infall 
Markie, stream name. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 139 

Invernettie. Iufall of a small stream. Inbhir, infall; 
nctain, gen. of netan, dim. of net, burn. 

Invernochty. Infall of the Nochty burn. Inbhir, infall; 
Nochty, stream name. 

Invernorth, Invernoth (1423), (for Inbhir na h-Otha). 
Outlet of the broad water. Inbhir, outflow; na, of the; h 
(euphonic); otha, gen. of oth, broad water. The broad water 
had been the loch of Inverallochy Castle. 

Inverord. Infall of the Ord burn. Inbhir, infall; Ord, 
stream name meaning hill. 

Inverquhomery. Infall of the Quhomery burn. Inbhir, 
infall; Quhomery, burn name. 

Inyerquinzie. Termination of the Pitfour Canal. In- 
bhir, infall of a river; cuinge, narrow strait, channel. 
Cuinge is now pronounced queenie. Queenie was also the 
name of the ancient channel between Peterhead and Keith 
Inch, which was described as " over the Queenie." 

Inverthernie (for Inbhir Allt Charnan). Infall of the 
burn of the small hills. Inbhir, infall; allt, burn (sup- 
pressed); charnan, gen. plural asp. of carnan, small hill. 
The burn is now the Kingsford burn, and the hills are the 
Ordie and the Knaps of Thernie. Ch of charnan had become 
th, and an had become ie, though an is not a dim. but a 
plural termination. 

Inverugie. Infall of the Ugie. Inbhir, infall; Ugie, 
stream name. 

Inverurie. Infall of the Urie. Inbhir, infall; Urie, 
stream name. 

Ixverveddie (for Inbhir Feadain). Infall of the burn. 
Inbhir, infall; feadain, gen. of feadan, spring, stream. Ain 
became ie. 

Inverythan. Ford of the Ythan. When inver and aber 
are both places on the same burn, inver means ford and abcr 
means infall; but abcr also means a ford, as in Kinnaber. 
Inver, infall, ford; Ythan, river name. 

Inzie Head. Cape like a claw. Ionga, claw, nail. 

Irie wells. Wells whose water is red with iron oxide. 
Irie is a corruption of ory, containing ore, which in Aberdeen- 
shire is pronounced eir. 

Ireland Well. Well whose water was tinged red with 
oxide of iron. Ore is corrupted into eir in Scotch. 

Iron Mine (disused). This is a place where a deep 
excavation was made to ascertain the depth and quality of 
a vein of iron ore on the side of the Leacht Eoad. See 
Geological Survey map. 

Iron Stone. Stone in a sepulchral circle, which emits a 
metallic sound when struck. 



200 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ironbrae, Ironfield. In these names iron represents 
airnean, plural of airne, sloe. 

Ironhill, Ironrieves, Ironside. Watch-hill, watched 
fold, site of a watching-place. Aime, watching cattle at 
night; coill, hill; rathan, dim. of rath, fold, with an made 
5 instead of ie ; suidhe, site. Th in rath is silent. 

Irvinestone (for Clach Airidh Bheinne). Stone of the 
shieling on a hill. Clach, stone (translated); airidh, shiel- 
ing; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. Bh is equivalent to v. 

Isaacstown (for Baile Easach). Farm having burns. 
Baile, farm-town; easach, having burns. In Highland dis- 
tricts easach means abounding in waterfalls. 

Isla. Bright river. Ialach (ch silent), bright, clear. 

Ittingstone (for Baile Chuithain). Town of the small 
fold. Baile, town (translated); chuithain, gen. asp. of 
ciiithan, dim. of cuith, cattle-fold. Ch had become silent or 
had been changed to iv. Old forms of the name are Utting- 
stoun, Uttestoun, Wittingstoune, which show its derivation 
from chuithain. 

Ivage Hill. Cattle-fold hill. Chuithail, cuitliail asp., 
fold. Chuithail had passed through the following forms in 
becoming Ivage : — Chuithail, Huith-hill, Ith-hill, Ibh-hill, Iv- 
aod, Ivage. Th had become bh, equivalent to v. Ail had 
been corrupted into Hill, which had been turned into Gaelic 
by aod (pronounced aid), hill, hill-face, brae. Aod sometimes 
became Edge in names. 

Ive. Cattle-fold. Chuith, cuith asp., cattle-fold. Ch 
had been lost along with its vowel, and th had become bh, 
equivalent to v. St Ives means hill of the fold. 

Iverton (for Overton). Upper town. 

Jackston, Cross of. Place where two roads crossed, 
and where there was an alehouse. Deoch, drink, ale, liquor. 
Deoch would have produced Jock, which had been changed 
to Jack. 

Jacob's Hillock. The meaning of the first part of the 
name cannot be made out. It probably began with d, had 
c in the middle, and it may have been Dubh Cop, black hill. 
The place is a dry knoll 1000 feet above the sea. Dubh, 
black ; cop, hill. 

Jam. Place on a brae. Aodann, brae. D is sometimes 
sounded as if it were followed by y. This produces a sound 
like g or /, and aodann, by loss of ao, became jann, which 
lapsed into jam. 

Jane's Firs. Old fir-tree roots. Sean (pronounced 
sheyi), old. The name indicates a place where a fir-wood had 
been cut down and the roots had been left in the ground. 

Janet Lamb's Well (for Sean Bhaile Laimh). Old farm- 



Celtic Place-N antes in Aberdeenshire. 201 

town on a hill. Sean, old; bhaile, baile asp., town; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill. Bh is equivalent to w, and bhaile had 
become well. 

Janet's Craig. Eock at a short distance from the edge 
of the sea. Sineidh (pronounced shenid), stretched out, re- 
moved; creag, rock. 

Janet's Skellyis (for Sineidh Sgeilgan). Projected 
rocks. Sineidh, projecting, distant; sgeilgan, plural of 
sgeilg, rock. The Skellyis are three rocks at a short distance 
from the shore. 

Janet's Well (for Sean Bhaile). Old town. Sean (pro- 
nounced shen), old; bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is equiva- 
lent to u, v, or iv. Baile is aspirated because it follows its 
-adjective. 

Janetstown (for Sean Bhaile). Old town. Sean, old; 
bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w ; and 
Waile had been corrupted into Well. Sean resembles in 
sound the first syllable of Seonaid, Janet. 

Jeannie Gordon's Well (for Baile Sean Ghortain). 
Town at an old cattle-fold. Baile, town; sean, old; gliortain, 
gen. asp. of gortan, small fold. Baile had been aspirated, 
becoming bhaile, pronounced tvaile, which had been cor- 
rupted into well and put last. Then ghortain had lost the 
aspirate and had become gortain. D and t are interchange- 
able in Gaelic, and gortain became gordon. 

Jeanny Wright (for Sean Airidh). Old shieling. Sean, 
old; airidh, shieling. 

Jellie's Hillock. Probably the original form of this 
name had been Chuitail (cuitail asp.), cattle-fold. This 
had been corrupted into Whitehill, afterwards made White 
Hillock. White at a later time had been translated into 
Gaelic by gealan, small white thing, made dim. because 
hillock is the dim. of hill. An of gealan had been changed 
to ie, and afterwards s had been added, making an represent 
both a dim. and a plural termination. Gealies thus pro- 
duced had lapsed into jellies. 

Jenny Gow's Pot (for Poit Sean Cuith). Pot of the old 
fold. Poit, pot; scan, old; cuith, cattle-fold. C in cuith 
had become g, and th had been lost. 

Jenny Eitchie's Well (for Sean Bhaile Euighe). Old 
farm-town on the slope of a hill. Sean, old; bhaile, baile 
asp., town ruighc, slope of a hill where cultivation begins. 
Bh is equivalent to w, and bhaile had been corrupted to ircll 
and put to the end. 

Jenny's Well (for Sean Bhaile). Old town. Sean, old; 
bhaile, baile asp., town. Bhaile had become first ivaile and 
then ivell. 

Jericho. Perhaps for Dubh Airidh Cuith. Black shiel 



202 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

at a fold. Dubh, black; airidli, shiel; cuith, fold. All the 
asp. letters had been lost. This was the name given to a 
distillery. The name was afterwards changed to Bennachie. 

Jetty. Something projected. Jettee (French), pier, 
jetty. 

Jimpack (for Giubhsach). Fir-wood. Since bh and mh 
are both sounded v, m had been substituted for b, and h 
had been lost, making the word Giumsach, which had lapsed 
into Giumpach, finally becoming Jimpack. 

Jock's Cairn. The letter j is not in the Gaelic alphabet. 
Dh is often sounded as j, and perhaps Jock's Cairn repre- 
sents Dhubh Charn, for Dubh Charn, black hill. Dhubh, 
dubh asp., black; charn, cam asp., hill. 

Jockston's Gate. Gate in this name means road or 
way. If j represents d, Jockston's may have originally been 
Cloch Dubh, black stone, in which Dubh had been corrupted 
into Jock and Cloch had been translated into Stone. 

John Forbes 's Cairn. Cairn erected to commemorate 
John Forbes of Newe and Bombay. 

Johnie's Kirk. The Kirk is a mass of rock. The original 
name had been Dunan, little hill. An had been made both 
ie and s, and dunies had been corrupted into Johnie's. To 
explain this creag, rock, had been added, and it had been 
corrupted into Kirk. 

Jubilee Cairn. Cairn erected to commemorate the 
jubilee of the accession of Queen Victoria. Jubilee (from 
Hebrew), season of great joy; cam, pile of stones. 

Juncan (for Dun Can). Dun, hill; can, white. But the 
original form of the name had been Cuitail, cattle-fold. 
From Chuitail to Juncan the steps had been Cuitail, 
Chuitail, Whitehill, Dun Can, Duncan, Juncan. 

Juniper Cairn. Cairn near juniper bushes. Juniper 
(Latin, juvenis, young, and parere, to produce), an ever- 
green shrub, named from apparently renewing its youth. 

Justice Mill. Mill at a knoll where courts of justice 
were held. Probably the burgh barony courts had been held 
there for the lands within the freedom of Aberdeen. 

Justice Street. Street from the Castlegate to the site 
of the justiciary courts held in Aberdeen at the Heading 
Hill. 

Kailman's Burn. This burn flows down a hillside, and 
the name probably means burn of the narrow valley on the 
side of a hill. Caol, narrow; man, hill. Man is not in 
Gaelic or Irish dictionaries, but it occurs in names and it is 
evidently allied to the Latin mons, hill. 

Kail Pot. Narrow pot. Caol, narrow; poit, pot. 

Kaim Hill, The Kaim, Kaimhill. When two glaciers 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 203 

unite they sometimes form a long, slender, steep-sided 
moraine between them. After the end of the Glacial Epoch 
in Scotland many such ridges were left in valleys. They 
are now called Kaims, from their resemblance to the comb 
of a cock. Kaim (Scotch), comb. 

Kalfrush. Narrow heathery place beside a burn. Caol, 
narrow; fraochach, heathery. 

Karim Cottage. Cottage at Balmoral occupied by an 
Indian Moonshee who taught the Hindoo language to Queen 
Victoria. 

Katie M'Callum's Cairn. Heap of stones marking the 
place where a woman perished in a snowstorm. 

Katie's Pot. This may have been a pot in which a 
woman named Katie was drowned by order of a barony 
court. Katie, however, might be a corruption of cuitan, 
small fold. Cattle-folds were in most cases near rivers, 
burns, or wells. 

Katrine Grain. Branch of the Clachan burn issuing 
from boggy places. Catharan, plural of catJiar, boggy place; 
grain, branch of a burn. Grain is the same word as groin. 

Katteburn. Burn crossing a main road. Catha, road. 

Katty's Leap (for Luib Catha). Bend of the road. 
Luib, bend; catha, road, hill road. 

Kearn. Hill. Cam, hill. 

Kebbaty. Place where a channel had been eroded by 
running water. Caobte, past part, of caob, to bite, erode. 

Kebbuck Knowe. Knoll yielding sods or divots. 
Caobach, producing sods; cnap, knoll. 

Keelinhead (for Caolan Chuid). Narrow place in a 
river, where there was a fold. Caolan, narrow channel ; 
cliuid , cuid asp., fold. C, being silent, had been lost. 

Keello Pot. Pot in the Don at a narrow place. Caolan, 
small gut or channel. An had become o instead of ie. 

Keig. Cattle-fold. Cuidh, cattle-fold. Dli had become 
git , and h had been lost. The Barmkyn is an ancient fold. 

Keilhill, Killhill (1696). Rising ground on which 
there was a kiln where oats were dried to be made into meal. 

Keillenknowes (for Cnap an Cuile). Knoll at the 
nook. Cnap, knoll; an, of the; cuile, gen. of cuil, nook. 
The name had been turned into English as if it were Cnapan 
Cuilein, knoll of the little nook, with s added to knowe be- 
cause cnapan ended in on. 

Keillyford (for Ath Cille). Church ford. Ath, ford; 
cille, gen. of cill, church. The ford is near Barthol Chapel. 

Keiloch. Hill burn. Coilcach, small stream. 

Keir. Crest of a hill. Cir, comb of a cock. 

Keir, Hill of. Hill with a sharp long ridge on the top. 
Cir, crest, comb. There was a cattle-fold on this hill. 



204 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Keirn. Crest. Cirein, crest, ridge, cock's comb. 

Keiselghur Works. Place where kieselguhr is obtained 
and prepared for use in explosives. Kieselguhr is a German 
mineralogical name for a diatomaceous earth found in 
ancient lakes now dry. 

Keith Inch. Cattle-fold island. Cuith, cattle-fold; 
innis, island. In nearly all names Keith means cattle-fold. 

Keithan, Keithen, Keithney, Kethan. Small fold. 
Cuithan, dim. of cuith, cattle-fold. In Keithney the letters 
a and n had been transposed, and a became ey. 

Keith-hall. Mansion-house named after Sir John 
Keith, who purchased Caskieben about 1662, and changed 
the name of the mansion-house and estate to Keith-hall. 

Keith's Muir. Cattle-fold moor. Cuith, cattle-fold. 
On the Ordnance Survey map Keith's Muir is stated to have 
been the scene of a conflict between the Clans Keith and 
Irvine. Neither of these names belonged to clans, and the 
statement is not worthy of credit. 

Kellands, The. The kail grounds. Caulis (Latin), 
stalk, which in Scotch is cow. 

Kelloch Stone. Long narrow sea rock. Caol, narrow. 

Kellock, The. The hill burn. Coileach, hill burn, 
small stream. 

Kelly Burn. Hill burn. Coileach, hill burn. 

Kelpie's Kist. Pool in the Ythan, supposed to be the 
home of a water spirit. 

Kelts Well. Well in a secluded place. Cuilteach, 
secluded, private. The sound of t before each is like that 
of ts. 

Kemb Hills, Kembhill, Kemp's Hill. Crooked hill. 
Cam, crook, with b or p added for euphony. 

Kemmels of Durno. Kemmels might be a corruption of 
Kembhills; which see. 

Kemnay (for Caman). Little crook in the river Don. 
Caman, dim. of cam, crooked. In the termination an the 
two letters had been transposed. 

Kendal (for Ceann Dalach). Head of the field. Ceann, 
head; dail for dalach, gen. of dail, riverside field. 

Kenfield. Head of a field. Ceann, head. 

Kennels. Dog houses. Canis (Latin), dog, and suffix 
He, place of, as in Latin bovile, place for cattle. 

Kennerty (for Ceann Airde). Head of the height. 
Ceann, head; airde, height. 

Kennethmont (for Monadh Cinn Ath). Moor at the end 
of the ford on the great north road. This meaning suits the 
locality, and it is suggested by the accent being on eth. 
Monadh, moor; cinn, gen. of ceann, head; ath, ford. 

Keplahill. Hill head. Ceap, top; lamh, hill. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 



205 



Kepple Croft. Croft where there was a block of stone 
resembling a horse lying on the ground. Gapull, horse. 
Kepplecruick. Horse hill. Capul, horse; cnoc, hill. 

See Cnoc. 

Kepplestone, Capelstones. Horse stone. Several 
places are called Kepplestone. Gapull, horse, mare. 

Kessock Burn. Small burn. Caise, burn; og, small. 
Kettle Hill, Kettle Howe. Kettle represents cm- 
tail, cattle-fold. 

Kettock Burn, Kettock's Mills. In these names 
Kettock represents cuit og, small cattle-fold. Cuit, cattle- 
fold; og, small. 

Keyhead (for Cuidh Chuid). Cattle-fold. Both parts 
mean fold, the second having been added to the first to 
explain it after it had been corrupted. Cuidh, fold; chuid, 
cuid asp., fold. In cuidh dh is equivalent to y, and in 
chuid c being silent had been lost. 

Khantore. Head of the round steep hill. Ceann, head; 
torra, gen. of torr, steep, flat-topped hillock. 

Kiddshill (for Tom Cuidain). Hill of the small fold. 
Tom, hill; cuidain, gen. of cuidan, dim. of cuid, fold, tub. 
Ain had been made s instead of ie. From cuid come the 
personal names Kidd and Kyd. The small tubs in use on 
ships for conveying food are called kids. Kid, a tub, becomes- 
queed in Aberdeenshire. 

Kilbirnie Burn. Burn at the head of a hollow. Ceann, 
head; bearna, gap, low place in the skyline. 

Kilblean. Hill of milking. Coill, hill; bleoghainn, gen. 
of blcoghann, milking. 

Kildow. Black nook. Cuil, nook; dubh, black. 
Kildrummy. Church on a small ridge. Gill, church; 
dromain, gen. of droman, small ridge. The first church may 
have been that within the castle. It is apparently not 
of the same age as the castle. 

Kildrummy Castle. Castle at the head of a small ridge. 
Ceann, head; dromain, gen. of droman, small ridge. If the 
chapel within the bounds of the castle is the older of the 
two buildings Kil represents cill, church. 

Kilkiehill (for Ceann Coill Cuidh). Head of the hill of 
the fold. Ceann, head; coill, hill (translated and put last); 
cuidh, fold. Dh is equivalent to y or ie. In names cinn, 
the gen. form, is used for ceann, and cinn often becomes cill. 
Kill Dordy. Head of the black little hill. Ceann, head ; 
dubh, black; ordain, gen. of ordan, little hill. 

Killcrook (for Ceann Cnuic). Head of the hill. Ceann, 
head; cnuic, gen. of cnoc, hill. Gaelic-speaking people 
usually pronounce n in cnoc as r. 

Killden. Narrow den. Caol, narrow; dein, den. 



206 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Killeith. Grey head. Cill for ceann, head; Hath, grey. 

Killiecrankie (for Ceann Chrann Cuidh). Head of 
the place with a fold at a tree. Ceann, head, end; chrann, 
crann asp., tree ; cuidh, fold. Dh of cuidh is equivalent to y. 
The place in Aberdeenshire was named by Sir Charles Forbes 
to commemorate the battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. 

Killin Burn (for Allt Coillein). Burn of the little hill. 
Alii, burn; coillein, gen. of coillean, dim. of coille, hill. 

Killmidden (for Ceann Meadhoin). Middle head. 
Ceann, head; meadhoin, gen. of meadhon, middle. 

Killywharn (for Ceann a' Chairn). Head of the hill. 
Ceann, head; a', of the; chairn, gen. asp. of earn, hill. 

Kiln Den. Narrow den. Caol, narrow; dein, den. 

Kilnary (for Cill na h- Airidhe). Head of the shieling. 
Cill, for ceann, head; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling. 

Kinadie, Kinaldie, Kinnadie (for Ceann Alltain). Head 
of the small stream. Ceann, head; alltain, gen. of alltan, 
small burn. 

Kinbate (for Ceann Beath). Head of the birch wood. 
Ceann, head; beath, birch wood. 

Kinbattoch. Head of the birch-growing place. Ceann, 
head; beathaich, gen. of beathach, birch-growing. 

Ivinbeam Hill (for Ceann Beinne). Head of the hill. 
Ceann, head; beinne, gen. of beinn, hill. 

Kinbog. Head of the bog. Ceann, head; bog, soft 
place. 

Kinbroon. Head of the hill. Cinn, for ceann, head; 
bruighine, gen. of bruighin, fairy hill, hillock. 

Kincardine (for Ceann Cathair Dain). Head of the seat 
of judgment. Ceann, head; cathair (th silent), seat; dain, 
gen. of dan, judgment. The place had been near the site of 
a barony court. 

Kincardine o' Neil. Kincardine on the Neil burn. See 
Kincardine. O'Neil represents Allt an Ail, burn of the hill. 
Allt, burn (suppressed); an, of the; ail, gen. of al, hill. 

Kinclune. Head of the meadow valley. Ceann, head; 
cluain, gen. of cluan, meadow. 

Kincraig. Head of the hill. Ceann, head; craige, gen. 
of creag, rock, hill. 

Kincraigie. Head of the little hill. Ceann, head; 
creagain, gen. of creagan, little hill. 

Kindie Burn. Burn in Glenkindie; which see. 

Kindrochit, Kindrought. Head of the bridge. Ceann, 
head; drochaide, gen. of drochaid, bridge. 

Kinellar (for Ceann Al Airidhe). Head of the hill of 
the shieling. Ceann, head; al, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 207 

shieling. Dh in airidhe is silent, and it and the contiguous 
vowels have been lost. 

King-Edwaed ' (for Cinn Iochdar). Lower heads. 
Cinn, plural of ceann, head; iochdar (och silent), lower. The 
upper heads are where the railway crosses the burn of King- 
Edward, and the lower are where the turnpike road crosses 
it. Old forms are Kynedor (1178-1199), Kenidor (1199- 
1207), Kynedwart (1273). The modern form appeared on 
communion cups in 1618. 

Kinghorn (for Ceann Chairn). Head of the hill. Ceann, 
head; chaim, gen. asp. of earn, hill. 

Kinglaser (for Ceann Lasair). Headland on which 
signal fires were made. Ceann, head, promontory; lasair, 
flame of fire. 

Kingoodie. End of the cattle-fold. Ceann, head, end; 
cuidJi, cattle-fold. The sound of y is heard when dh is slowly 
pronounced. 

King's College. King James IV. showed some interest 
in the erection of the college, and it was often ascribed to 
him. 

King Seat, Kingseat, King's Crown, King's Links, 
King's Hillock, King's Chair, Kingsford, Kingswells, 
Kingshill. In all these names King and King's represent 
ceann, head. Seat is suidhe, site, place; Crown is cruinn, 
round; Chair is probably connected with charr, carr asp., 
rock; Wells is the source of the Denburn; but Wells might 
represent bhaile, baile asp., town. 

Kinharrachie (for Ceann a' Charrachain). Head of the 
little rocky place. Ceann, head; a', of the, (suppressed); 
charrachain, gen. asp. of carrachan, dim. of carrach, rock. 
C of Charrachain, being silent, had been lost, and ain be- 
came ie. 

Kininmonth. Head of the hill. Ceann, head; an, of 
the; monaidh, gen. of monadh, moor. 

Kinkell. Head of the church. Ceann, head; cille, gen. 
of cill, church. Final c is often lost. 

Kinknockie (for Ceann Cnocain). Head of the knoll. 
Ceann, head; cnocain, gen. of cnocan, little hill. 

Kinloch. Head of the loch. Ceann, head; loch, lake. 

Kinminity, Kinminty, Kinmonity, Kinmundy, (for Ceann 
Monaidh). Head of the hill. Ceann, head; monaidh, gen. 
of monadh, hill, moor. When dh is pronounced slowly the 
sound of ?/ is also heard. 

Kinmuck. Hill where pigs fed. Ceann, head; muc, gen. 
plural of muc, pig. Muc may represent muiche, gloom, 
darkness. 

Kinnaird's Head. Head of the hill. Ceann, head; airde, 
gen. of ard, hill. In " The Navigation of James Y." it is 



208 Celtic Place-Navies in Aberdeenshire. 

called Torrisness, and it is probably the place called Torfness 
in the history of King Duncan. 

Kinnermit, Kinarmy (1273). Head of the land where 
cattle pastured. Ceann, head; airmheidh, gen. of airmheadh, 
drove of cattle. 

Kinnernie (for Ceann Fhearna). Head of the alders. 
Ceann, head; fhearna, gen. plural asp. of fearna, alder. 

Kinnoir (for Ceann an Oir). East head. Ceann, head; 
an, of the ; oir, east. 

Kinord. Head of a hill. Ceann, head; ord, hill. 

Kinstair. Head of the road over a wet place. Ceann, 
head, end; staire, gen. of stair, passage over a wet mossy or 
boggy place, stepping-stones. See Kinkell. 

Kintocher. Head of the causeway. Ceann, head; 
tochair, gen. of tochar, causeway, dry road through a bog. 

Kintore. Head of the hill. Ceann, head; torr, steep, 
abrupt knoll. 

Kiplaw. Head of the hill. Ceap, top; lamh, hill. 

Kipp. Small piece of ground. Ceap, plot of ground. 

Kipperies. Small plots of cultivated land at a shieling. 
Cip, plural of ceap, plot of cultivated ground; airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling, summer hill pasture. 

Kippet Hills. Small hills. Kippet is a dim. of ceap, 
top of a hill. 

Kirk Hill, Kirkhill, Kirkhtllock. The second part is 
a translation of the first. Kirk is a corruption of creag, hill. 
Sometimes Kirk Hill means hill near a church. 

Kirk Lakes. Flat smooth rocks near St Combs Church. 
Leacan, plural of leac, flat rock. The rocks had been 
smoothed by the passage of an ice sheet over them. An 
became s. 

Kirk Style. Church gate. 

Kirkney. Little hill. Creagan, dim of creag, hill. An 
became na, and afterwards ney. 

Kirn, The Kirns. Crest of high land. Cirean, crest. 
S in Kirns arose from mistaking the dim. an for the plural 
termination. 

Kist Hill. Hill on which a stone-lined sepulchral cham- 
ber was found. Ciste, kist, chest, grave. 

Kitchenhill, Kitchiehill (local); Windkitchiehill and 
Windkitiehill in Poll Book, 1696. Cattle-fold hill. Cuithan, 
dim. of cuith, cattle-fold. C became k; th was strengthened 
by the insertion of c; and an became ie in the local form. 
Wind, prefixed to the forms in the Poll Book, shows that 
Kitchie and Kitie had been believed to be corruptions of 
gaothach, windy, but this is a mistake. 

Kittlemannach, Kittlemanoch (for Cuitail Meannach). 
Fold for kids. Cuitail, fold ; meannach, pertaining to kids. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 209 

Kittling Wood. Wood growing where there was 
anciently a fold. Cuitail, cattle-fold. 

Kitty Loch. Opening from the sea into the land, which 
had anciently served as a cattle-fold. Cuitan, dim. of cuit, 
fold. An became ie. Kitty Loch is locally supposed to have 
been a resort of kittywakes, but this is a mistaken idea. 

Kitty Tapp's Wood. Wood on a hilltop where had 
anciently been a cattle-fold. Cuitan, dim. of cuit, cattle- 
fold; tap (Scotch), top. An of cuitan became ie. 

KlTTYBREW r STER, KlTTYBROUSTER WELL, KlTTYTHIRST 

Well. In these names the first part represents Cuitan 
Briste, broken fold. Cuitan, dim. of cuit, fold; briste, 
broken. Usually, folds for cattle had water near them. 
Kittybrewster was in the den now called Berryden, which 
means watery den. Kitty brouster was on the boundary 
between St Nicholas and Spital parishes, on the west side 
of Monthooly. It is mentioned in a charter defining the 
bounds of the Spital lands, in the possession of the Town 
Council. Kittythirst is in Keig, and in this name, from 
association with a well, briste had become thirst. Broken- 
fold in Forglen is a translation of Cuitan Briste. These folds 
had been made by planting trunks of trees upright in the 
ground. When these decayed the folds had become ruinous. 

Kittycallin. Fold of the little wet meadow. Cuitan, 
small fold; callain, gen. of callan, dim. of calla, marsh, 
meadow. 

Kittyneedie Stone. Cattle-fold at a stone commemo- 
rating a great man. Cuitan, cattle-fold; niaidh, gen. of 
niadh, hero, mighty man. An became y, its equivalent in 
Scotch. 

Knaggan. Small knob. Cnagan, dim. of cnag, pin, pro- 
jecting top. 

Knaphead. Cattle-fold on a small knoll. Cnap, little 
hill; cliuid, cuid asp., fold. 

Kxappach Ford. Ford where there are small knolls. 
Cnapach, abounding in knolls. 

Knapperna (for Cnap Fhearna). Knoll of alder-trees. 
Cnap, knoll; fhearna, gen. plural of fearna, alder-tree. Fh is 
silent and disappears from names. 

Knappert Hillock, Knapperty Hillock, Knappert 
Knows. Knowes on which grows Orobus tuberosus, knap- 
pert. This term may be a corruption of Knapwort, root 
growing on knolls. Cnap, knoll; toort, plant, root. Large 
tubercles grow on the roots of the knappert. Children bruise 
them and macerate them in water and obtain a sweet liquid 
called knappert wine. The knappert was once regarded as 
a kind of fruit. 



210 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Knappie. Little knoll. Cnapan, dim. of cnap, knoll. An 
had been changed to ie. 

Knappieround. Eound knoll. Cnapan, small knoll; 
cruinn, round. 

Knappy Park. Enclosed space containing knolls. Cnap- 
ach, hilly; pairc, park. 

Knaps. Knoll. Cnapan, dim. of cnap, knoll. Final s 
represents an in cnapan, which is in it the dim. and not the 
plural termination. 

Knapsleask. The knoll of Leask. Cnapan, dim. of cnap, 
hill; Leash, name of a district. See Leask. Cnapan had 
been erroneously regarded as the plural of cnap. 

Knaven (for Cnap Bheinne). Head of the hill. Cnap, 
head, top; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. 

Knightland Burn. Hill burn. Cnoc, hill; lamhan, little 
hill. Cnoc, hill, had been thought to be cniochd, knight. 

Knightsmill (for Cnoc Meall). Both parts mean hill. 
Cnoc, hill; meall, hill. Cnoc, hill, had been supposed to be 
C7iiochd, knight. Apparently the same mistake had been 
made with the name Knightsbridge in London. 

Knock, The Knock, Knockhill, Knoxhill. In these 
names Knock and Knox represent cnoc, hill; which see. 
Knock becomes Knoll, which in Scotch is softened into 
Knowe. 

Knock na Hare. Hill of the shieling. Cnoc, hill; na, of 
the; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Knock of Lawsie. Hill of fire. Cnoc, hill; lasaidh, gen. 
of lasadh, burning, shining. This hill may have been utilised 
for transmitting signals by fires or blazes. 

Knockandoch, Knockandhu, Knockanduie, Knockandy, 
(for Cnocan Dubh). Black little hill. Cnocan, dim. of cnoc, 
hill; dubh, black. Doch may represent dorch, dark. Knock - 
ando in Moray has also the same meaning. 

Knockargety. Hill of silver. Cnoc, hill; airgid, gen. of 
airgiod, silver. Some granitic rocks contain much mica and 
sparkle when the sun shines on them. For this reason a 
hill on the south of Loch Morlich is called Airgiod Meall, 
silver hill. The sound of d and dh at the end of Gaelic words 
has a faint sound of y also. 

Knockdhu (for Cnoc Dubh). Black hill. Cnoc, hill; 
dubh, black. 

Knockenbaird. Knoll of the meadow. Cnocan, knoll; 
baird, gen. of bard, meadow. 

Knockendash (for Cnocan Dais). Hillock like a rect- 
angular hay mow or sow. Cnocan, hillock; dais (pronounced 
dash), mow or sow of corn or hay. Dash may, however, 
represent deas, south. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 211 

Knockenzie. Hill of the fold. Cnoc, hill; fhangain, 
gen. asp. of fangan, small fold. Fh is silent. 

Knockespook. Hill of the bishop. Cnoc, hill; easpuig, 
bishop. 

Knockfarran. Hill of the cultivated land. Cnoc, hill; 
jar an, dim. of jar, land. 

Knockfullertree. Hill of the burn on the shieling. 
Cnoc, hill; phuill, gen. asp. of poll, pool, burn; airidh, 
shieling; triath, hill. Triath is a late addition made to 
explain cnoc. 

Knockhall. Both parts mean hill. Cnoc, hill; choill, 
coill asp., hill. If the name is modern hall means a pro- 
prietor's castle or mansion with a large public room. 

Knockie. Small hill. Cnocan, dim. of cnoc, hill. Other 
forms of cnocan are Knowles and Knollys, in which an had 
wrongly been made s. 

Knockie Branar (for Cnocan Bran Airidhe). Knoll near 
a burn from a shieling. Cnocan, knoll; bran, hill burn; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Kxockiemill. Both parts of the name mean hill. Cnocan, 
small hill; mill, gen. form of meall, round-topped hill. 

Knockiemore. Big hillock. Cnocan, small hill; 
mor, big. 

Knockieside. Side of a small hill. Cnocan, small hill. 
An becomes ie in Scotch. If the name is old side represents 
suidhe, place. 

Knockinglew. Hill of breadth. Cnocan, hillock; leoid, 
gen. of leud, breadth. D had been aspirated and afterwards 
lost. 

Knocklea, Knockleith. Grey hill. Cnoc, hill; Hath, 
grey. 

Knocklom. Bare hill. Cnoc, hill; lorn, bare. 

Knockmonean. Hill of the little moor. Cnoc, hill; 
moinein, gen. of moinean, little moor. 

Knoceollachie. Hill beside a river. Cnoc, hill; allach- 
ain, gen. of allachan, dim. of attach, stream. 

Knockorthie (for Cnoc Chortain). Hill of the enclosure. 
Cnoc, hill; chortain, gen. asp. of cortan, dim. of cort, circle, 
sepulchral stone circle, fold. Both the first and the last 
letters of cort had been aspirated. C, being silent, had been 
lost, along with h. 

Knockothie. Hill above a broad river. Knock, hill; 
otha, gen. of oth, broad water. The hill is near the Ythan 
below Ellon. 

Knockquharn. Hill. Cnoc, hill; charn, cam asp., hill. 
The second part is a duplicate of the first. 

Knockriach. Grey hill. Cnoc, bill; riabhach, grey, 
brindled. 



212 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Knocksaul, Kxocksoul. Wet hill. Cnoc, hill; sughail, 
wet, sappy. Gh in sughail is silent. 

Knowehead, Knowhead. Head of the knoll. Know and 
Knowe are softened forms of Knoll. 

Knowes. Cnocan, plural of cnoc, hill. But perhaps 
cnocan was meant to be the dim. of cnoc, and should there- 
fore have been translated into English by Knowe. 

Knowley. Grassy knoll, hey, level grassy place. 

Knowsie. Little hill. Cnocan, dim. of cnoc, hill. An 
had been made both s and ie. 

Knoxhill, same as Knockie Hill. 

Kye Hill. Hill of the fold. Cuidh, fold. Dh is equiva- 
lent to y. 

Kylieford. Narrow' ford. Caoile, narrowness. The 
stream on which the ford was is very small. 

Lach na Gualainn. Hill of the cattle-fold. Lamh, hill; 
na, of the; gamldainn (pronounced gaulainn), gen. of gamh- 
lann (Irish), cattle-fold. 

Lachlandstrype. Burn from a hill. Lachland repre- 
sents lamh, hill, and lamhan, little hill. The second part had 
been added to explain the first. Mh had become ch in lamh , 
and it had become silent and had been lost in lamhan. 
D is a euphonic insertion. 

Lackie Head. Head where is a smooth flat rock. Leac, 
flat smooth stone. 

Ladder (The), Ladder Road, Ladder Hills. The 
Ladder is a steep part of the Ladder Eoad, which crosses the 
Ladder Hills between the Nochty and the Livet burns. In 
the last half-mile to the summit level it rises 440 feet. 
Leitir, slope of a hill. 

Ladenhar (for Leathad na h-Airidhe). Slope of the 
shieling. Leathad (th silent), side of a hill, slope ; na, of the ; 
h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Ladie's Brig (for Lady's Brig). This mis-spelling occurs 
in more than one name. The original form had been 
Leathan Ath, broad ford. Leathan, broad; ath, ford. 
Leathan had become Lady's by change of th into dh and by 
change of an into s, in the belief that it was a plural ter- 
mination. Ath had been translated into Ford, which had 
become Brig when a bridge took the place of the ford. See 
Ladysford. 

Ladie's Moss, Ladymoss. Broad moss. Leathan, 
broad. Leathan became Lady's by change of th into dh 
and change of an into s. See Ladie's Brig. If more ap- 
propriate to the locality the names might mean side of the 
moss, coming from leathad, side. Ladie's is a mis-spelling 
of Lady's. 



Celtic Place-Names i)i Aberdeenshire. 213 

Lady Hill. Broad hill. Leathan, broad. This is an 
old name for the Broad Hill at Aberdeen. 

Lady Well. Well dedicated to the Virgin Mary — " Our 
Lady." 

Ladybog. Bog side. Leathad (th silent), side; bog, bog. 

Ladyhill. Hillside. Leathad (th silent), side of a hill. 
In sounding d forcibly the sound of y is heard after it faintly. 

Ladylea (for Leathad Liath). Grey hillside. Leathad 
(th silent), hillside: liath, grey. 

Ladyleys. Broad leys. Leathan, broad; leys, grassy 
places. 

Ladymire. Place beside a bog. Leathad, side. 

Ladymoss. Side of the moss. Leathad, side. 

Lady's Den. Broad den. Leathan, broad; dein, den. 

Lady's Dowry. Small portion of land promised by a 
father to his daughter as a dowry, concerning which a 
fictitious story is related to the effect that he would give his 
daughter all the land which she could see from a certain 
place. The portion proved to be very small. 

Lady's Jointure. See Lady's Dow 7 ry, the promise in 
this case being made by the husband. 

Ladysford (for Ath Leathan). Broad ford. Ath, ford 
(translated) ; leathan, broad. In Leathan th became first dh 
and then d; and an, though not a dim. termination, was 
translated into y. 

Laeca Burn. Leacach, abounding in stones. The burn 
crosses a diorite area, and there are many large blocks of 
dark blue rock near the course of the burn. 

Lag Burn. Burn of the howe. Lag, howe. 

Laggan. Little howe. Laggan, dim. of Jag, howe. 

Laghlasser. Hill of flame of fire. Lamli, hill; lasair, 
gen. of lasair, flame. The proper form of the genitive of 
lasair is lasrach. 

Laidner Pot. Pot on the edge of a shieling. Leathad 
(th silent), side; na, of the; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Laighmuir. The original form of the name had perhaps 
been Blar Laimh, moor of the hill. Blar, moor (translated 
and tx'ansposed) ; laimh, gen. of lamli, hill. 

Laiks (The), Lakes (The). The smooth flat rocks. 
Leacan, plural of leac, flat stone. The rocks had been pol- 
ished by the passage over them of an ice sheet in the glacial 
period. 

Laing's Pot, Laingseat. In these names Laing might 
be a personal name, but more likely it represents laimh (mh 
nasal), gen. of lamli, hill. Seat is a translation of suidhe, 
place, site. 

Lair of Aldararie. This seems to be a corruption of 



214 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Lairig Allt Darraraiche, hill sloping to the Allt Darrarie. 
Lairig, hill slope. See Allt Darrarie. 

Laird's Burn, Lairdswell. In these names Lairds 
represents lairige, gen. of lairig, side of a hill, road on the 
side of a hill, pass between two hills. Well is a corruption 
of bhaile, baile asp., town; and Lairdswell means town on a 
hillside. 

Laird's Moss. Moss where tenants cut peats for the 
proprietor of the land. 

Lairig an Laoigh. Hillside where calves were sent to 
feed. Lairig, hillside, road on a hillside, pass between two 
hills; an, of the; laoigh, gen. of laogh, calf. 

Lairig Ghru. Gloomy pass. Lairig, road on the slope 
of a hill; grit, gloomy. This is a foot-road on the side of 
Ben Macdhui, near the bottom of the deep ravine between it 
and Braeriach. 

Lairshill. Hill land. Lair, for lar, land. 8 had been 
inserted in the belief that Lair was a personal name in the 
possessive. 

Laithers (for Leitrean). Sides of a hill. Leitrean, 
plural of leitir, hill slope. An is a plural termination which 
had been changed to s. 

Lamahip (for Ceap Laimh). Head of the hill. Ceap, 
head, top; laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. The summit of the hill 
is 1325 feet above sea level. 

Lamawhillis (for Lamh Choillein). Lamh, hill; choil- 
lein, gen. asp. coillean; dim. of coille, hill. The second part 
should have been in apposition to the first, but it has been 
made to qualify the first by being aspirated. Ch has become 
win, and an has become s instead of ie. 

Lamb Hill, Lambhill, Lambhillock, Lambslack, Lamb- 
tech, Lamb's Well. In these names Lamb represents lamh, 
hill; Slack is slochd, hollow; and Tech is teach, house. 
Lambslack, therefore, means hollow between two hills, 
Lambtech means house on a hill, and Lamb's Well means 
well on a hill. 

Lambing Hillock, Lambshillock. Small hill. Lamhan, 
dim. of lamh, hill. An of lamhan has become ing in the 
first and s in the second as if it had been a plural and not 
a dim. termination. 

Lamington (for Baile Lamhain). Town on a small hill. 
Baile, town, translated and put last; lamhain, gen. of 
lamhan, small hill. 

Lammerbogs, Lammermuir, Lammerwells. In these 
names Lammer represents Lamh Airidhe, hill of the shiel- 
ing. Lamh, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Bogs is 
for bogan, a bog, and should have been made Bogie; 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 215 

Wells is for bhaile, baile asp., town, and the name means 
town on the hill of the shieling. 

Lammies Crook. Both parts mean hill. Lamhan, dim. 
of lamh, hill; cnoc, hill. An of lamhan had been treated as 
both a dim. and a plural termination. Crook is one of the 
corruptions which represent cnoc, hill. N after c often 
becomes r. 

Lammylair (for Lar Lamhain). Land on a small hill. 
Lair, for lar, cultivated ground; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, 
small hill. Ain became ie or y in passing into Scotch. 

Lanchery. Sheep-fold. Lann, enclosure; chaorach, 
gen. plural of caora, sheep. 

Landerberry. Little fold at a wet place. Lann, en- 
closed space; der, little; bioracli, watery. 

Lang Croft (for Croit Lamhain). Croft of the small 
hill. Croit, croft; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, small hill. The 
personal name Lang may mean a resident near a small hill. 

Langderick Burn. Burn of the hill of the gentle slope. 
Lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill; der, small; mdgh, slope. 

Langgadlie (for Geadhail Lamhain). Field of the hill. 
Gcadhail, field; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, hill. 

Langleys.. Long grass fields. Ley, grassy place. 

Langlittery (for Leitirtean Lamhain). Sides of a hill. 
Lcitirtean, euphonic plural of leitir, side of a hill; lamhain, 
gen. of lamhan, little hill. Ean of Leitirtean had become y, 
and mh in Lamhain being nasal it had become Lang. Then, 
Lang being thought to be an adjective, the parts of the name 
had been transposed to bring the adjective before its noun 
in the English way. 

Laxgoline (for Lamhan Ailein). Hillock of the green 
place. Lamhan, hillock; ailein, gen. of ailean, green plain. 

Larachmore. Big ruin of farm buildings. Larach, site 
of a farm, ruins; mor, big. 

Largie. Little place on a hillside. Lcargan, dim. of 
Icarg, hillside. 

Largue. Hillside. Learg, slope of a hill, road on the 
slope of a hill. 

Lary. Farm. Larach, farm, dwelling, site. 

Lasts. Burned places. Lasta, past part, of las, to burn. 

Latch. Muddy hollow crossing a road. Lathach, 
puddle. H with its vowel had been dropped. 

Lathries (for Leitrichean). Sides of a hill. Lcitrichean, 
plural of leitir, hillside. Ean had been regarded first as a 
dim. and afterwards as a plural termination, and therefore 
first ie and afterwards s had been added to leitrich. 

Lauchintilly (for Lamhan Tulaich). Hill of the hill. 
Lamhan. hill; tulaich, gen. of tulach, hill. Mh had become 



216 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

ch, and thus the meaning of lamhan had been obscured, 
wherefore tulaich had been added to explain it. 

Lauchlansbrae (for Lamh Lamhain). Brae on a hill. 
Lamh, hill; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. 
M/i of Lamh had become ch, in Lamhan raft, had become 
silent, and an had erroneously been changed to s. 

Laundry. Washing-house. Lavandus (Latin), to be 
washed, from lavare, to wash. 

Lavell, Lawel, (for Baile Laimh). Town on a hill. 
After the meaning of the name had been lost Baile had been 
put into the qualifying position and had been aspirated. 
Then the name became Lamh Bhaile, hill of the town. Bh 
being equivalent to u, v, or iv, bhaile became veil and well, 
and lamh lost mh because it had become silent. Lawel is 
now the name of a hill, and a farm on its slope is called 
Lawelside. 

Lavenie. Both parts of the name mean hill. Lamh, 
hill; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. Bh is equivalent to 
u, v, or w. 

Laverance. Same as Lawrence. 

Laverockbrae. Laverock is the Scotch form of lark. 
The meaning of these words is obscure. Perhaps laverock 
represents lutharog (th silent), little light thing. Luthar, 
light; oy, little. The distinctive thing about the lark is its 
rising in the sky at daybreak in summer, with no apparent 
effort. Fern, diminutives end in ag or og. 

Law, Law Cairn, Law Hillock. In these names Law 
represents lamh, hill. Cairn also means hill. 

Lawrence Boad. Road from the north to Lawrence 
Fair, once the greatest market in the Garioch for young 
cattle. 

Lawsie (for Lamhan). Hill. Mh had become silent and 
had dropped out. An had been changed to s as being a plural 
termination, and afterwards to ie as being a dim. termination. 

Lawstripe. Hill burn. hamh, hill; stripe (Scotch), 
small stream. Mh is pronounced v, u, or w. 

Lazy Well. Sparkling well. Lasaidli, gen. of lasadh, 
shining, sparkling. 

Leabaidh an Daimh Bhuidhe. Bed of the yellow stag. 
Leabaidh, bed; an, of the; daimh, gen. of damh, stag, ox; 
bhuidhe, gen. of buidhe, yellow. 

Leabra Burn. Very noisy burn. Labhrach, noisy, 
making a great noise. 

Leac a' Gobhainn. Hillside of the fold. Leac, flat 
smooth stone, smooth bare hillside; a', of the; ghabhainn, 
gen. asp. of gabhann, fold. 

Leac Ghorm, Leac Gorm. Green slope on a hill. Leac, 
smooth hillside; gorm, green, blue if seen from a distance. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 217 

Leacht, The. Steep road from Strathdon to Tomintoul. 
Leachd, declivity. The name of this road is not on the 
Ordnance Survey map. 

Lead, Bridge of. Bridge at a wide part of a road. 
Leoid, gen. of leud, width, wide place. 

Leadensider (for Leathad an Saighdeir). Hillside of the 
soldier. Leathad (tha silent), hillside; an, of the; saighdeir, 
gen. of saiglidear {gh silent), soldier. The g in the Scotch 
form of soldier (soger) is due to the g in saighdear. The Latin 
Sagittarius, arrower, soldier, also contains g. 

Leadlich (for Leathad Lice). Slope of a hillside. 
Leathad, slope, side; lice, gen. of leac, hill slope. Both 
parts of the name mean the sloping side of a hill. 

Leak Willie (for Leac Uilinn). Stone at a bend in the 
coast. Leac, flat stone; uilinn, gen. of uileann, turn. Inn 
had been regarded as a dim. termination and had been 
changed to ie. 

Leamington (for Baile Lamhain). Town on a hill. 
Baile, town; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, small hill. 

Leargaiche Lar (for Lar Leargaiche). Steep land, land 
of steepness. Lar, land; leargaiche, steepness. 

Learney. Hillside. Leargan, sloping green place. G 
had been aspirated, and then the soft gh had been dropped. 
The two letters of an had been transposed. 

Learwick's Point. Point near a bay of the sea. Lear, 
sea; uig, nook. Learwick had been thought to be a personal 
name, and 's had been added. 

Leask, Lasg (1436). Place. Leasg, spot of ground. 

Laskgowne (1433), Laskgowunie (1435). Fold at 
Leask. Leasg, place; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, fold. Ai 
and nn had been transposed, and nnai had become nie. 
See Lease. 

Leazach Burn. Glittering burn. Leusach, giving out 
light. 

Leddach (for Leth Dabhoich). Half of a farm which had 
been divided. Letli, half; dabhoich, gen. of dabhoch, large 
pastoral farm. See Lettoch. 

Ledikin, Leathgayn (1366), Ledingham (1660). (for 
Leathad a' Ghabhainn). Hillside where there was a fold. 
Leathad, side, hillside; a', of the; ghabhainn, gen. asp. of 
gabhann, fold. About 1800 the family name Ledingham was 
colloquially made Ledikin. 

Ledmacay. Side of the cup-like hollow. Leathad. side ; 
na, of the; cuaiche, gen. of cuach, cup. 

Leeches Burn (for Allt Leigidh). Burn at a milking- 
place. Allt, burn; leigidh, gen. of leigeadh, milking. 

Lees Burn. Burn near an enclosure. Lios, stone circle 
round a grave, cattle-fold, enclosed place. in lios serves 



218 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

to indicate that s is not pronounced sh, but it is not sounded. 
There are traces of an ancient enclosure. 

Leet Moss. Moss allotted to tenants for casting peats 
for their proprietor. Leet means allotted. 

Legatesden (for Dein Garth Leigidh). Den of the fold 
for milking. Dein, den; garth, fold; leigidh, gen of leigeadh, 
milking. 

Leggat (for Garth Leigidh). Fold for milking. Garth, 
enclosure, fold; leigidh, gen. of leigeadh, milking. 

Leggerdale (for Dail Leigeadh Airidhe). Field for 
milking cows on a shieling. Dail, field; leigeadh, milking; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Leggie. Milking-place. Leigidh, gen. of leigeadh, 
milking-place for cows at pasture. 

Leggie Burn or The Leggie. Burn of the milking-place. 

Leid's Hill (for Leathad Tuim). Side of a hill. 
Leathad, side; tuim, gen. of torn, hill (translated). Tli with 
its vowel had dropped out, being silent, and Leid had been 
supposed to be a personal name in the genitive. 

Leith Hall. Mansion-house of the Leith family. Hall, 
mansion-house, so called because formerly castles, being 
garrisons, had a large ball to which every person belonging 
to the place had access. 

Leith-hall. Grey hill. Liath, grev; choille, coille asp., 
hill. 

Leitir, The. The hillside. Leitir, hillside, sometimes 
made ladder. 

Lemnas (for Leum an Eas). Fall of the water. Leum, 
fall; an, of the; eas, water, burn. 

Lenabo. Cows' meadow. Lean, meadow; nam, of the; 
bo, gen. plural of bo, cow. 

Lenchie (for Lean a' Chuith). Plain of the fold. Lean, 
plain; a', of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. 

Lendrum. Moor of the ridge. Lon, moss, moor; droma, 
gen. of druim, hill, ridge. 

Lenshie. Broad hill. Leathann, broad; sith, hill. The 
aspirated letters had become silent and had been lost. S 
before i is pronounced sh. 

Lentush. Plain before a hill. Lean, plain, corn land; 
tuis (pronounced tush), gen. of tus, front. 

Leochel (for Leth Choill). Side of a hill. Lcth (th 
silent), side; choill, coill asp., hill. 

Leochel Burn. Burn of the broad hill. See Leochel. 
On O.S. Map arrows along this burn point uphill. 

Leochrie (for Leoid Ruigh). Broad hillside. Leoid, gen. 
of lend, breadth; ruigh, slope of a hill. The original form of 
the name must have been Ruigh Leoid. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 219 

Lesciiangie. Sheep-fold. Lios, enclosure, sheep-fold; 
fangain, gen. of fangan, dim. of fang, fank, sheep-fold. 

Lescraigie (for Lios Creagain). Circle of the little hill. 
Lios, stone circle, fold. Ain had become ie. 

Leslie, formerly Lesslyn. Stone circle of the level 
ground. Lios (o silent), circle; lein, gen. of lean, plain. 
There were formerly two stone circles in Leslie. 

Lesmoir. Big circle. Lios (o silent), circle, sepulchral 
circle, fold; mor, big. 

Lessendrum. Enclosure of the hill. Lios, stone circle 
guarding a grave, cattle-fold; an, of the; droma, gen. of 
druini, hill, ridge. 

Lethen. Broad place. Leaihann, broad. 

Lethenty. Broad places. Lethenty seems to be a plural 
form of leathan, broad, formed by adding tan instead of an, 
to distinguish it from the dim. form. This would produce 
Leathantan, and after the meaning had been forgotten an 
would readily have become y or ie as if it had been a dim. 
termination. 

Lethgauel (" Collections " of Spalding Club, p. 248, 
1600. Slopes of the low hill between the Urie and the 
Shevock at their junction. Leathad, slope; gabhail, gen. of 
gabhal, fork between two streams. This was the same place 
as Ledikin ; which see. 

Lettach (for Leth Dabhoich). Half of a farm which had 
been divided. Leth, half; dabhoich, gen. of dabhoch, large 
pastoral farm. See Leddach. 

Letter. Hillside. Leitir, the sloping side of a hill. See 
Ladder and Leitir. 

Leuchar. Rushy. Luachar, rushes. 

Leuchlands. Wet hill. Fhliuch, fliuch asp., wet; 
lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. Fh, being silent, had been 
lost. Mh had become silent and had been lost, and an had 
by mistake been changed to s. D is frequently inserted 
after n. 

Leum an Easain. Waterfall on a small burn. Leum, 
leap, fall; an, of the; easain, gen. of easan, small burn. 

Lewes (for Luichan). Lochs. Luichan, lochs; formed 
from luich, gen. of loch, lake. An had become s. Anciently 
there had probably been more than one loch at Lewes in 
Fyvie. Lewes is the same as Lewis in the Hebrides, where 
there are many lochs. 

Lewesk. Small burn. Lu, small; uisge, water, burn. 

Lewis' Well, Lewishillock, Lewistowk. In these 
names Lewis represents lu, small, with s added because it 
had been thought that the first part was a personal name in 
the possessive. 



220 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ley, Leys, Leyton. In these names Ley means grass 
land. There is no indication of wetness in the name. 

Ley Water. Burn from a grassy place. 

Leyhead. Fold on a grassy place. Ley, grass land; 
chuid, cuid asp., fold. C, being silent, had been dropped. 

Liana Burn. Burn of the level plain. Leana, corn land. 

Liath Choire Mhor. Big grey corry. Liath, grey; 
choire, coirc asp., corry; mhor, mor asp., big. 

Lickleyhead Castle. Castle on the slope of the hillside. 
Leac, declivity; leatliaid, gen. of leathad, side of a hill. The 
castle is on the side of Bennachie. T asp. is silent and had 
been lost. 

Lidentoul (for Leathad an Tuill). Side of the hollow. 
Leathad, side; an, of the; tuill, gen. of toll, howe. Th and 
its adjacent vowels had become silent and had been lost. 

Lied's Bank (for Leathad Chuit). Slope of the fold. 
Leathad, slope; chuit, cuit asp., fold. Chuit had been cor- 
rupted into white, which had been turned into ban, white, 
and k had been added for euphony. 

Lifting Stones. Stones in a wet place. Fliuch, wet; 
tain, place, land. F had been lost and ch had become /, 
leaving liuftain, now lifting. 

Liggars Stane. Lying stone. Liggar (Middle English), 
that which lies. 

Lightna, Lightnot, (for Fhliuchan). Wet place. Fhliu- 
chan, fliuchan asp., wet spot. By loss of fh and transposition 
of a and n, Lightna was obtained, which had been Anglified 
into Lightnot. From Moine Fliuch ach, wet moor, came 
the personal name Meenlicht, now Moonlight or Macknight. 

Lightwood. Wet hill. The original form of the name 
had been Coillc Fhliuchaidh, hill of wetness. Coille, hill; 
fJiliuchaidli, gen. asp. of fliucliadh, wetness. After being 
put first [fti]li[u]ch[ai]d[h] had lost the letters within 
brackets, and coille had been translated wood because this is 
the common modern meaning of this word. 

Likeleys Hill. Hill on which there is a flat stone at a 
grassy place. Leac, flat smooth stone; leys, grassy places. 

Limekiln. Structure for roasting broken limestone to be 
used as manure or for building. Lime is efficacious at first, 
but it ultimately impoverishes the land, and farm limekilns 
are seldom used now. Culina (Latin), kitchen, roasting- 
place. The Gaelic name for a limekiln is athaoil, whence the 
name Athol in Udny, where limestone had been burned when 
the castle was built. 

Limer Shank (for Sithean Laimh Airidhe). Hill of the 
hill of the shieling. Sithean (pronounced shan), hill; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Euphonic 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 221 

7c had been added to shan, and being thus made an English 
word it had been transposed to the end of the name. 

Lindsay Hill, Lindsay's Burn. Lindsay may represent 
Linne Saobhaidhe, pool of the den of a fox or an otter. 
Linne, pool; saobhaidhe, gen. of saobhaidh, den of a wild 
animal. Linne might have lost final ne, and the aspirated 
letters of saobhaidhe would have become silent and have 
been lost. Then the vowels would have coalesced. D is a 
common intrusion after n. 

Lingamend (for Lian Gamhainn). Meadow of the cattle- 
fold. Linn, meadow, plain: gamhainn, gen. of gamhann, 
cattle-fold. 

Linganbo (for Lian nan Bo). Field of the cows. Lian, 
field, wet meadow; nan, of the; bo, gen. plural of bo, cow. 

Links, Lincolmwod (Reg. Mag. Sig., 1467), Lincanw-od 
(1493-4), Linkis (Futty, 1529), Linx (Aberdeen, 1534), 
Linkes (Aberdeen, 1638), The Queen's Links (Spalding, 
1639). Level, grassy, sandy places near the sea, ancient 
raised beaches. Lianan, plural of lian, plain, made liancan 
by inserting euphonic c. C is preserved in the two oldest 
forms, and also in the Anglo-Saxon word hlincas, in Cyne- 
wulf's Phoenix (about (1000), but it is usually changed to ~k. 

Linn. Waterfall. Linne, pool, lake, waterfall. Though 
it seems that the radical meaning of linne is pool it fre- 
quently means waterfall. 

Linn of Dee. Pool of the Dee. Because there is usually 
a pool below a waterfall a linn is often thought to mean a 
waterfall. There is a large pool at the Linn of Dee, but not 
a waterfall. Above the pool the river is narrow at the 
surface and wider at the bottom. The river had run at one 
time on a hard bed of rock under which is a bed of soft rock. 
Stones carried down by the river eroded a narrow channel 
three feet wide in the hard rock, and afterwards a wider 
channel in the rock below. Linne, pool; Dee, river name, 
meaning black. See Dee. 

LiNNnEAD. Head of the waterfall. Linne, nool, water- 
fall. 

Lion's Face. This is a spot in a cliff near Braemar with 
a fanciful resemblance to a lion's face. 

Linshart (for Lian Ard). High plain. Lian, grassy 
plain; ard, high. An of Lian had been regarded as a plural 
termination, and s had been inserted though an was left. 
Linshart is on a high level plain near low ground. 

Linthaugh. Haugh on which lint had been spread prior 
to the extinction of the hand-spinning of yarn, about 1830. 

Lintmill. Mill where flax was scutched to get rid of 
woodv stems. 



222 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Linton (for Baile Lein). Town of the meadow. Baile, 
town (translated and transposed) ; lein, gen. of lean, meadow. 

Lintrigs (for Lian Kuighein). Field of the slope. Lian, 
field; ruighein, gen. of ruighean, slight slope. Ein had been 
made s instead of ie. 

Lip's Den. Den at a bend in a road. Luibe, gen. of 
luib, bend, corner. S is added because luibe is in the gen. 

Litterty (for Leitirtean). Hillsides. Leitirtean, plural 
of leitir, hillside. Tan or lean added to the nom. or gen. of 
certain nouns produces the euphonic plural. In Scotch these 
terminations become ty, dy, tie, or die. See Lethenty. 

Little Clachdubh. Little black stone. Clach, stone; 
dubli, black. 

Little Craig. Small hill. Creag, hill. 

Little Dundee. Small hill. Dunan, dim. of dun, hill. 
An becomes ie in Scotch, but here it has become ee. D is a 
common insertion after n. Dee does not represent dubh, 
black, for in Dundee the accent is frequently placed on the 
first syllable. Little Dundee is an imported name in Strath- 
don, conferred in honour of James Graham, Viscount 
Dundee. 

Little Grain. Small branch of a burn, but properly the 
space between two branches of a burn. 

Little John's Length, Littlejohn's Length, Little- 
john's Wood. Littlejohn had been in Gaelic Dun Beag, little 
hill. Dun, hill; beag little. Dun had become John, and 
beag had been translated and put first. Littlejohn's Length 
on the top of Bennachie means the distance, about 200 feet, 
between two rocky knolls. 

Little Ord. Small hill. Ord, hill. 

Little Pitscur. Pitscur represents Pit Sgoir, place of 
the sharp rock. Pit, place; sgoir, gen. of sgor, sharp rock. 

Little Pourin. Small stream oozing from a hill. 
Pouran, small stream. 

Little Pap. Small hill resembling the breast of a young 
woman. 

Little Tam. Small hill. Tom, hill. 

Little Torry. Small steep flat-topped knoll. Torran, 
dim. of torr, steep hill. 

Little Water. This is a tributary of the Ythan, com- 
pared with which it is small. 

Littlehillie. Little hill. Hillie is a corruption of 
choille, coille asp., hill. C in choille is silent. 

Loangarry. Kough marshy place. Lon, moss, meadow, 
marsh; garbh, rough. 

Loanhead. Grassy place at a fold. Lon, meadow, 
grassy place; chuid, cuid asp., fold. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 223 

Loanend. End of a grassy place. Loan, grass land at 
a farm steading. 

Loch, Lochan, Lochie. Loch, lake, pool. Loclian, 
dim. of loch, small loch. Lochie, Scotch form of lochan, an 
becoming ie. 

Loch Bhrotachan, Loch Vrotachan. Loch at which 
cattle throve well and grew fat. Loch, loch; bhrotachaidh , 
gen. asp. of brotachadh, improving, thriving, growing fat. 

Loch Builg. Loch at a small cattle-fold. Buaileag, 
dim. of buaile, cattle-fold. Builg is pronounced bulig. 

Loch Callater. Loch of the marshy land. Calla, 
marsh; tir, land. At the upper end of the loch there is a 
meadow, once a marsh. 

Loch Davan (pronounced dawan). Loch of the two 
waters. Loch, loch; da, two (takes noun in singular); 
abhainn, water, river. Lochs Davan and Kinord are only 
275 yards apart. 

Loch Etchachan. The loch of the Brae burn. See 
Etchachan. 

Loch Goul. Loch of the fold. Gabhail, gen. of gabhal, 
fold. The fold had been at Lochhead; which see. 

Loch Muick. Loch in Glenmuick. See Glenmuick. 

Loch nan Eun. Loch of the birds. Loch, loch; nan, of 
the; eun, gen. plural of eun, bird. Some lochs are fre- 
quented in the breeding season by black-headed gulls. 

Loch nan Stuirteag. Loch of the sturdy sheep. Loch t 
loch; nan, of the; stuirdean, gen. plural of stuirdean, sturdy 
sheep. Sheep take a disease of the brain called " sturdy," 
caused by swallowing with their food germs of tapeworms 
voided by dogs. In ignorance of the true cause of the 
disease, shepherds attribute it to the pasture on which the 
sheep feed. 

Loch of Bunzeach. See Bunzeach. 

Loch of Monwig. Loch in a nook of a moss. Moine, 
moss ; uig, nook. The parts of Monwig are not in the original 
order. 

Loch of the Leys. Loch of the grassy places. hey, 
grassy place. The loch is now drained. 

Loch Phadruig. Patrick's loch. Phadruig, gen. asp. of 
Padruig, Patrick. 

Loch Ullachie. Loch of preparation. Loch, loch; 
ullachaidh, gen. of ullachadh, preparation. It is near the 
old drove road over the Capel Mount, and at this loch cattle 
might have been rested and arranged in droves suitable for 
different markets. 

Lochaber. Outflow of Loch Lochy into the river Lochy. 
Loch, lake; aber, infall of a river into the sea or into another 



224 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

river, ford, outflow of a lake. Lochaber in Aberdeenshire 
must be an imported name. 

Lochan a' Chreagain. The little loch at the small hill. 
Lochan, small loch; a', of the; chreagain, gen. asp. of 
creagan, small hill. 

Lochan Dubh. Little black loch. Lochan, small loch ; 
dubh, black. 

Lochan Feurach. Little grassy loch. Lochan, small 
loch; feurach, grassy. 

Lochan na Feadaige. Small loch frequented by plovers. 
Lochan, small loch; feadaige, gen. asp. of feadag, plover. 

Lochan nan Eun. Small loch frequented by birds. 
Lochan, small loch; nan, of the; eun, gen. plural of eun, 
bird. 

Lochan Oir. Little golden loch. Lochan, small loch; 
oir, gen. of or, gold. 

Lochan Uaine. Green little loch. Lochan, little loch; 
uaine, green. 

Lochander (for Loch Ceann-tire). Loch of the promon- 
tory. Loch, lake; cinn-tire, gen. of ceann-tire, headland, 
projecting point. 

Lochandhu. Black lochan. Lochan, small loch; dubh, 
black. 

Lochans. Small lake. Lochan, small loch. S had been 
added because an was erroneously supposed to be the plural 
termination. The Gaelic plural of lochan is lochanan. 

Locharmuick. Loch of the buzzard. Armuigh, buzzard. 
Buzzards preyed on grouse and were abundant till grouse 
preserving caused them to be killed out. The loch had been 
a breeding-place. 

Lochbuy. Yellow loch. Loch, lake; buidhe, yellow. 

Lochcam Pot. Crooked loch pot. Cam, crooked. 

Lochee Bridge. Bridge at the outlet of the lake formerly 
around Inverallochie Castle. Ee (Scotch), outlet of a lake. 

Lochend. House near the upper end of Loch Muick. 

Locheye. Outlet of Loch Goul. 

Lochhead. Loch at a cattle-fold. Chuid, cuid asp., 
cattle-fold. C had been lost after aspiration. 

Lochhills. Hills near a farm-town called Loch, where 
there is a pool. 

Lochie o' the Glen. Small loch in the glen of Berry's, 
burn. Lochan, small loch. 

Lochielair. Small lake in the land. Lochan, small 
loch; lair, gen. of lar, cultivated ground. 

Lochlip. Loch edge. 

Lochlundie. Loch of the wet place. Loch, lake; fhliu- 
chain, gen. asp. of fliuchan, wetness, wet place. Fh and ch 
being silent, had been dropped. Ain had been changed to 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 225 

ie in passing into Scotch, and d had been inserted after n for 
euphony. 

Lochmanse. Loch of willows. Locli, loch; maothan, 
gen. plural of maothan, willow. Th with its antecedent 
vowels had become silent and had been lost. An had been 
regarded as a plural termination, s had been added to 
man without changing an, and e had been added to obtain 
an English word. 

Lochnagab. Loch of the cattle-fold. Loch, lake; na, of 
the; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Lochnagar (for Lochan Gearr). Short lochan. Lochan, 
lochan, small loch; gearr, short. The present mode of 
spelling the name is modern and does not represent the 
local pronunciation. 

Lochnalair (for Lochan Lair). Small loch in the land. 
Lochan, small loch ; lair, gen. of lar, land. Lar, being mas- 
culine, cannot be preceded by na. There is a small loch 
near Lochnalair. 

Lochnavens (for Loch na Beinne). Loch of the hill. 
Loch, loch; na, of the; beinne, gen. of beinn, hill. Beinne 
had lost e, and then inn had been supposed to be a plural 
termination, and s had been added to inn instead of being 
substituted for it. 

Lochrie (for Luachrach). Rushy place. Luachrach, 
abounding in rushes. 

Lochter Burn. Lochland burn. Loch, lake; tir, land. 

Lofthillock. Smooth hillock. Liovihta, smoothed, 
polished. Mh is equivalent to v. 

Loganhill. Hill of the howe. Lagan, dim. of lag, howe. 

Logie. Little howe. Lagan, dim. of lag, little howe. 

Logie-Buchan. Small howe in Buchan, which anciently 
extended on the south to the watershed between the Ythan 
and the Don. Lagan, dim. of lag, howe. The Logie of 
Buchan famed in song is a howe in the parish of Lonmay. 

Logie-Coldstone (for Lagan and Clach Codhaile). 
Howe, and Stone of assembly. Lagan, small howe; clach, 
stone (translated); codhaile, gen. of codhail, assembly. 
Logie-Coldstone is a parish embracing the older parishes of 
Logie in Mar and Coldstone. 

Logie Durno. Stony little howe. Lagan, small howe ; 
dornach, abounding in small stones. Logie Durno was the 
old name of the modern parish of Chapel of Garioch, and 
when the chapel was made the church of the parish of Logie 
Durno the name of the chapel became also the name of 
the parish. 

Logie Elphinstone. Logie belonging to the Elphin- 
stone family. Lagan, little howe. 



226 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Logiehall. Farm in a howe. Lagan, small howe ; hall, 
farm-house. 

Logiemuir. Howe on a moor. Lagan, small howe. 

Logie Newton. New town in the howe. Lagan, dim. 
of lag, howe. 

Logierieve (for Kath Lagain). Circle of the howe. 
Rath, stone circle, cattle-fold; lagain, gen. of lagan, little 
howe. Th of Rath had become bh, equivalent to v, and 
Eav had lapsed into Eieve. 

Loin. Moss. Loin, for Ion, moss, marsh, meadow. 
Loin, the gen. form, is often used for Ion, the nom., in 
names of places. 

Loin Burn (for Allt Loin). Burn of the moss. Allt, 
burn; loin, gen. of Ion, moss, morass. 

Loinahaun (for Lon na h-Abhann). Morass of the water. 
Lon, morass; na, of the; h (euphonic); abhann, gen. of 
abhainn, river. 

Loinavoick (for Lon a' Bhuic). Meadow of the buck. 
Lon, meadow, moss; a', of the; bhtiic, gen. asp. of boc, 
buck, male deer. 

Loingarry. Bough moss. Lon, moss, bog; garbh, 
rough. 

Loinherry (for Lon na h-Airidhe). Moss of the shieling. 
Lon, moss; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, 
shieling. 

Loinmuie. Gloomy moss. Lon, moss; muige, gen. of 
muig, gloom. 

Loinveg. Small moss. Lon, moss; bheag, beag asp., 
small. 

Lonach. Place abounding in meadows. Lon, meadow; 
ach, place of, abundance of. 

Lone Burn. Moss burn. Lon, moss, marsh. 

LoNENW r ELL (for Tobar Loininn). Well of the cattle 
lane. Tobar, well ; loininn, cattle lane. 

Long Bank, Long Burn, Long Craig, Long Gutter, 
Long Moss, Long Slouch, Long Well, Longcairn, Long- 
croft, LONGDEMMING, LoNGDRUM, LONGFORD, LoNGHAUGH, 
LONGHILL, LONGHORN WELL, LONGLEY, IjONGSIDE, LoNG- 

steps. In some of these names Long may represent the 
English word long, but it is in most cases a corruption of 
the Gaelic word lon, moss, marsh, meadow. Which of the 
two is the proper word in any particular case could only be 
determined after examining the physical aspect of the place. 
Gutter is in Gaelic gnitear, and it means a water channel 
of any sort, a small ditch or a deep broad passage between 
rocks in the sea. Slouch is slochd, deep gorge; Horn is 
chairn or chuirn, gen. asp. of earn, hill. Longdemming 
represents Lon Domhain, bog of the evil spirit. Longside 



Celtic Place-Xames in Aberdeenshire. 227 

is the same as Langside, edge of a moss or marsh. Well 
may be a corruption of baile, town, or it may be the Eng- 
lish word well. Longsteps is appropriate for a place where 
there are stepping-stones through a wet place. 

Lonmay. Marsh of the plain. Lon, marsh; maigh, gen. 
of magh, plain. 

Lonside, Hill of. Hill at the edge of a marsh. Lon, 
marsh, moss, meadow. Side might represent suidhe, seat, 
place. 

Loon's Loup (for Luib Fhliuchain). Bend of the Craig 
burn at a marshy place. Luib, bend; [fh~\l[i]u[cJi]ain, gen. 
asp. of fliuchan, wet place. The aspiration of fiiuchain 
shows that it had originally been last. Letters within 
brackets had been omitted. Ain, though retained, had been 
translated into s, producing Luains, and Luib had become 
Loup. It sometimes becomes Lip or Loop. 

Loop, Loup. Bend. Luib, crook, bend in the outline of 
a brae. Loop is at the end of a hill. From luib comes the 
name Lip or Lippe. 

Lootingstone, Loutin Stane. Resting stone. Lout, 
to sit down, bend the body. Stone at a roadside where 
funeral parties rested when carrying a coffin. Pack mer- 
chants also found them useful. 

Lord Arthur's Cairn. Cairn commemorating Lord 
Arthur Forbes. 

Lossat Wood. Wood of the little burn. Lossan, little 
burn. Same as Lossie. 

Lost, perhaps for loist, whose dim., loistean, means 
lodging, entertainment. The place may have been an inn. 
As o in loist is long and i short, it might have been corrupted 
into Lost. 

Lothian, Loudon. Hill slopes. Leoidean, plural of 
leathad, side of a hill. 

Louping Stone. If this name is of English origin it may 
mean stone where fishermen leap into boats ; but if of Gaelic 
origin it must be a corruption of luib, bend. 

Louper's Knowe (for Cnocan Luib Airidhean). Knoll 
at a bend in a piece of hill pasture. Cnocan, knowe, knoll; 
luib, bend; airidhean, gen. plural of airidhe, shieling. 

Lownie Burn (for Allt Fhliuchain). Burn of the wet 
place. Allt, burn; fhliuchain, gen. asp. of fliuchan, wet 
place. Fh and ch had become silent and had been lost. 
Ain had become nai by transposition of letters, and this 
had become nie. 

Lowrie. Conspicuous place. Lomhaire, comparative of 
lomhar, shining, brilliant. 

Low's Pot. Pot m the Ugie in a low place. Low's 



228 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

seems to be the same word as Lowes in Selkirk and Lewes 
in Fyvie, where it means either low place or loch. 

Luath's Stone. Luath was the name of Fingal's dog, 
and after 1762, when the Ossianic poems were published, 
this name had been given to a nameless stone pillar on the 
Green Hill, Tough. Luath, swift. 

Luchray, Burn of. Burn of the rushy place. Luach- 
rach, rushy. 

Ludquharn (for Lod a' Chairn). Pool of the hill, Lod, 
pool; a', of the; chairn, gen. asp. of earn, hill. 

Lui. Small water. Lu, small. Compared with the 
Dee the Lui is small. 

Luibeg. Little Lui. Beag, little. The little Lui is the 
west branch of the Lui. 

Luib. Crook, bend, curve. From luib come Lip, Lippe, 
Loop, Loup. 

Lulach's Stone. Stone in Drumnahive Wood in Kil- 
drummy. But Lulach, king of Scotland, 1057-8, was killed 
at Essy in Strathbogy. (Skene " Celtic Scotland," I., 411.) 

Lum Wood. Hill wood. Lamli, hill. 

Lumbs. Little hill. Lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. An 
should have become ie, but being supposed to be a plural 
termination it was changed to s. 

Lump of Bonlee. Hill of Bonlee. Lamh, hill. See 
Bonlee. 

Lumphanan (for Lamh Finain). Hill. Lamh, hill; 
finain, gen. of finan, small hill. The first part had been 
corrupted into Lum, and the second had been added to 
explain it. 

Lumphart. Hill. Lamh, hill; ard, hill. 

Lumps, The. The hills. Lamhan, hills. In several 
names lamh and lamhan are now Lum and Lums. B and 
p are sometimes inserted after m. An had become s instead 
of ie. 

Lumsden (for Dein Lamhain). Hill den. Dein, den, 
gorge; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. Ain 
had been turned into s. 

Luncart, Lunchart. Circular enclosure, fold, fort, 
stone circle round a grave, semicircle at a bank to make a 
place for a fire out of doors. 

Luncarty. Small fold. Luncartan, dim. of luncart, 
stone circle, fold. 

Lunderton (for Baile Lon Airidhe). Town on the 
grassy place at a summer shieling. Baile, town; lon, moss, 
grassy place; airidhe, gen. of airidh, summer pasture among 
hills. 

Lurg. Hillside. Slope of hill. 

Luther. Stream name meaning swift. Other forms of 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 229 

the same word are Leuchar, Luthair, Luthor, Lughmhor, 
Luthmhor. The aspirated letters in these words are silent 
or faintly sounded in Gaelic, and all are pronounced in the 
same way. 

Lyne. Plain. Lean, meadow, level grassy place. 

Lynardoch. Level places on a hill. Lean, level corn 
land; ardoch, hilly. 

Lynebain. White field. Lean, corn land; ban, white. 
Ban is the translation into Gaelic of white., which is a cor- 
ruption of chuit, cuit asp., fold. 

Lynemore, Lynmore. Big plain. Lean, plain, corn 
land; mor, big. 

Lynturk. Field of the boar. Lean, field; tuirc, gen. of 
tore, boar. 

Lyons Den. Den of the meadow. Lian, meadow. An 
had erroneously been regarded as a plural termination, and 
s had been added to an instead of being substituted for it. 

Macbeth's Cairn. Cairn in Lumphanan, under which 
was found a small cist, 18 inches by 9 inches, excavated in 
rock. Without any evidence it was assumed to have con- 
tained the ashes of Macbeth's body. 

M'Clog's Well (for Tobar Magh a' Chnuic). Well of 
the level ground on the hill. Tobar, well; magh, plain, 
level place; a', of the; chnuic, gen. asp. of cnoc, hill. 
Chnuic being in the gen. 's had been added to it to repre- 
sent the English possessive. 

M'Fadyen's Well (for Tobar Magh a' Chuidain). Well 
of the level ground at the small fold. Tobar, well; magh, 
level ground; a', of the; chuidain, gen. asp. of cuidan, small 
fold. Aspirated c had been changed to /, which is aspirated 
p ; and Chuidan being in the gen. 's had been added to it 
to represent the English possessive. 

Machar Church. Machair, plain, meadow, ancient sea 
beach. Machar Church is on high ground now, but it prob- 
ably was at first on the haugh near the river, where the 
dwellings of the early inhabitants had been. No evidence 
has been found to show that the church was dedicated to 
a beatified person named Machar. 

Macharmuir. Moor of the level plain. Machair, plain, 
meadow, raised sea beach. 

Machar's Chapel. The Ordnance Survey maps show 
sites in Strathdon and Kildrummy where it is supposed 
there had been chapels dedicated to St Machar. But 
Machair in Gaelic signifies a haugh near a river, or an ancient 
sea beach now beyond the reach of the sea. 

Machar's Haugh. Both parts of the name have the 
same meaning. Machair, haugh. 



230 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Machar's How. Howe beside a river. Machair, level 
ground beside the sea or a river, haugh. 

Mackay's Stripe. Burn of the plain. Maghain, gen. of 
maghan, dim. of magh, plain. Ain having become ie in 
Scotch Maghie had been Anglified into Mackay, which had 
afterwards become Mackay's. 

Mackie. Smooth rock. Maghan, small level place. An 
had become ie. 

Mackies, The. The smooth rocks. They had been 
smoothened by the passage of an ice-sheet over them. 
Maghan, level place. An had become both ie and s. 

Mackie 's Hill. Hill of the small level place. Maghan, 
s'mall plain. An had been made both ie and s, the latter 
by a mistake. 

Mackie's Steps (for Clacharan Maghain). Stepping- 
stones across a burn in a level plain. Clacharan, stepping- 
stones; maghain, gen. of maghan, small plain. Ain had 
become both ie and s. 

Macknagran. Level sandy place. Magh, plain; na, of 
the; grainne, sand. 

Macstead. Farm-town situated in a plain. Magh, 
plain; suidhe, site, place, residence. 

Macterry (for Magh Tire). Level piece of land. Magh, 
plain; tire, gen. of tir, land. 

Maggie Arnott, Maggie Haugh, Maggie's Howe, 
Maggie's Trink. In these names Maggie represents 
maghan, dim. of magh, level place. Arnott might represent 
Airidh an Otha, shieling at the sea. Airidh, shieling; an, of 
the; otha, gen. of oth, broad water. Trink, a Scotch word, 
means a small channel, either wet or dry. 

Mahon (for Magh Chon). Level place frequented by 
dogs. Magh, plain; chon, gen. plural asp. of cu, dog, small 
quadruped :— vole, rat, rabbit, squirrel, otter, badger. 

Mahuncar (for Magh Luncart). Circular enclosure, 
stone circle round a grave, fold. L had been dropped, as 
often happened, after a long broad vowel. Final t had been 
aspirated, and then, being softened, it had become silent 
and had dropped off. 

Maiden Causeway. Eoad on Bennachie to the cattle- 
fold on the summit. The name originated in connection 
with a legend regarding the Maiden Stone. 

Maiden Hillock (for Toman Meadhoin). Middle hillock. 
Toman, hillock; meadhoin, gen. of meadhon, middle. 

Maiden Stone. Sculptured stone at the base of Ben- 
nachie with the figures — among other things — of a mirror 
and a comb, which led people to suppose that it commemo- 
rated a maiden. 

Maidencraig. A rock in the middle of the Denburn 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 231 

valley between Kiugswells and Oldmill. It is a hard 
remnant left when the den in which the burn flows was 
excavated by a glacier. Meadhon, middle; creag, rock. 

Maim, The. The breast. Maim, gen. of mam, breast. 
A word, such as Cnoc, meaning hill, must be understood 
before Maim. Mam is cognate with the Latin word 
mamma, woman's breast. 

Mains. Farm occupied by the proprietor of an estate. 
Terrae Dominicales (Latin), laird's lands. Terrae, lands; 
dominicales, from Latin dominus, pertaining to a laird or 
landlord. From Dominicales came Domains, which became 
Mains, a proprietor's farm. 

Mairlenden. Den of the merlin. Hawks were 
numerous before game preserving became fashionable. 

Maitland's Bridge. Bridge at a wet place on a hill. 
Maoth, wet; lamhan, hill. D had been added to n for 
euphony. 

Maldron. Bare ridge. Maol, bare; dronn, sharp-backed 
ridge. The term dronn is peculiarly appropriate for a 
narrow ridge between two burns which have eroded deep 
channels. 

Malsach Burn (for Allt Mall Samhach). Slow, quiet 
burn. Allt, burn; mall, slow; samhach (mh silent), quiet. 

Maling Burn (for Allt Meallain). Burn of the little hill. 
Allt, burn; meallain, gen. of meallan, little hill. 

Mam nan Carn. Pap of the mountains. Mam, pap, 
breast-like hill; nan, of the; carn, gen. plural of carn, 
mountain. 

Mameulah (for Mam Neulach). Dark-coloured hill. Mam, 
large round convex hill; neulach, dark, cloudy, obscure. 

Mammie. Little round hill. Mamag, little round hill. 

Manabattock — same as Monabattock. 

Manar. An Indian name imported into Aberdeenshire. 

Mannie, Burn op. Burn of the kids. Meannan, gen. 
plural of meann, kid, roe. The final syllable an, though 
plural, had been made ie in Scotch. 

Mannofield. Middle field. Meadhonach, middle. 

Manor Place. Mansion-house of the proprietor of an 
estate. Manor, from Latin manere, to remain, through 
manoir (Old French), nobleman's residence. Manoir is 
accented on the last syllable, and this led to pronouncing 
Manor occasionally in the same way. 

Manse. Minister's official residence. Mansio (Latin), 
dwelling-house. 

Maol Charrach. Bound-topped hill with uneven sur- 
face. Maol, skull-shaped hill; charracli, carrach asp., 
uneven in the surface. 

Mar (perhaps for Math Airidh). Good summer hill 



232 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

pasture. Math, good; airidh, summer pasture among hills. 
Th is usually silent at the end of words, and dh in airidh is 
never sounded. Sometimes i also is silent, as in Harlaw. 
An old tract, supposed to have been written in the twelfth 
century, states that " Marr and Buchen " formed one of 
the four provinces of Scotia north of the Forth. In this 
sense Mar comprehended all the area drained by the Dee 
and the Don ; but Mar is associated more with the Dee than 
the Don and more with Upper Deeside than Lower Deeside. 
The etymology given would be appropriate for Deeside above 
Ballater. Many names refer to pastures and live stock: — 
cattle, pigs, sheep, lambs, goats and kids, and to folds for 
them. 

Mar Craig (for Creag Mara). Bock in the sea. Creag, 
rock; mara, gen. of muir, sea. 

Mar Forest. A large area of uncultivated ground in 
Braemar reserved for sport. Forestis (Latin), open hunting 
ground as opposed to an enclosed park where deer were 
kept. Sculptured stones of the Columban age (563-1100) 
show hunting scenes with men on horseback, bows and 
arrows, and dogs chasing deer. 

Mar Lodge. Summer residence for sportsmen in Mar 
Forest. 

March Burn. This burn is one of the head streams of 
the Dee. It rises on the ridge between Loch Avon and the 
Lairig Ghru. It flows west near the boundary between 
Aberdeen and Inverness, and descending the west side of 
Ben Macdhui it becomes the Allt Lairig Ghru. It feeds the 
Pools of the Dee and afterwards joins the Garchory Burn, 
and the two streams form the Dee. At the junction the 
Allt Lairig Ghru is 2 miles 20 chains long ; but the Garchory 
is 30 chains longer, and it is also larger. 

Marchland, for Hill of the marsh. Lamhan, dim. of 
lamli, hill; marrisch (Scotch), marsh. 

Marchmar (for Lon Mor). Big marsh. Lon, bog, 
marsh; mor, big. Gordon's map of Aberdeen, 1661, has 
" The Marrisch " for the loch of Aberdeen, and Lon might 
have been made Marrisch. 

Marchmire. Bog near a boundary. 

Marchmyres. March represents marsh, and Myres has 
the same meaning. 

Marchnear. Marsh of the shieling. Marrisch, marsh; 
na, of the; airidh, shieling. 

Marcus, Hill of. Hill of the great fold. Mor, big; 
rhos, cos asp., fold. 

Marionburg. Marion's town. See " Place Names of 
West Aberdeenshire." Marion or Marian is a dim. from 
Marv, as are Alison from Alice, Lilian from Lily, Julian 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 233 

from Julius. Marionburg might, however, have been an 
importation from Germany, where there is a town of the 
same name. 

Market Stance. Place for holding a market. Stance 
(Scotch), standing-place, from stans (Latin), standing. 

Marlin Grain. Grain of the hawk. Merlin, falcon, 
hawk; grain, branch of a burn. 

Marlpool. Pool where clay had been excavated. Marl 
is in geology a mixture of earth and lime, but lime is not 
an essential ingredient in marl. 

Marnabogs. Bog of the gap. Beama, gap, hollow. B 
may pass into m by the following steps : — b, bh, mh, m. Bli 
and mh both sound v. 

Marno. Gap. Beama, gap. Mh and bh are both equi- 
valent to v, so that bh was liable to be made mh, and this, 
by loss of the aspirate, became m. 

Marrot Pot. Motionless pot. Marbh, dead-like, 
motionless; poit, pot. 

Marrott's Walk. Both parts of the name seem to refer 
to the razor-billed auk. Marrot, Scotch name for the auk; 
ivalk, corruption of auk. 

Mar's Koad. An old road from Kildrummy to the 
Garioch. It is attributed to an earl of Mar because it began 
at Kildrummy Castle, the head of the earldom of Mar. 

Martinsmuir. Moor on which a fair was held on St 
Martin's day. 

Mary Den (for Dein Mearain). Den of the small branch 
of a burn. Mearain, gen. of mear, finger, branch burn. Ain 
had become y in passing out of Gaelic into English. 

Mary Gray. Perhaps for Murean Creag. Small hill. 
Murean, dim. of mur, hill; crcag, hill. Ban becomes ie or y 
in Scotch, and Creag becomes Gray. 

Mary's Valley (for Baile Murean). Town on a hill. 
Baile, farm town; murean, dim. of m.ur, hill. Ban had been 
regarded by some as a dim. termination and made y, and 
by others as a plural and made s. Then Baile had been 
made Bhaile and put last. Bhaile is pronounced voile, and 
this sound it still retains though it is spelled Valley. 

Massiesbraes (for Braigh Masaig). Hill of the small 
red berry. Braigh, hill; masaig, gen. of masag, red little 
berry. 

Mastrick. A dairying place. Maistreachaidh (pro- 
nounced mastrachae), gen. of maistreachadh, churning of 
milk. For a long time the land around Aberdeen lay un- 
cultivated on account of stones in the ground and on the 
surface. The pasture among them had been utilised for 
dairy cows. 



234 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Matnach. Abounding in osiers. Maothanach, abound- 
ing in twigs or willow wands. 

Matthew's Burn. Burn of bounty. Mathais, gen. of 
mathas, benevolence, bounty. 

Mauld Moss (for Moine Maol). Bare moor. Moine T 
moor, moss; maol, bare, bald. 

Mausoleum. A splendid tomb erected by Artemisia in 
honour of her husband Mausolus, king of Caria. x\ chamber 
containing a grave is called a mausoleum. 

Maut Craig. Smooth rock. Maoth, smooth; chreag, 
creag asp., rock. The rock had been ground smooth by the 
passage over it of an ice-sheet charged with stones. 

Maw Craig. Cliff frequented by seagulls. Crcag, rock, 
cliff, hill; mew, seagull; in Scotch maw in imitation of its 
cry. 

Maw's Haven. Creek frequented by seagulls. Mew, 
seagull. 

Max Hill. Hill of the little plain. Maghain, gen. of 
maghan, dim. of magh. Max represents Maghs, in which s 
is an erroneous rendering of an, the dim. termination. 

May's Pot. Pot in a level part of a river. Poit, pot; 
maigh, gen. of magh, plain. Maigh had been regarded as a 
personal name, and 's had been added to turn it into the 
English possessive. 

Meackie Point. Cape on the coast of Cruden where 
there is a fleshy-rooted plant. Meacan, fleshy-rooted plant; 
perhaps Ligusticum Scoiicum (lovage) is meant. It was 
eaten. 

Meadaple. Great pool. Meud, greatness; a', of the; 
phuill, gen. asp. of poll, pool. Meadaple is in the valley of 
the Bed Burn at a place where there is little fall on the burn 
for half a mile. 

Meadowhead (for Cluan a' Chuid). Meadow of the fold. 
Cluan, meadow; a', of the; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. 
C in chuid, being silent, had been lost. 

Meagry Hill. Hill of mirth. Meaghraidh, gen. of 
meaghradh, sport, festivity. 

Meall Alvie. Hill of the gorge. Meall, round-topped 
hill; amhaich, gen. of amhach, neck, narrow place. L is 
frequently inserted before m preceded by a. 

Meall an Lundain (perhaps for Meall an Lonain). Hill 
of the small meadow. Meall, round topped hill; an, of the; 
lonain, gen. of lonan, dim of Ion, marsh, moss, meadow. 
D is often added to n. 

Meall an t-Slugain. Hill of the little slug. Meall, hill; 
an t-, of the; slugain, gen. of slugan, small gorge. 

Meall Beag. Little hill. Meall, lump of a hill; beag t 
little. 



Celtic Place-Names hi Aberdeenshire. 235 

Meall Coire na Saobhaidhe. Hill of Coire na Saobh- 
aidhe. Meall, hill; coire, corry; na, of the; saobhaidhe, gen. 
of saobhaidh, den of a wild beast such as a fox. 

Meall Cula. Back or north side of a hill. Meall, round, 
skull-shaped hill; cula, gen. of cul, back. 

Meall Dorch. Black hill. Meall, round-topped hill; 
dorch, black, dark. 

Meall Dubh. Black hill. Meall, hill; dubh, black. 

Meall Glasail Beag, Meall Glasail Mor. Hill of the 
little green burn, and Hill of the big green burn. Meall, 
hill; glas, green; allt, burn; beag, small; mor, big. Glasail 
is a contraction of Glas Allt. 

Meall Gorm, Meall Gorm Ghiubhais. Blue hill, and 
Blue hill of the fir. Meall, hill; gorm, blue; ghiubhais, gen. 
asp. of giubhas, fir. 

Meall nan Caorach. Sheep hill. Meall, a round-topped 
hill; nan, of the; ehaoracli, gen. plural of caora, a sheep. 
Another name having the same meaning is Tillykeira. 

Meall nan Uan. Hill where lambs were sent to feed. 
Meall, round-topped hill; nan, of the; uan, gen. plural of 
uan, lamb. 

Meall Odhar. Dun hill. Meall, round-topped hill; 
odhar, dun, dark cream colour. 

Meall Tionail, Meall an Tionail. Hill of assembly, 
and Hill of the assembly. Meall, round lump of a hill; an, 
of the ; tionail, assembly, gathering. 

Meaths, The. Meaths is a Scotch word which means 
marks and objects by which a person recognises a place. 
The Meaths apparently means marks by which fishermen 
found their way into a boat haven on a rocky coast. 

Meddens. Middle place. Meadhon, middle. Final s 
is a needless and objectionable addition, arising from on 
being regarded as a plural termination. 

Meddin Mount. Hill of the middle. Meadhoin, gen. of 
meadhon, the middle. 

Meddons of Ewe. Middle farm of Ewebrae. Meadhon, 
middle. On had been regarded as a plural termination, 
hence s had been added to it. 

Meet Hill, Meethillock, (for Cnapan Moid). Hillock 
where courts of justice were held. Cnaipan, knoll, hillock; 
moid, gen. of mod, assembly, court of justice. 

Meetings. Meadow. Miadan, meadow, grass} 7 plain. 
Final s had been added in the belief that an was a plural 
termination. 

Megen Burn. Burn near which a plant called Meum 
athamanticum grows. Meacan, root resembling a carrot. 
The local name of the plant is micken, whose root is chewed 
for its aromatic flavour. 



236 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Meg's Eye, Meg's Moss, Meg's Pot. Meg's is for 
maigh, gen. of magh, plain, with 's added to convert it into 
the English possessive. Eye represents suidhe, place, seat, 
in which dh is silent and readily lost. 

Meg's Stone (for Clach Meud). Big stone. Clach, 
stone; meud, gen. of meud, bigness. Meud had readily 
lapsed into Meug, because d asp. and g asp. have the same 
sound; and, as eu is like a long, Meug had become Meg, to 
which 's had been added to convert it into the possessive 
case. 

Meikle Cammel Stone. Big stone of the crooked hill. 
Meikle, big; cam, crooked; meall, hill. 

Meikle Garron. Big nail. Garron (Scotch), nail. The 
name would be suitable for a long pointed rock. 

Meikle Humblie. Big glacial-rounded boulder in the 
Ythan. Hummel, round-headed, without horns. The 
Gaelic word for hummel is maol, bald. 

Meiklemill. Big hill. Meikle (in Gaelic mor), big; 
meall, round-topped hill. 

Meikle Pap (for Cioch Mhor). Big breast-like hill. 
Cioch, pap; mhor, fern, of mor, big. 

Meldrum. Bald hill. Maol, bald, smooth-topped; druim, 
ridge, hill. 

Melgum. Thick hill. Meall, hill; guamach, thick, neat. 

Mellan, Mellans. Little hill. Meallan, dim. of meall, 
hill. S had been added to Mellan because it ended in an, 
sometimes a plural termination. 

Mellenside. Side of a small hill. Meallan, dim. of 
meall, hill with a round top. 

Mellison. Musical burn. Milis, sweet, melodious; 
abhainn (bh silent), stream. 

Meluncart (for Meall Luncairt). Hill of the luncart. 
Meall, round-topped hill; luncairt, gen. of luncart; which 
see. 

Memsie. Pound heaps of stones. Maman, plural of 
mam (Irish), breast, pap, heap like a woman's breast. An 
had been translated both as a plural and a dim. termination. 

Menie. Gap between heights. Meanan, gap. An became 
ie. 

Meoir Veannaich (for Meur Meannach). Branch of a 
burn where kids fed. Meur, finger, burn branch; mean- 
nach, suitable for kids. 

Merdrum. Muiry hill. Muir (pronounced meer), Scotch 
for moor; druim, hill. 

Merlin Burn. Perhaps for Muirland Burn, burn of the 
moor land. 

Mermaid, The. Rock fancifully supposed to have some 
resemblance to the representations of a mermaid. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 237 

Merryhillock, Merrytop. Hillock of the standard. 
Meirghe, standard, banner. 

Methlick. Large stones. Meud, greatness; leac, gen. 
plural of leac, stone. The stones referred to are on the 
roadside near the Bridge of Methlick. Old forms of Meth- 
lick have d instead of th. 

Michael Muir. Muir of the dark hill. Maine, muir 
(translated); ail, genitive of al, hill; muiche, darkness. 
Muiche had lost u and e. 

Michaelmuir. Moor where a fair was held at Michael- 
mas. 

Micras (for Mi-ghras). Unfavourable place. Mi, want 
of; ghras, gras asp., favour, luck. 

Mid Chingle Fishing. A fishing station on a rough 
gravel bank between the Denburn and the Dee, abolished 
by the diversion of the river. Chingle is the same as 
shingle, rough gravel, asp. s being converted into asp. c. 

Midgate, Stone of; Midgates, Mire of. Midgate and 
Midgates seem from their situation to be half-way places 
on long hill roads. 

Middleplough, Midplough, Middlethird. Before 1782 
a large farm, styled a plough, was usually let to three 
tenants jointly, who furnished eight or ten oxen for the 
common plough in proportion to their rents. After 1782 
these big farms were sub-divided and let in separate parts. 
Hence arose such names as Upperthird, Middlethh'd, Nether- 
third, Midplough, etc. 

Middlemetr. Middle part of a moor which had formerly 
been a common pasture-ground for three tenants of farms. 
Muir (Scotch), moor. 

Middlens Park (for Pairc Meud Lein). Park of great- 
ness of level ground. Pairc, park; meud, greatness of size; 
lein, gen. of lean, corn land, level ground. Final s repre- 
sents the termination of lean or lein, supposed to be plural. 

Midmar. The meaning and etymology are uncertain. 
The Barmekin of Echt and the great stone circle at Sun- 
honey show that the district was populous and prosperous 
in early times. The name, therefore, may be very old and 
of Gaelic origin. Etymologically, Midmar might represent 
Machair Meud, level ground of great extent. Machair, plain, 
level ground; mend, of great size. In Machair, ch might 
become silent and be omitted. Meud might be pronounced 
as made, with a either long or short. Most likely Meud would 
have been last till it was corrupted into Mid, and then it 
would have been put first as being an English adjective. 

Midshade. Middle division. Sliade, field, division, slope. 

Midstrone Burn. Burn in the point of land between 
two larger burns. Sron, nose, point. 



238 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

MlGVIE, MlGAUETH (1153), MlGGEUTH (1172), MlGUITH 

(1183), Mighaueth (1187), Migwie, Mygvethe, Mygvy, 
Megwie, Megwye, Mygweth, etc. Great cattle-fold. Meud 
greatness; chuith, cuith asp., cattle-fold. D becomes g at 
the end of several words in Gaelic; ch becomes bh by inter- 
change of aspirated letters; bh is equivalent to u, v, or tv ; 
and th is generally silent. The cattle-fold had been older 
than the castle, older even than the church. 

Mildarroch. Hill of oaks. Meall, hill; darach, gen. 
plural of darach, oak. 

Milduan Hill. Hill of the two streams. Meall, hill; 
da, two; abhann, gen. of abhainn, stream. Bh is silent. 

Mill Maud. Hill on which courts of justice were held 
by baron bailies. Meall, hill; moid, gen. of mod, court of 
justice. As the court would have been far from habitations, 
the reference may be to courts for settling rights of pasture 
on the hill or of casting peats. 

Mill of Cosh. Mill of the howe. Cois (pronounced 
cosh), gen. of cos, hollow. 

Mill of Coull. Mill in a nook. Cull, nook, corner. 

Mill of Hole. Mill at a hill. Choille, coille asp., hill, 
wood. 

Mill of Lyne. Mill of the plain. Lean, level place, 
corn land. 

Mill of Pot. Mill at a deep still place in a stream. 
Poit, pot, caldron, deep pool. 

Milladen. Mill of Aden. 

Millan. Dim. of meall, hill. 

Millarsmyres. Mires on a hill where there was summer 
pasture. Meallan, small hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shiel- 
ing. An of Meallan having been regarded as a plural ter- 
mination, s had been added to Millar. 

Millereck, Millbrex, (for Meall Breac). Spotted hill. 
Meall, hill; breac, dappled, of various colours. 

Millbuie. Yellow hill. Meall, hill; buidhe, yellow. 

Milldowrie. Hill of the water. Meall, hill; dobharain, 
gen. of dobharan, water, stream. 

Milleath (for Leth Mill). Side of the hill. Leth, side; 
mill, gen. of meall, hill. The transposition of the parts of 
the name had been made after English began to displace 
Gaelic. 

Millfield (probably for Achadh Mill). Farm on a hill- 
side. Achadh, field (translated); mill, gen. of meall, hill. 
Millfield might be a modern English name, but it is probably 
very old. 

Millhead. Hill of the fold. Meall, hill; chuid, gen. asp. 
of cuid, fold. C had become silent after aspiration and had 
been lost. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 239 

Millhill. Hill. The second part is a translation of the 
first. Meall, hill. 

Millhockie (for Meall a' Chnocain). Hill of the small 
hill. Meall, hill; a', of the; chnocain, gen. asp. of cnocan, 
little hill. See Cnoc. C had been lost after being asp. 

Millhuie (for Meall a' Chuidh). Hill of the fold. Meall, 
hill; a', of the; chuidh, gen. asp. of cuidh, fold. Initial c 
had been lost after aspiration, and dh, which is equivalent to 
y, had also been lost. 

Millmoss (for Meall an Uisg). Hill at the water. Meall, 
hill; an, of the; uisg, water, burn. An had become am in 
post-Gaelic time. In Scotch m sometimes takes the place 
of n, as in opem and happem for open and happen. 

Millseat (for Suidhe Mill). Place on a hill. Suidhe, 
place; mill, gen. of meall, hill. 

Millstone Cairn. Mountain from which millstones were 
quarried. Cam, mountain. 

Milltimber (for Meall Tuim Airidhe). Hill of the hill of 
the shieling. Meall, hill; tuim, gen. of torn, hill; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. Usually a gen. preceding another 
has the form of the nom. 

Mii.lwaddoch (for Meall Bhadach). Bushy hill. Meall, 
hill; bhadach, badach asp., bushy. 

Millward. Hill of the ward for live stock. Meall, hill. 
A ward was a small enclosed field. 

Mimrikins Clump (for Bad Buighean Maim). Patch of 
wood on the slope of a round-topped hill. Bad, bush, wood; 
ruighean, dim. of ruigh, slope of a hill; maim, gen. of mam, 
breast-like hill. S represents ean of Ruighean, erroneously 
regarded as plural. 

Minew. Small place. Meanbh (pronounced menuv), 
small. 

Minchie Burn (for Allt Moine Chuidh). Burn of the 
moor of the small fold. Allt, burn; moine, moor; chuidh, 
gen. asp. of cuidh, fold. See Cuid. Dh had been dropped 
after becoming silent. 

Minfur. Grassy moor. Moine, moor; feoir, gen. of 
feur, grass. 

Minmore. Big moss. Moine, moss, moor; mhor, fern, 
of mor, big. 

Minnes. Place for little kids. Minnean, plural of min- 
nean, little kid. An had been translated into s. 

Minnonie, Braes of. Braes where kids fed. Minnean- 
ach, pertaining to kids. 

Mintlaw (for Monadh Lamh). Both parts mean the 
same thing. Monadh, hill; lamh, hill. 

Miriewells (perhaps for Bogan Bhailein). Mire at a 



240 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

small farm-town. Bogan, bog; bhailein, gen. asp. of bailean f 
small town. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w, and ein had 
become s in a mistake for ie. This produced Wails, lapsing 
into Wells. 

Mirydubs Burn (for Allt Mirein Dhubh). Burn of the 
black little place. Allt, burn; mirein, gen. of mirean, small 
piece of ground; dhubh, gen. of dubh, black. 

Mitchellhill (for Tom a' Chuithail). Hill of the fold. 
Tom, hill; a', of the; chuithail, gen. asp. of cuithail, fold. 
Gh had become mh, and afterwards h had been dropped. Th 
had been strengthened by inserting c in the middle. This 
produced Muitchail, which had become Mitchell. 

Mitchelly. This is the same as Mitchell in Mitchellhill. 
In Gaelic the sound of ye is faintly heard after final 11. 

Mither Tap. Mother summit of Bennachie, 1698 feet 
high. It was long regarded as the highest, but Oxen Craig 
is 1737. It has been supposed by some that the name 
should be Mither's Pap, because, viewed from the north 
side of the Don above Inverurie, it is exceedingly like a 
woman's breast. Names of hills, however, are usually given 
by persons who see them from a distance. 

Moat, Moat Hill. Mound where barony courts were 
held. Mod, court of justice, meeting. 

Moathead (for Mod Chuid). Seat of a court of justice 
near a cattle-fold. Mod, court, meeting; chuid, gen. asp. of 
add, cattle-fold. 

Modley. Grassy place where a court of justice had been 
held. Mod, court of justice; ley, grassy place. 

Mohr Cairn. Great heap of stones. Mor, big; cam, 
cairn. For collection of antiquities found when the Mohr 
Cairn was removed, see "Transactions of Banffshire Field 
Club." 

Moine a' Chaochain Odhair. Moss of the yellow burn. 
Moine, moss; a', of the; chaochain, gen. asp. of caochan, 
streamlet; odhair, gen. of odhar, yellow. The colour refers 
to the vegetation — Sphagnum moss — near the stream. 

Moine a' Ghiubhais. Moor of the fir tree. Moine, moor; 
a', of the; ghiubhais, gen. asp. of giubhais, fir tree. 

Moine Allt Duisgan. Moss of the burn of misfortune. 
Moine, moss; allt, burn; dosgean, gen. of dosgainn, mis- 
fortune. 

Moine Bad a' Chabair. Moor of the clump of trees on 
a branch of the Girnock burn. Moine, moor; bad, clump of 
trees; a', of the; chabair, gen. asp. of cabar, branch of a 
burn. 

Moine Bheag. Small moor. Moine, moor, moss; bheag, 
fern, of beag, small. 

Moine. Bhealaich Bhuidhe. Moor of the yellow pass. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 241 

Moine, moor; bhealaich, gen. asp. of bealach, pass, road, 
hill road; bhuidhe, gen. of buidlie, yellow. 

Moine Bhealaidh. Moor of broom. Moine, moor; 
bhealaidh, gen. asp. of bealaidh, broom. The elevation, 
2800 feet, is too great for broom, and bhealaidh must be a 
mistake for bhealaich, gen. of bealach, hill road, pass over 
hills. 

Moine Bhuidhe. Yellow moor. Moine, moor; bhuidhe, 
buidhe asp., yellow. 

Moine Chailleach (for Moine Chaillich). Moor of the 
old woman. Perhaps the name should be Moine Choilich, 
moor of the hill burn. Moine, moor; choilich, gen. asp. of 
coileach, mountain burn. 

Moine Cruinn. Bound moor. Moine, moor; cruinn, 
round. 

Moine na Cloiche. Moor of the stone. Moine, moor; 
na, of the; cloiche, gen. of clach, stone. 

Moineiseach Burn. Moor burn with many cascades. 
Moine, moor; easach, abounding in rapids or cascades. 

Molly Watt's Hill (for Coille Maol a' Bhat). Bare 
round hill with a pole on the summit. Coille, hill; maol, 
bare round-topped hill; a', of the; bhat, gen. asp. of bat, pole. 
Bh is equivalent to v, u, or w. After Coille was translated, 
its equivalent, hill, was put last. 

Mona Gowan. Moor of the fold. Monadli, moor; gabh- 
ainn, gen. of gabhann, fold. 

Monabattock. Hill growing birches. Monadh, hill; 
beathach, growing birches. 

Monachur (for Moine na Churr). Moor of the reservoir. 
Moine, moor; na, of the; churr, gen. asp. of curr, pit, hole 
full of water, fountain. 

Monadh an t-Sluichd Leith. Moor of the grey gorge. 
Monadh, moor, hill; an t-, of the; sluichd, gen. of slochd, 
gorge; leith, gen. of Hath, grey. 

Monadh Mor. Big mountain. Monadh, mountain; 
mor, big. 

Monadh Slochd Chalmbeil (for Monadh Slochd Cam 
Bheoil). Hill of the gorge with a crooked mouth. Monadh, 
hill; slochd, gorge; cam, crooked; bheoil, gen. asp. of beul, 
mouth . 

Monael. Moor of the hill. Monadh, moor, mountain; 
ail, gen. of at, rock, hill. Dh had become silent, and had 
been lost. 

Monaltrie (for Moine Allt Kuigh). Moor of the hillside 
burn. Moine, moor; allt, burn; ruigh, gen. of ruigh, hill 
slope. 

Monandavan Burn. Burn of the moor of the two lochs. 

Q 



242 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Moine, moss, moor; an, of the; da, two; abhann, gen. of 
abhainn, water, loch. Da takes a singular noun. 

Monecht. Middle Echt. Meadhonach, middle. There 
had been at one time three Echts — Upper, Middle, and 
Lower. Houctireyht, Upper Echt, is mentioned in " Collec- 
tions on the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff." See Echt. 

Monelly. Windy moor. Moine, moor; aile, wind. 

Monelpie Moss. Moss of the little hill. Moine, moss; 
alpain, gen. of alpan, dim. of alp, little hill. 

Monyroads (for Moine Euighein). Moor of the gentle 
slope. Moine, moor; ruighein, gen. of ruighean, gentle 
slope. Ein had been translated into s instead of ie. 

Mony wells (for Moine Bhailein). Moor of the small 
farm-town. Moine, moor; bhailein, gen. asp. of bailean, dim. 
of baile, town. Bhailein had been regarded as plural. Bh 
is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Moniewhitt. Moor of the fold. Moine, moor; cuit, fold. 

Monk's Hill, Monkshill. Shielings for the cows of 
convents. The former place had belonged to a convent in 
Udny at Cloisterseat, and the latter to the Priory of Fyvie. 
Monk represents monachos (Greek), dweller apart from 
society. 

Monlettie Burn (for Allt Leathad Mona). Burn of the 
side of the moor. Allt, burn; leathad, side; mona, gen. of 
moine, moor, moss. The order of the parts had been 
changed after allt was translated. 

Monquhitter (for Moine Chuit Airidhe). Moor of the 
fold of the shieling. Moine, moor; chuit, cuit asp., fold; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Monrae. Level mountain moor. Moine, moor; reidh, 
level. 

Montammo. Bushy moor. Moine, moor; tomach, 
bushy, tufted. 

Montbletton (for Monadh Bleoghainn). Moor of milk- 
ing. Monadh, hill, moor; bleoghainn, gen. of bleoghann, 
milking. 

Monteach. Mossy place. Mointeach, mossy. 

Montfothie. Hill abounding in turf. Monadh (th 
silent), hill; foideach, abounding in peats or turf. 

Montgarrie. Bough moor. Monadh, moor; garbh, 
rough. 

Montsolie (for Monadh Soghail). Wet moor. Monadh, 
moor; soghail, wet. The asp. consonants with their vowels 
have been lost. 

Monthooly, Mounthooly, Monthillie. Both parts of 
these names mean hill. Monadh, hill; choille, coille asp., 
hill. Several places in the county of Aberdeen have this 
name. In the city it is given to the part of the road to Old 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 243 

Aberdeen between Gallowgate and Canal Street, but it ought 
to be given to the west side of King's Crescent. 

Monwig Loch (for Loch Uig Mona). Loch of the corner 
of a moor. Loch, pool, loch; uig, corner; mona, gen. of 
moine, moor, moss. 

Mony Burn. Moor burn. Moine, moss, moor. 

Mony Gutters. Many passages for water between rocks. 
Muinn, many; guitearan, plural of guitear, water channel, 
gutter. 

Monykebbuck. Moor in which there is a gully eroded by 
running water. Moine, moor; cabaichte, eroded. 

Monymusk (for Monadh am Uisg). Hill near the river. 
Monadh (dh silent), hill; am (for an), of the; uisg, water. M 
is sometimes used instead of n, as in comptroller for con- 
troller, opem for open. 

Monyruy. Moor on the slope of a hill. Moine, moor; 
ruigh, slope. 

Moonhaugh. Haugh in a moor. Moine, moor. 

Moonlight (for Moine Fhliuchaidh). Moor of wetness, 
wet moor. Moine, moor; fhliuchaidh, gen. asp. of fliuchadh, 
wetness. This is an Aberdeenshire personal name which 
had at first been given to a person dwelling in a wet moor. 
In Scotch it becomes meenlicht. 

Mooralehouse. Alehouse on a moor. 

Moray Firth. Arm of the sea on the north of Aberdeen. 
Banff, and Moray. 

Morelass (for Mor Lios). Big enclosure. Mor, big; 
lios, circle of stones round a grave, moat, fold. 

Moreseat. Big place. Mor, big; suidhe, place, seat. 

Morgan's Hill. Hill of the big cattle-fold. Mor, big; 
gabhann (pronounced gaun), cattle-fold. 

Morkeu. Big fold. Mor, big; cuith, fold. Th with its 
vowel had become silent and had been lost. Kew near 
London is pronounced in the same way and has the same 
meaning as keu. 

Morlich. Big stone. Mor, big; leac, gravestone. There 
is a big stone pillar in a field near Braemorlich in Towie. 

Mormond. Big hill. Mor, big; monadh, hill. 

Mormondfoot. Place at the bottom of Mormond Hill. 

Mormondprop. Prop on a big moor. Mor, big; monadh, 
moor. 

Morpiehowe. Howe of the big cattle-fold. Mor, big; 
chuidh, cuidh asp., cattle-fold. Ch had become ph, and h 
had afterwards been lost. 

Morris Well (for Tobar a' Mor Chois). Well of the big 
fold. Tobar, well; mor, big; chois, gen. asp. of cos, pit, 
howe, fold. Ch had become silent and had been lost. 

Morrone, Morven. Big hill. Mor, big; bheinn, beinn 



244 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

asp., hill. In Morven bh had become v; in Morrone it had 
been dropped. 

Mortlach, Mortlich. Big hill. Mor, big; tulach, hill. 

Moss Fetach. Rough wild moss. Fiata, wild, surly. 

Moss Gray (perhaps for Moine Craige). Moor of the 
hill. Moine, moor, moss; craige, gen. of creag, hill. Gh, 
also made dh, is silent. Gray usually represents hill. 

Moss Grieve. This was the name of the officer of an 
estate who allotted to the tenants the places where they were 
to cut peats. The Moss Grieve here is a jocular name for a 
mass of rock on Bennachie. 

Moss Maud. Moss at Castle Maud; which see. 

Moss of Air. Moss of the shieling. Airidh, shieling. 

Moss of Longmuir. The three parts in this name all 
mean moss or moor. Lon, moss, moor. 

Moss of Minfur. Moss of the grassy moor. Moine, 
moss, moor; feoir, gen. of feur, grass. 

Mossat Burn. Dirty burn. Musach, dirty. 

Mossbrodie. Narrow strip of moss. Brodan, dim. of 
brod, goad, something with a sharp point. An became ie. 

Mosscorral. Quarry in a moss or moor. Goireall, quarry. 

Mossgerrie (for Moine Garbh). Rough moss. Moine, 
moor, moss; garbh, rough. 

Mosshead, Moss Head, (for Moine Chuid). Moss of the 
fold. Moine, moss, moor; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. C 
in ch is silent and had been lost. 

Mossnappy. Moss of the little knoll. Cnapain, gen. of 
cnapan, dim. of cnap, knoll. 

Mote Hill (for Moat Hill). Hill surrounded by a wall of 
earth and a ditch or other fence. This fanciful name seems 
intended to mean a seat of judgment. The Tillydron knoll 
is called Mote Hill on the Ordnance Survey maps, but 
nowhere else. 

Mottoch Well. Well with medicinal virtues. Maoth- 
ach, softening, emollient. 

Moulinearn (for Muileann Airnean). Mill at sloes. 
Muileann, mill; airnean, gen. plural of aime, sloe. 

Mounie Castle. Castle in a moor or mossy place. 
Moine, moor, moss. 

Mounsie Weat (for Moinean Bheath). Little moor 
growing birches. Moinean, dim. of moine, moor; bheath, 
gen. plural asp. of beath, birch-tree. Ean had been made 
both s and ie, bh had become w, and final h in bheath had 
been lost. 

Mount Battock (for Monadh Beathach). Mountain of 
birches. Monadh, mountain; beathach, abounding in 
birches. 

Mount Jane (for Monadh Sithean). Hill of the fairies. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 245 

Monadli, hill, mount; sithean, gen. plural of sithean, fairy. 
S is sounded as sh and th is silent. This produced a word 
sounding like Jane. 

Mount Keen. Distant hill. Monadh, mountain; cian, 
far distant. Mount Keen is seen from a great distance, and 
its blue colour conveys the idea of distance very strongly. 

Mount Meddin. Middle mountain. Meadhoin, gen. of 
meadhon, middle. 

Mount Haddoch. Hill of the fold. Monadh, hill, moor; 
chodach, gen. asp', of cuid, fold. From the height of the 
Mount (1711 feet) the name can have no connection with 
hall, half, or dauch, words which are sometimes supposed 
to enter into the composition of Haddo and Haddoch. The 
gen. of cuid is codach. 

Mountains Burn (for Branan, dim. of bran). Mountain 
burn. Branan, little hill burn. An having been mistakenly 
regarded as a plural termination it had been translated by 
Mountains burn, intended to mean Mountain burns. 

Mountfur Moss. Moss of the grassy moor. Monadh, 
moor; feoir, gen. of feur, grass. 

Mountheathie. Hill of the cattle-fold. Monadh, hill, 
moor; chuithain, gen. asp. of cuithan, small fold. In chuith- 
ain c had been lost after aspiration, and ain had become ie. 

Mountjohn (for Monadh Dun). Hill. Monadh, hill, 
dun, hill. 

Mountjoy (for Monadh Dubh). Black moor. Monadh, 
moor; dubh, black. 

Mounth Koad. Boad crossing the Grampians at Mount 
Keen. Monadh, mountain, moor. Monadh is variously 
made Monach, Mount, Munth, Muneh. D and t are fre- 
quently interchanged when aspirated. T may be the root 
letter, as in Latin mons, montis, mountain. The Munth 
is the local name for the Grampians. 

Mountsollie. Same as Montsolie. 

Mowatseat. The name seems to mean residence of a 
family named Mowat. But it may come from muthadh, 
killing, and suidhe, place. Th might have become w/i, 
sounding u, v, or w, and dh might have lost the aspirate. If 
this were correct, the name would mean that the place had 
been the scene of slaughter. 

Muat's Stone. Stone set up to mark the grave of a 
man killed in a family feud. The stone is now underground 
where it formerly stood. See Mowatseat. 

Muchalls (for Mugach Allan). Dark burn. Mugach, 
dark; allan, small burn. G in mugach had been asp. and 
had then become silent. An of allan, having been 
erroneously regarded as the plural termination, had been 
translated into s. 



246 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Muck, Den of (for Dein Muc). Den of swine. Dein r 
den; muc, gen. plural of muc, pig. Pigs had been sent to 
feed in the den in summer. 

Muckle Ord. Big hill. Ord, hill. 

Mudlee Bracks (for Meadhonach Braighe). Middle hilL 
Meadhonach, middle; braighe, hill. Mudlee is a mis- 
spelling for my die e, an old form of middle. In sounding 
braighe forcibly the sound of s is heard at the end. 

Muggart Haugh. Haugh where mugwort (Artemisia 
vulgaris) grew. It was used to ward off midges. Or, Haugh 
where swine fed. Mug art (Irish), a young swine. 

Mugiemoss (for Muig am Uisge). Dark water. Muig, 
darkness; am (for an), of the; uisge, water. See Millmoss, 
Monymusk. 

Muick. This name is given to a glen, a river, a water- 
fall, and a loch. The fall being the most conspicuous 
feature a suitable meaning for it must be found. In Irish 
muick means mist. This is suitable for the fall, and the 
other features had taken their name from it. 

Muickan, Croft of. Place where Meum athamanticum , 
Highland micken, grows. Meacan, root. The root of this 
plant is fleshy and tapering, like that of a parsnip. It is dug 
and chewed for its aromatic flavour. 

Muir (translation of moine). Uncultivated heathery 
ground. Muir is the Scotch form of moor. 

Muirden (for Moine Dein). Moor of the den. Moine, 
moor; dein, gen. of dein, den. 

Muiresk. Muir of the water. Muir, moor; uisg, water, 
burn. 

Muirfoundland (for Moine Fin Lamhain). Moor of the 
hill. Moine, moor; fin, hill; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, hill. 
The third part of the name had been added to explain the 
second after it had been corrupted. 

Muirhens' Well. Spring at which grouse drink. In 
drinking they stand on compact, green, succulent vegetation 
growing in the water. By placing snares on this the early 
inhabitants of the hill country had obtained some food. 

Muiries Hill. Hill on which there was the wall of a 
rampart. Murean, dim. of Diur, bulwark, rampart, hill. 
Ean had been made both s and ie . There had been a fold on 
the hill. 

Muirstone. Stone on a moor. 

Muiryheadless (for Lios Chuidh Moine). Circle of a 
fold on a moor. Lios, circle; chuid, cuid asp., fold; moine, 
gen. of moine, moor. in lios is silent, and so also is c in 
chuid. Moine, originally last, had been translated and 
transposed to the first place. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 247 

Mullach, Mulloch. The top of an eminence. Mul- 
lach, top, height. 

Mullachdhu, Mullochdubh. Black hill-head. Mul- 
lach, summit; dubh, black. 

Mulonachie (for Mulanaiche). Abundance of hillocks. 

Mummer's Beive. Memorial circle. Meomhaire, gen. 
of meomhair, memory; rath, circle. By change of th to bh 
rath had become rabh, pronounced rav, which had lapsed 
into reive. Sometimes it had become rieve or ree. 

Mummy's Well (for Tobar Maoimeach). Well throwing 
out bursts of water. Tobar, well ; maoimeach , erupting water. 

Mundurno, Mondurno. Stony moor. Moine, moor; 
durnach, stony. 

Mungo. Moor of the fold. Moine, moor; cuith, fold. 
Cuith became goiv in Glasgow and Lesmahagow and go in 
Gingomyres and Glasgoego. 

Mungo. As the name of a granite rock in the sea this 
name may represent mongach, red. 

Murcar, Mure Crofte (1408), Murcur (1550). Croft on 
a moor. 

Murcurry (for Muir-corran). Sea rocks. Muir, sea; 
corran, plural of coir, round high rock. An had been 
changed to y instead of s. 

Murdoch. Black hill. Mur, hill; dorch, dark, black. 

Murdoch's Hillock (for Mur Dorch). Black hill. Mur, 
hill, hillock; dorch, dark. 

Murean. Small hill. Dim. of mur, hill. 

Murley. Grassy hill. Mur, hill; ley, grassy place. 

Mourning Well, Murnan Well. Wells fed by springs 
whose water makes a low murmuring sound as it falls into 
the wells. Murnan (Anglo-Saxon), to grieve. 

Murriell. This name contains mur and al, both mean- 
ing hill. Mur would be appropriate for a hill with a fort or 
fold on its summit, and al for a hill with projecting rocks. 
The original form may have been Murean Ail. Murean, 
dim. of mur, hill; ail, gen. of al, rock. Ean would have 
become ie in Scotch, and ail has usually become el, as in 
Elrick. 

Murtle, Murthill, (for Mur Tulach). Both words mean 
hill. Mur, hill; tulach, hill. The second part had been 
added to explain the first after its meaning had been for- 
gotten. Mur would be appropriate for a hill with a fold or 
fort upon it, and tulach for a round-topped hill of small size. 

Muscle Bed. Bed where mussels are stored for con- 
venient use. Muscle is a mis-spelling for mussel. 

Mussel Craig, Mussel Skellyis. Bocks overgrown 
with young mussels. Creag, rock; sgeilgan, plural of sgeilg, 
rock. 



248 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Mutton Brae. Middle brae. Meadhonach, middle; 
brae, steep slope. Mutton Brae was a steep footpath rising 
from the Denburn valley to Schoolhill, on the south side of 
the viaduct. 

Mutton Dyke. Middle dyke between two fields. Mead- 
honach, middle; dyke, an earthen wall in Scotland, but a 
great ditch full of water in England. 

Myriedale (for Dail Bogain). Field containing a small 
bog. Dail, field; bogain, gen. of bogan, wet place. 

My Lord's Throat. A jocular term for a gorge near 
Castle Forbes, along which a road passes. Gorge in French 
means throat. 

Mytice. Bountiful place. Maitheas, goodness, bounty. 

Myngfield. From its situation this name must repre- 
sent Achadh Meadhoin, field in the middle. Achadh, field; 
meadhoin, gen. of meadhon, middle. 

Naked Hill. Hill from which news was signalled. 
Naigheaclid, news. A hill in Strichen is called Skirl 
Naked, from sgor, point; ail, gen. of al } rock; naigheachd, 
news. 

Nashick Howe. Howe abounding in snipe. Naosgach 
(pronounced nashgach), abounding in snipe. 

Need Haven. Cup-shaped haven. Nead, nest, cup-like 
hollow. 

Neil Burn (for Allt an Ail). Burn of the hill. Allt, burn ; 
an, of the; ail, gen. of al, hill. The burn comes from the 
steep hill above Kincardine Q'Neil, that is Kincardine on the 
hill burn. 

Nelson's Bucht, Nelson's Cairn. Bucht on the hill, 
Cairn on the hill. Buth, bucht; cam, cairn. Nelson's is for 
An Ail Sithean, of the hill. An, of the; ail, gen. of al, hill; 
sithean (th silent), hill. Sithean is a late addition made to 
explain Ail. An Ail Sithean had been pronounced an-ail- 
shan, corrupted afterwards to Nelson. 

Ness Bogie (for An Eas Bogain). The water of Bogie. 
An, the; eas, water; bogain, gen. of bogan, bog, burn issuing 
from a bog. 

Nether Deuchries (for Nether Dubh Ruighean). Lower 
town on a black sloping hillside. Dubh, black; ruighean, 
dim. of ruigh, slope of a hill. Final s had been added in the 
belief that an was a plural termination. 

Nether Maiden. Lower middle town. Meadhon, middle. 

Netherbrae. Lower hill. Braigh, hill. 

Netherhills. Lower farm-town on a hill. Choilleayi, 
coillean asp., small hill. In translating coillean an had been 
regarded as a plural instead of a dim. termination. 

Nethermuir. Lower muir. The upper muir is called 
Drymuir. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 9A9 

Nethertiiird. Before 1782 it was the custom to let large 
farms to several tenants jointly, who provided the oxen 
necessary for the common plough. After 1782 the large 
farms were broken up, and the parts were let separately. 
Nethertiiird had been the lowest of three parts of an ancient 
large farm. 

Nettie Burn. The second part is a translation of the 
first. Nethan, dim. of ncth, burn. The Gaelic dim. an 
becomes ie in Scotch. 

Nettle Craig. Cliff where nettles grow. Sheep eat 
nettles and transport the seeds to places where they spend 
the night. Old sheep fanks are full of nettles. 

Nettlie Wellhead. This seems to be a combination of 
two distinct names: — Leth Net, side of a burn, and Bhaile 
Chuid, town at a fold. Leth, side; net, burn; bhaile, baile 
asp., town; chuid, cuid asp., fold. Th in Leth is silent and 
had been lost; bh in Bhaile is equivalent to w; and c in 
Chuid is silent and had been lost. 

Neuk. Nook. Neuk is allied to English knee ; Latin 
genu, knee; Greek gonu, knee. 

New Byth. Village on the estate of Byth in King- 
Edward, built for the accommodation of flax-spinners and 
weavers. Beath, birch-tree. See Byth. 

New Craig. One of the parts of the sub-divided farm 
called Craig. Creag, hill. 

New Deer. Originally this was the name of a village at 
the church of Auchreddie, which was a parish erected out of 
a disjoined part of the parish of Deer. The name of the 
village afterwards became the name of the parish also. See 
Deer. 

New Found Aisle (for Naomh Ein Al). Sacred hill. 
Naomh, holy, consecrated, dedicated to a church or a saint; 
fin, hill; al, hill. Naomh is pronounced nuv in Gaelic, which 
in modern names has become ncic. Fin has become found 
here and fund in Ord Fundlie. Al has usually assumed the 
genitive form in names, but it is spelled el, as in Elrick. 
New Found Aisle hill had belonged to the church of Cairnie. 
New Hill. Sacred hill. Naomh, sacred. See Newe. 
New Leeds. A village in Strichen named after Leeds in 
Yorkshire, where spinning and weaving were carried on in 
the early part of the nineteenth century. 

New Machar, Newmachar. A parish formed out of a 
detached part of the original parish of St Machar. Machair, 
haugh. 

Newark. New important building. In Scotland castles 
were called warks. " This wark " occurs in an inscription 
in the wall of Craigston Castle. An unfinished castle in 
Pitsligo was called Newwork of Pittendrum. Perhaps large 



250 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

buildings had not been named till they were finished. An 
English historic castle, though now old and desolate, is still 
called Newark. 

Newburgh. Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan, founded 
a hospital at Newburgh in 1261, and in the foundation charter 
he calls Newburgh his town. Probably the town had been 
recently instituted. 

Newe. Sacred. Naomh (pronounced nuv), holy, be- 
longing to an ecclesiastic. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or w, 
and there are various ways of pronouncing Newe. The ordi- 
nary local pronunciation is indicated by the spelling nyeow, 
but this gives no help to the etymology, for few is by some 
persons pronounced fyeow, in the same way. 

Newe Arms Hotel. Hotel with a signboard showing the 
arms of Forbes of Newe. 

Newell, New Wall (1696), (perhaps for Naomh Al). 
Sacred hill. Naomh, sacred, dedicated to a church; al, hill. 
Naomh is pronounced nuv in Gaelic and new in some modern 
names. Ell in Newell represents ail, the gen. form of al, hill. 

Newe's Craig. Terrible rock. Neamhaise, terrible; 
creag, rock, hill. Mh is equivalent to w. 

Newhills (for Naomh Choillean). Sacred little hill. 
Naomh, sacred; choillean, coillean asp., low hill. Naomh is 
pronounced nuv in Gaelic and new in modern names. C 
in ch is silent and had been omitted. Final s represents ean 
in choillean, which had erroneously been regarded as a plural 
termination. There had been a place of worship at Newhills 
at an early date. 

Newlandhill (for Naomh Lamhan Hill). Hill belonging 
to the Abbey of Deer. Naomh, sacred, dedicated to a 
religious house or a church; lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. 

Newton Garry, Newtongarry. New town in a rough 
piece of ground. Garbh, rough. Bh is equivalent to u, v, 
or w. Here it has become y. 

Newtyle (for Naomh Tulach). Sacred knoll. Naomh, 
belonging to a church or an ecclesiastic; tulach, round knoll. 

Nibbetstone. Boundary stone. Nabuidheach, neigh- 
bouring. 

Nichol Hill (for Na Coill). The hill. Na, the; coill, 
hill. H in Nichol is an intrusion and it is not sounded. 

Nielsbrae (for An El Braighe). The hill of the hill. An, 
the; el, for al, hill; braighe, gen. of braigh, hill. Braighe had 
been added as an explanation to An El, which had become 
Neil. Neil had been regarded as a personal name in the gen. 
and 's had been added to it to convert it into the English 
possessive. 

Nine Maidens' Well. The well has no tradition to 
account for its name. Perhaps its original form had been 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 251 

Tobar Nigheachain, well of washing. Tobar, well; nigheach- 
ain, gen. of nigheachan, washing. This name would be 
applicable to a well whose water was free from lime. If ch 
in nigheachain became silent and were omitted it would re- 
semble in sound nigheann, gen. plural of nigheann, maiden, 
and both words would resemble the English word nine. 
Hence in post-Gaelic time the connection of the well with 
washing might have been forgotten and it might have been 
associated both with nine and maidens. 

Nittanshead (for Netan Chuid). Burn of the fold. 
Netan, small burn; chuid, cuid asp., fold. S had been added 
to netan in the belief that it was a plural termination. C of 
chuid had been lost after aspiration, and netans hind had 
become Nittanshead. Nittanshead is applied to a district, 
not to the source of a burn. 

Nobs, The. The Nobs are blunt round-pointed rocks on 
the edge of the sea. Cna-pan, plural of cnap, knob. An had 
been made s. 

Nochty. The burn of Glen Nochty. Nochda, bare. This 
applies to the glen. 

Norascairn (for Cam an Oir). Hill of the east. Cam, 
hill; an, of the; oir, east. When nora came to be regarded 
as a personal name it had been put first, with 's added to 
make it the English possessive. 

Norham. North town. Ham (Anglo-Saxon), village. 

Norry Hill, Norry Well. Noire, gen. of noir, east. 
The hill and the well lie to the east of the nearest farm- 
towns. 

North Allans. North burn. Allan, burn. Allan is not 
plural, but as an is the usual termination of nouns in the 
plural s had been erroneously affixed. 

North Law. North hill. Lamh, hill. 

North Linn. The northmost of two farms near a pool 
or waterfall on Culter Burn. Linne, pool on a river, water- 
fall. 

North Nib. North point of the Green Hill in Glen 
Nochty. Neb, point. 

North Sea. The sea between Scotland and Denmark. 
It is north in comparison with the Zuyder Zee, or South Sea, 
in the north of Holland. 

Noth. Watch hill. Noadh (Irish), watching, guarding. 

Obelise. Tall, thin, pointed pillar. Obelos (Greek), 
pointed spit. 

Ogston. Small farm-town. Og, young, little; ton, 
town. S had been inserted when the meaning of og had been 
lost and it had come to be regarded as a personal name. 



252 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Olaus's Well, St. Well at Cruden Bay dedicated to 
St Olaf or Olavus, the patron of Cruden. 

Oily Pig (for Pic Uilinn). Point at a turn. Pic, point; 
uilinn, gen. of uileann, corner. Inn being regarded as a dim. 
termination had been made y in Scotch, and uily had been 
regarded as an adjective and put first. 

Old Deer. Village at the church of Deer. 

Old Drove Eoad. Eoad by which cattle from Aberdeen- 
shire were driven across the Grampians to southern markets. 
After the introduction of railways to Deeside and Donside 
these roads ceased to be used and the traces of them are 
hardly discernible in some places. The Gaelic forms Ca, 
Cath, Catt, Catha, and Cadha all mean hill drove roads and 
are pronounced ca or catt. 

Old Grannie Burn. Burn of the old grain or groin. 

Oldhall Burn. Oldhall represents Allt a' Choill, burn 
of the hill. Allt, burn; a', of the; choill, gen. asp. of coill, 
hill. 

Old Hillock. High hillock. Alt (Irish), high place. It 
is impossible for one hillock to be older than another, but it 
may be higher. In Old Head of Kinsale old represents alt 
without doubt. 

Old Machar. A parish dedicated to St Machar, called 
Old to distinguish it from New Machar, which was formed 
from a portion of it. There is so little evidence of its con- 
nection with a saint of the same or a similar name that it 
should be observed that its church is very near a haugh, the 
Gaelic for which is machair. Two supposed dedications of 
other places in Aberdeenshire to St Machar certainly rest on 
no other ground than that their sites are in haughs and the 
Gaelic for haugh is machair. See Machar. 

Oldcraig. A large joint farm named Craig had been 
broken up after 1782, and the original site of the farm-town 
had been named Oldcraig. Creag, hill. 

Oldmaud (for Allt Moid). Burn of the seat of judgment. 
Allt, burn; moid, gen. of mod, court of justice. 

Oldmeldrum. Burn of the bare hill ridge. Allt, burn; 
mhaoil, gen. of maol, bald, bare; droma, gen. of druim, 
ridge, hill. The name was afterwards given to a village, now 
a town. 

Oldmill, Old Mill. This name is English and needs 
no explanation. 

Oldtown. Burn town. Allt, burn. Oldtown is on the 
Scatter burn. 

Oldwhat, Aul Fat, (for Old Chuit). Old fold. Chuit, 
cuit asp., fold. Ch had become ph, which is equivalent to 
wh or f. Ui has become a in some other derivations from cuid, 
as in Haddo, Hatton, Belfatton. It has been supposed that 



Celtic Place-Nam.es in Aberdeenshire. 253 

old represents allt, burn, but Oldwhat is a district and not a 
stream name. 

Oldyleiper. (In Gaelic Alltan Labhar). Noisy little 
burn. Alltan, small burn; labhar, noisy. The Burn of Birse 
is near, and it falls rapidly. An t-Alltan Labhar is the name 
of a burn in Applecross. 

Oldyne (for Allt Duin). Burn of the hill. Allt, burn; 
duin, gen. of dun, hill. 

Orchardton (for Baile Urc Ard). Town at a fold on a 
height. Baile, town (translated and transposed); urc, sty, 
fold for pigs ; ard, height. Urcard may be the original form 
of the name Urquhart, which till recently was commonly 
made Orquhart in Aberdeenshire. In names beginning with 
har h is a euphonic prefix, and Urc Ard would certainly have 
become Urc-hard or Urc-hart in passing into Scotch. 

Ord, The Ord, Ord Hill, Ordhill. In these names ord 
means hill. Its genitive is uird, which becomes weird in 
Hard weird. 

Ord Burn. Burn of the hill. Ord, hill. 

Ord More. Big hill. Ord, hill; mor, big. 

Ord Fundlie (for Ord Fin Lamh). These three words 
mean hill. Ord, hill; fin, hill; lamh, hill. 

Ord Mor, Ordmore. Big hill. Ord, hill; mor, big. 

Ordachoinachan (for Ord a' Choinne-achan). Hill of the 
place of meeting. Ord, hill; a', of the; choinne, gen. asp. of 
coinne, meeting; achan, terminal meaning place of. 

Ordachoy. Hill of the cup-shaped hollow. Ord, hill; a , 
of the; cuaiche, gen. of cuach, cup. 

Ordan, Ordens. Small hill. Ordan, dim. of ord, hill. 
Ordens is ordan with a changed to e and s added because an 
was mistakenly assumed to be the plural termination. 

Ordes Cairn (for Carn Ordain). Cairn on a little hill. 
Cam, cairn; ordain, gen. of ordan, small hill. Ain, the gen. 
termination, had been made es to change it into the English 
possessive. 

Ordgarff. Rough hill. Ord, conical hill; garbh, rough. 

Ordiallon. Little round hill at a small stream. Ordan, 
small hill; allain, gen. of allan, small burn. 

Ordhead (for Ord Chuid). Hill of the cattle-fold. Ord, 
hill; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. After aspiration c had 
become silent and had been lost. 

Ordicreach. Grey hill. Ordan, dim. of ord, hill; creach, 
grey. 

Ordie, The. The little hill. Ordan, dim. of ord, hill. 

Ordie Caber (for Cabar Ordain). Summit of the hill. 
Cabar, summit: ordain, gen. of ordan, dim. of ord, hill. Ain 
became ie. 

Ordiefauld, Ordyfauld. Fauld on a little hill. Ordan, 



:254 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

dim. of ord, hill; fauld, a small enclosed field where sheep 
or calves pastured. 

Ordiefore. Knoll productive of oats. Ordan, little hill; 
core, gen. plural of core, oats. 

Ordiesnaught. Snowy little hill. Ordan, little hill; 
sneachdach, snowy. 

Ordieteach. Hill house. Ordan, small hill; teach, 
house. 

Ordinessle, Ordynessle. Little hill of the glen. Ordan, 
dim. of ord, hill; na, of the; iseil, gen. of iseal, glen, howe. 

Ordiquhill. Both parts of this name mean hill. Ordan, 
small hill, an becoming ie ; choill, coill asp., hill. 

Ordley. Grassy hill. Ord, hill; ley, grassy place. 

Ords. Small hill. Ordan, dim. of ord, hill. An had been 
made s instead of ie. 

Orrock (for Oir Ruigh). Eastern slope. Oir, east; ruigh, 
slope of a hill. Orrock slopes to the east. In 1696 Orrock 
was called Colpnaw. See Colpnaw. 

Orton. This name might have been originally Ordan. 
Small hill. 

Oschie Hill. Prominent hill. Oscach, promnient. 

Otter Bridge. Bridge of the broad water. Othan, dim. 
of oth, broad water. Othan occurs as othie in Knockothie, 
an Ellon name. 

Otter Hole. Otter's den in the banks of the Deveron. 

Otter Stone. Formerly otters were numerous and fre- 
quented burns as well as rivers. They usually kept close to 
the same haunts, and if one had found a stone in a river a 
comfortable and convenient place of rest it would have been 
often seen there. 

Our. Stream. Ouran. Streamlet. Our and its dim. 
ouran are not in dictionaries, but they appear in place-names. 
Our is seen in Ure, Urr, Meikleour, and Altanour; and ouran 
in Tornauran and with an changed to ie or y in Ury, Inver- 
urie, Inverourie, and Altdourie. The Shevock at Insch was 
formerly called the Ourie. See " Chartulary of the Abbey of 
Lindores," Scot. Hist. Soc. 

Outer Janets. Outer knoll-like rocks. Janets repre- 
sents sithean, plural of sith, knoll, hillock. Si is pronounced 
she, and th is silent. She-ean has some resemblance to 
Seonaid, Janet, in which se is pronounced she. Final s had 
been added because sithean ends in an, which is a plural 
termination. The Outer Janets are a group of rocky islets 
near the coast of Cruden. 

Outhill. Cattle-fold. Chuithail, cuithail asp., cattle- 
fold. After aspiration c had become silent and had been 
omitted. 

Outseats (for Suidhe Chuitain). Site of a small fold. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 255 

Suidhe, seat, site; chuitain, gen. asp. of cuitan, small fold. 
C had become silent and had been lost. Ain had been re- 
garded as a plural termination and had been changed to s, 
which had been added to seat. 

Over Daugh. Upper farm. Over, upper; dabhoch, 
farm. 

Overbrae. Upper hill. Braigh, hill. 

Overhills, Overhall, (for Uachdar Choillean). Upper 
little hill. Uachdar, upper; choillean, coillean asp., small 
hill. An having been mistaken for the plural termination 
had been changed to s, which is preserved in Overhills. 

Overside (for Uachdar Suidhe). High place. Uachdar, 
upper, high (translated); suidhe, site, place. Suidhe be- 
came side by dropping u and h. 

Overvillans (for Uachdar Uileann). Upper corner. 
Uachdar, upper; uileann, corner. Ann had been regarded as 
a plural termination, and s had been added to uileann. 

Oxen Craig. Rocky summit of one of the Bennachie 
hills, round which oxen pasturing on the hill gathered at 
night. 

Oxen Well. From the situation of this well near the 
summit of the Tap o' Noth, and from its proximity to another 
well called Lambs Well, it is probable that oxen represents 
aosda, ancient. 

Oxenloan. Old lane. Aosda, ancient; lone (Anglo- 
Saxon), lane, grassy road. 

Oxter Burn. Alehouse burn. Osda, alehouse, inn. 
Same as Huxter Burn. 

Oxter Stone. Stone at an inn to help riders to mount 
their horses. Osda, inn. A tall monolith called Oxter Stone 
would represent aosda, ancient, and might mark the site of 
a grave. 

Oyne. River. Abhainn, river. Old forms are Ouyn and 
Uen. Local pronunciations are ain, een, tvan. 

Packet Burn. This name may mean burn where pack- 
ing was done before the autumn migration from a shieling. 
Pacaidh, gen. of pacadh, packing. 

Padaff Pot (for Poit Dhubh). Black pot on the Deveron. 
Poit, pot, pool; dhubh, fem. of dubh, black. 

Paddock Ha'. Frog hall. 

Paddy's Stone (for Clach Paite). Stone of the hump. 
Clach, stone; paite, gen. of pait, hump. To obtain the 
English possessive 's had been added to paite. 

Panannich (for Beinn an Acha). Hill beside the river. 
Beinn, hill; an, of the; acha, water. Beinn is pronounced 
pan in the south of Scotland and occasionally also in the 
north . 



256 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Pap, Little. Hill resembling the breast of a young 
woman. 

Paradise. Pleasure park. Paradeisos (Greek), park with 
trees. The word is apparently of Sanscrit origin. 

Parcook, Pareot, Pariock, Pearcock, Percock. As 
some of these places are in howes the original form of the 
name was probably Pairc Iochcl, enclosed place in a howe. 
Pairc, park, enclosed area; ioclid, howe. In names ioclid 
is usually made eoch. 

Pardes of Glack. Perhaps Paradise of Glack. Glack 
means a howe. Glac, dell, den. 

Park. An estate so named because it had at one time 
been enclosed for preserving deer for the sport of kings or 
nobles. Pairc, enclosure. There were also parks in connec- 
tion with abbeys for keeping cows for the use of the inmates. 

Park Villa. A modern name. Country-house in an 
enclosed field. Pairc, park; villa (Latin), country-house. 

Parkdargue. Eed park. Pairc, park; dearg, red. 

Parkhead. If this name is wholly English it means 
house at the top of an enclosed place. If it is of Gaelic 
origin it represents Pairc Chuid. Park at a fold. Pairc, 
park; chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. C had become silent 
and had been lost. 

Parkhill. An enclosed hill. 

Parkhouse. House in a park belonging to the abbey of 
Deer, where cows were kept and butter and cheese were 
made. Pairc, park. 

Parks. Enclosed fields. Pairc, park. Before 1745 
there were so few enclosed fields that if a place had enclosed 
ground it was called Park. Formerly fallow deer were fre- 
quently kept in parks at mansions. 

Parkstile. Gate of an enclosed place. Pairc, park, 
enclosed wood or grassy place with trees. 

Parliament Knowe. There is nothing known to account 
for conferring this name on a hilltop near Balmoral Castle. 
It might be a corruption of Pairc a' Mhonaidh. Enclosed 
space on a hill. Pairc, enclosed space; a', of the; mhonaidh, 
gen. of monadh, hill. 

Parsonspool. Pool in which a minister was drowned. 

Paties Mill (for Muileann Petain). Mill on a small 
farm. Muileann, mill; -petain, gen. of vetan, small place. 

Pavillions. Mis-spelling for Pavilions. Papilio, but- 
terfly. A pavilion is a tent or a temporary residence on a 
hill or field, having the appearance from a distance of a 
butterfly with its wings spread out. The house called 
Pavillions has a peculiar roof. 

Peat Lochies. Small lochs in holes from which, peats, 
had been taken. Lochan, small loch. 



Celtic Place-N ames in Aberdeenshire. 257 

Peatfold. Enclosure within which peats could be 
stacked and protected from cattle, which would rub their 
necks upon the stacks. In the Highlands it was usual to 
keep peats a year before using them. 

• Peddie's Hill (for Tom Paite). Hill of the hump. Tom, 
hill; paite, gen. of pait, hump. Paite had been thought to 
be a personal name, and 's had been added to convert it into 
the English possessive. 

Peel. A peel seems to have been an enclosure protected 
by stakes on which were placed mats or skins. Peall, skin, 
hide, mat. An Act of the Scots Parliament, 1535, ordered 
Peels to be made in the Border counties for the safe keeping 
of herds and flocks from English raiders. These peels had 
been places enclosed with stone walls. 

Peel Bog. Bog in which there had been a cattle-fold 
protected by stakes. See Peel. 

Peel of Fichlie. This is a hard knoll left in a little valley 
eroded by a glacier. The knoll had been converted into a 
cattle-fold called a peel by a fence of stakes on which skins 
or mats had been placed. See Peel. 

Peeledegg. Fold made by stakes let into the ground, 
to which were attached skins as a protection against wind, 
rain, and snow. Peallaideach, covered with skins. See 
Peel. 

Peelharry (for Peall h-Airidhe). Peel on a shieling, 
protected by stakes and skins. Peall, skin; h (euphonic); 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. See Peel. 

Peire Burn. Small burn. Peire is a Shetland word 
meaning small. This name is given to the Cruden burn in 
an old charter. 

Peirk, The. The park. Pairc, park, enclosed space. 

Pen, The. The head. Geann, head. Aspirated c may 
become aspirated p, and then by loss of the aspirate c may 
become p. Welsh pen is equivalent to Gaelic ceann. 

Pennan (for Ceannan). Small head. Ceannan, dim. of 
ceann, head. See Pen. Pennan is small compared with 
the head to the west of it, called Gamrie Mor. 

Penninbrae Well. Well on the brae of a little hill. 
Pennan, for beinnan, dim. of beinn, hill. 

Pennyburn (for Allt Finain). Burn of the hill. Allt, 
burn (translated and transposed); finain, gen. of finan, dim., 
of fin, hill. F is equivalent to ph, and ain in Gaelic is equiva- 
lent to ie or y in Scotch, and thus finain became phiny. By 
loss of the aspirate this became piny, which had lapsed into 
penny. 

Pennystone Green. Level grassy place, where a game 
like quoits could be played with flat round stones like 
pennies. 



258 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Percie, Parci (1174). Row. Perhaps row of cottages. 
Peirse, row. 

Percyhorner (for Peirse a' Charnain). Row of houses 
at a hillock of shingle. Peirse, row; a', of the (suppressed); 
charnain, gen. asp. of carnan, hillock. There is a shingle 
hillock at Percyhorner. 

Percylieu. Eow of houses on a hill. Peirse, row; laimh, 
gen. of lamh, hill. Mh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Perdoulie (for Port Doille). Harbour of darkness, or 
dark harbour. Port, harbour; doille, gen. of doille, darkness. 
Fishermen change port into per at the beginning of names. 
See Perthudden. 

Perkhill. Enclosed hill. Pairc, enclosure, park. 

Persley. Eow of houses on a grassy place. Peirse, 
row; ley, grassy place. 

Perthudden (for Port Chuidain). Haven of the small 
fold. Port, harbour; chuidain, gen. asp. of cuidan, small 
fold. It was easy to convert a narrow opening of the sea 
among rocks into a fold. By the influence of t in port ch 
became th. Fishermen make port at the beginning of a name 
per before a consonant, as in Portlethen, Portknockie. See 
Perdoulie. 

Perwinnes (for Pairc Bheannain). Enclosed protected 
place at a small hill. Pairc, enclosed place; bheannain, gen. 
asp. of beannan, dim. of beinn, hill. Bh is equivalent to u, 
v, or w. Ain though a dim. termination had been regarded 
as a plural and made into s instead of ie. Perwinnes Moor 
belonged to the Bishop of Aberdeen and now belongs to the 
Crown. There is a small hill near the middle of the moor. 

Pet, Pett, Pit, Pitt. Place. Petan, Pettan, Pitan, 
Pittan. Small place. In Scotch an becomes ie or y. Some- 
times by mistaking an for a plural termination s is added to 
ie, producing Peties, Petties, Pities, Pitties. 

Peter Hill, Peter's Hill, (for Coill Paite). Hill of the 
hump. Coill, hill; paite, gen. of pait, hump. In Scotland 
Patrick and Peter are often regarded as the same name, and 
paite having been corrupted into Pattie, the dim. of Patrick, 
it afterwards became Peter, to which in one instance 's was 
added to make it possessive in English. 

Peterculter. Church in the land of Culter, dedicated to 
St Peter. See Culter. 

Peterden. The origin of this name is not evident. If 
there is a hard knoll left in the den after it had been eroded 
by ice the name would mean den of the hump. Dein, den; 
paite, gen. of pait, hump. 

Peterhead. Peterhead means cape near a church dedi- 
cated to St Peter. From the cape the name had been trans- 
ferred to a fishing village near it, and from the village to the 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 259 

parish in which it stood. The village afterwards became a 
town, which is understood to be meant when Peterhead is 
mentioned. 

Petersfield. Perhaps this place had taken its name 
from high ground to the west. If so the name might have 
been Achadh Paite. Field of the hump. Achadh, field 
(suppressed); paite, gen. of pait, hump. See Peter Hill. 

Peterugie. St Peter's Church near the Ugie. This was 
the name of a church, now a ruin, near Peterhead Bay, and 
from the church the name was given to the parish also. 
Peterugie is mentioned in 1537, in " Antiquities of the Shires 
of Aberdeen and Banff," IV. 17. The modern name of the 
parish is Peterhead. 

Peth of Minnonie. Steep road at the Braes of Minnonie, 
descending from the high ground to the river Ythan. Paith 
is the Scottish form of path. 

Petmathen. Middle place. Pet, place; meadhoin, gen. 
of meadhon, middle. Aspirated t had taken the place of 
aspirated d. 

Petrie's Loup. Peter's cape. This cape is said to have 
been called in old Latin charters Petri Promontorium, Peter's 
head. Petrie's may represent petri with 's added to make it 
an English possessive. Loup is the Gaelic word luib, bend, 
turning, and hence cape. Near Petrie's Loup is Little 
Petrie, a less prominent cape. 

Pettens, Petties. Both these names represent pettan, 
small place, and normally both should have become Pettie 
or Petty. In Pettens there are two mistakes. An had been 
regarded as plural and therefore s should have been substi- 
tuted for an, but it had been added to it. In Petties an had 
normally become ie, but it had afterwards been regarded as 
a plural termination and s had been added to ie. 

Petty. Small place. Pettan, dim. of pett, place. An, 
the dim. termination, had, as usual, been translated into y, 
the Scotch dim. termination. 

Pettymarcus (for Pettan Mor Chois). Small place at 
a big fold. Pettan, small place; mor, big; chois, gen. of cos, 
hollow, ravine, fold. 

Pettymuck (for Pettan Muc). Small place for pigs. 
Pettan, small place; muc, gen. plural of muc, pig. 

Phemic Pool (for Poll Feith Muige). Pool of the dark 
burn. Poll, pool (translated and transposed); feith, moss 
burn; muige, gen. of muig, darkness. 

Philorth. Market at a stream. Feill, market; an, of 
the (suppressed); otha, gen. of oth, stream. 

Phingask. Small fold. Fangan, dim. of fang, fank, fold. 
F is equivalent to ph. An became both ie and s, and the 
name is pronounced feengies. 



260 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Picardy Stone. Stone on the point of a hill. Pic, point; 
ard, height, hill. The final y is produced by endeavouring to 
pronounce d forcibly. 

Pickerstown. Town occupied by a man bound to go to 
war armed with a pike. Picear, pikeman. 

Picklehead. Fold on a hill with a point. Originally 
Cuid Al Pice, subsequently Pic Al Chuid, Pic Al Huid, and 
Picklehead. Cuid, fold; al, rocky hill ; pice, gen. of pic, point. 

Pictillum, Picktillum, Piketillum. Point of a hill. 
Pic, point; tuilm, gen. of tolm, hill, round knoll. 

Picts House. Underground house. There is no evidence 
that there were Picts in Aberdeenshire. The underground 
houses called by this name were dwelling-houses or dairies 
in use when cows were on hill pasture, far from the farm to 
which they belonged. 

Piggerie Bog (for Bog Bige Airidhe). Bog of the small 
shieling. Bog, marsh; bige, gen. fern, of beag, small; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Pike. Point. Pic, point. 

Piltochie. Marshy places. Polldachean, plural of poll- 
dach, marshy place. Ean became ie. 

Pinkie, Pinking, Pinkins. All these names mean fold. 
Originally they had been Chuitail, fold, which had been cor- 
rupted into Whitehill, and this had been turned into Gaelic by 
fincan, composed of fin, hill, and can, white. F is equivalent 
to ph, and by loss of the aspirate / becomes p. Thus fincan 
became pinkan, k being substituted for c. An is sometimes 
a dim. termination, and it became ie in the first name. In 
the second it was corrupted into ing, and in the third into in, 
to which was subsequently added s because an is sometimes 
a plural termination. By these changes were produced 
Pinkie, Pinking, and Pinkins, all having the same meaning 
and form originally, though the first is now a diminutive and 
the third plural. 

Piper's Cairn. Cairn supposed to mark the grave of a 
piper killed in an unrecorded conflict in 1411. 

Piper well. Well at which grew a plant whose leaves 
have the flavour of pepper. Peabar, pepper. 

Pirrke. Enclosed place. Pairceach, enclosed. 
Pit, The. The hole in which women sentenced to death 
were drowned. 

Pit Dwellings. Many ancient British houses were con- 
structed by digging a circular hole in the ground and setting 
up round it stems of trees converging at the top. On the 
outside mossy sods were built up around the tree stems. 

Pitandlich. Place in a glen. Pit, place; chunglaich, 
gen. asp. of cunglach, glen. Locally Pitandlich is sounded 
as pitch an dlich. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 261 

Pitbee. Place of birches. Pit, place; beith, gen. plural 
of beith, birch-tree. 

Pitbirn. Place of the gap. Pit, place; bearna, gap. The 
name is applicable to a place at which there is conspicuous 
depression of the sky-line. 

Pitblae. Place of warmth. Pit, place; blaithe, warmth. 

Pitblain (for Pit Bleoghainn). Milking place. Pit, 
place; bleoghainn (gh silent), gen. of bleoghann, milking. 

Pitcaple. Place where horses were pastured. Pit, place; 
capull, gen. plural of capull, horse. 

Pitcow. Place of a cattle-fold. Pit, place; cuith, gen. 
of cuith, cattle-fold. See Cuid. 

Pitcowdens (for Pit Cuidain). Place of the small fold. 
Pit, place; cuidain, gen. of cuidan, small fold. Cuidan had 
become first coicdan, then cowden, and s had been added in 
the belief that cuidan was plural. 

Pitcullen. Place where holly grows. Pit, place; cuil- 
linn, gen. of cuilleann, holly. Sheep eat holly leaves and 
fatten on them, therefore it might have been planted for their 
food. Cullen might represent coillean, little hill. 

Pitdoulsie. Place on a black hill. Pit, place; doill, for 
dall, black; sith, hill. 

Pitdouries, The. Place of springs. Pit, place; dobhran, 
gen. plural of dobhran, spring, water. The map shows 
several springs on the hill. An had become ie instead of s, 
but s had afterwards been added to ie. 

Pitdrochan, Burn of. Burn of the place of fairies. Pit, 
place; droichean, gen. plural of droich, fairy. 

Pitellachie. Place on a stream. Pit, place; allochain, 
gen. of allachan, small stream. 

Pitenteach. Place near a mansion. Pit, place; an, of 
the; teach, house, mansion. 

Pitfancy (for Pit Fangain). Place of the small fank. 
Pit, place; fangain, gen. of jangan, dim. of fang, fank, fold. 

Pitfichie (for Pit Chuithain). Place of the small fold. 
Pit, place; chuithain, gen. asp. of cuithan, small fold. Ch 
became ph, equivalent to /; th became ch ; and ain became ie. 

Pitfodels (for Pit Chuidail). Place at a fold). Pit, 
place; chuidail, gen. asp. of ciudail, fold. C asp. had be- 
come p asp., which is /. The Gaelic form of the name does 
not warrant the addition of final s. 

Pitfoskie, Pitforskie (1696), (for Pit Chrosaige). Place 
of the crossing. Pit, place; chrosaige, gen. asp. of crosag, 
crossing. At Pitfoskie there is an easy way over a height 
between two burns. Ch very often became / in the change 
from Gaelic to Scotch. 

Pitfour. Place of grass. Pit, place; feoir, gen. of fenr, 
grass. 



262 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Pitgair. Kough place. Pit, place; garbh, rough. 

Pitgaveny. Place of the cattle-fold. Pit, place; gabh- 
ainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. Ai and nn had been 
transposed. 

Pitgersie (for Pit Dearsaidh). Place of brightness. Pit, 
place; dearsaidh, gen. of dearsadh, sunshine, brightness. 

Pitglassie. Place of green ley land. Pit, place ; glasach, 
green, grassy. 

Pitheughie (for Pit Chuidhain). Place of the fold. Pit, 
place; chuidain, gen. asp. of cuidan, small fold. C became 
silent after being aspirated and disappeared. Dh became gh, 
and ain normally became ie. 

Pitjossie (for Pit Chosain). Place of the small fold. 
Pit, place; chosain, gen. asp. of cosan, dim. of cos, howe, 
fold. Ch had become soft. 

Pitline. Green level place. Pit, place; lein, gen. of 
leana, level meadow. 

Pitlurg. Place on a hillside. Pit, place; luirg, gen. of 
lurg, slope of a hill. At Pitlurg there is a trace of an ancient 
round cattle-fold 90 yards in diameter. 

Pitmachie (for Pit Maghain). Place in a small piece of 
level ground. Pit, place; maghain, gen. of maghan, small 
plain. Ain became ie. 

Pitmansy. Place of the female fairy. Pit, place; ban- 
sith, female fairy. Since bh and mh are both equivalent to 
v there was a great liability to mistakes by using the one for 
the other, and hence also in using m for b after dropping h. 

Pitmedden. Middle place. Pit, place; meadhoin, gen. 
of meadhon, middle. 

Pitmillan. Place at a small hill. Pit, place; meallain, 
gen. of meallan, dim. of meall, hill. 

Pitmuckston. Place where swine were kept. Pit, place; 
muc, gen. plural of muc, pig. Ton being similar to pit is an 
improper addition. The citizens of Aberdeen were fre- 
quently interdicted by the Town Council from keeping swine 
within the burgh, and they had to be sent to the suburbs. 

Pitmunie. Place of residence in a moss. Pit, place, 
farm; moine, gen. of moine, moss, moor. 

Pitmurchie. Place of the great cattle-fold. Pit, place; 
mor, big; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. Final th 
had become silent and had been lost. 

Pitnacalder. Place of the narrow land. Pit, place ; na, 
of the; caol-tire, gen. of caol-tir, narrow land. Pitnacalder 
lies between two parallel burns. 

Pitoothies (for Pit Chuithain). Place of a small fold. 
Pit, place; chuithain, gen. asp. of cuithan, small fold. Ch 
had been lost, and ain had become ie and afterwards s, 
making it both a dim. and a plural termination. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 263 

Pitprone. Place of pounding. Perhaps the pounding 
referred to was bruising whins for food for horses and cattle. 
This was done sometimes with flails, sometimes by a large 
stone like a millstone revolving on its edge over a layer of 
whins. Pit, place; pronnaidh, gen. of pronnadh, pounding, 
bruising. 

Pitscaff. Place of a barn. Pit, place; sgaimh, gen. of 
sgamh, barn for hay or straw for cattle food. Sgamh seems 
to have been used for sgamhan, barns. 

Pitscow (for Pitan Cuith). Place of the cattle-fold. 
Pitan, dim. of pit, place; cuith (ith silent), gen. of cuith, 
cattle-fold. An had been regarded as a plural termination 
and had been translated into s. Cu had been pronounced at 
first coo. 

Pitscur. Place where there is a gap in the rocky coast. 
Pit, place; sgoir, gen. of sgor, notch. 

Pitscurry. Place of sharp rocks. Pit, place; sgorach, 
abounding in sharp-pointed rocks. 

Pitsligo. Place abounding in shells. Pit, place; 
sligeach, shelly. The reference is to old beaches of shell- 
sand between Rosehearty and Fraserburgh. 

Pitslugarty. Place at a cattle-fold in a slug or gorge. 
Pit, place; sloe, slug, gorge; gartain, gen. of gartan, en- 
closure, cattle-fold. 

Pitstruan (for Pitsruthain). Place near a small burn. 
Pit, place; sruthain, gen. of sruthan, small stream. Sr in 
Gaelic becomes str in Scotch names, and th is silent in the 
middle of a word. 

Pittendamph. Small place where oxen were pastured. 
Pittan, small place; damh, gen. plural of danih, ox. 

Pittenderick (for Pit an t-Airich). Place of the watch. 
Pit, place; an t-, of the; airich, gen. of aireach, watch. 

Pittexdreich, Pittexdreigh. Place of the thorn-tree. 
Pit, place; na, of the; draighe, gen. of draigh, thorn-tree. 

Pittendrum (for Pit an Druim). Place at a long ridge. 
Pit, place; an, of the; druim, gen. of druim, long hill. The 
nominative form druim had been used instead of the genitive 
droma. 

Pittengullies. Farm-town in the fork between two 
burns. Pit, place, farm; an, of the; gobhalain, gen. of 
gobhalan, dim. of gobhal, fork of a stream. Ain had been 
translated into Scotch by s in the belief that it was a plural 
termination. 

Pittenheath. Place of the cattle-fold. Pit, place; an, 
of the; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, cattle-fold. C became 
silent after aspiration and disappeared. 

Pittentaggart (for Pit an t-Sagairt). Place of the priest. 



264 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Pit, place; an t-, of the; sagairt, gen. of sagart, priest. After 
t- s is silent. 

Pittent arrow (for Pit an Tairbh). Place of the bull. 
Pit, place; an, of the; tairbh, gen. of tarbh, bull. 

Pittinnan (for Pitanan). Small places. Pitanan, plural 
of pitan, small place. 

Pittrichie. Place on a hill slope. Pitt, place; ruighe, 
gen. of ruigh, slope of a hill. 

Pittodrie. Place of bleaching. Pit, place; todhair, 
gen. of todhar, bleaching, manure. 

Pittulie (for Pit Uilinn). Place at the elbow in the coast- 
line. Pit, place; uilinn, gen. of uileann, elbow, bend. Inn 
had been made ie as if it had been a dim. termination. 

Place Croft. Croft at the site of the mansion-house of 
Oldmaud, now wholly removed. Place meant a mansion 
with a courtyard. 

Placemill. Mill near the mansion-house on the estate of 
Frendraught. Place in Aberdeenshire means proprietor's 
residence with a courtyard — the place where tenants paid 
their rent and delivered meal and other produce. 

Plaidy. Plot of ground. Plaide, plot of ground. 

Plainwell (for Baile Pliadhain). Farm-town on a small 
plot of ground. Baile, town; pliadhain, gen. of pliadan, plot 
of ground. After the meaning of the word had been lost 
Baile had been transferred to the end and aspirated. Bhaile, 
pronounced ivaile, had lapsed into Well. In Pliadain d had 
been aspirated and having become silent had been lost. Thus 
had been produced Pliain Well, which is now Plainwell. 

Playgreen, Playhill, Playhillock, Playlands, Pley 
Fauld. Play and pley represent bliochd, milk. At these 
places there had been folds where cows were milked morn- 
ing and evening. Lands in Playlands represents lamhan, 
small hill, which had become Land, and s had been subse- 
quently added because an is sometimes a plural termination. 
The battle of Harlaw, 1411, was fought on Pley Fauld. 

Plodhill. Hill. Plod is a corruption of cnoc, hill; 
which see. 

Pluckhill. Kound-headed hill at the west end of Mor- 
mond. Pluc, round hump. 

Pluckrieve. Sheep-fold on a hill. Pluc, round-headed 
hill; rath, fold. Th of rath became bh, equivalent to v. 

Podroch (for Ruigh Fod). Slope of a hill where peats 
were got. Ruigh, hill-slope; fod, gen. plural of fod, peat. 

Point, The. Wedge-shaped bit of land between two roads 
at Auchleven. 

Poiten. Small pot. Poitean, dim. of poit, pot. A pot 
on the coast of Cruden and Slains means a place where the 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 265 

inner end of a tunnel communicating with the sea had 
fallen in. 

Poldach, Pots of. Lochs in a marshy place. Polldach, 
abounding in pools, marshy. 

Poldhu Chalybeate Wells. Wells impregnated with 
iron. Poll, pool; dubh, black; chalybs (Greek), steel, iron. 

Poldullie. Pool of blackness. Poll, pool; doille, black- 
ness. 

Polesbdrn. Burn from a pool. Poll, pool. The Ord- 
nance Survey map has Potesburn. 

Pollhollick (for Poll h-Olach). Greasy pool. Poll, pool ; 
h (euphonic); olach, oily. The name would be applicable to 
a pool with a scum on it due to iron in the water. 

Polinar (for Poll na h-Airidhe). Pool of the shieling. 
Poll, pool; na, of the; h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, 
shieling. 

Poll Bhat (for Poll Bhata). Pool of the boat. Poll, 
pool; bhata, gen. asp. of bata, boat. 

Pollagach Burn. Burn having pools. Pollagach, full of 
little pools. 

Pollswalls. Marsh at a small farm-town. Poll, marsh; 
bhailein, gen. asp. of bailcan, small town. Bh had become 
w, and ein had wrongly been made s. This produced Poll- 
wails, and by inserting s to produce the English possessive 
Pollswails, now Pollswalls. Perhaps the original form had 
been Bailean Phuill, small town at a marsh, and by trans- 
position of the parts and change of aspirated letters the 
modern form had been evolved. 

Polmuir. Pool on a moor. Poll, pool; muir, moor. 

Poolfonte. Pool of heroism. Poll, pool; foghaintc, gen. 
of foghaint, valour. The name indicates that a brave man 
rescued a person in danger of drowning in the pool. 

Pools of Dee. Three pools in the course of the Lairig 
Ghru Burn, one of the head waters of the Dee. They had 
been excavated successively, the lowest first, by the end of 
the glacier of the Dee when it had nearly become extinct. 
They are fed by a burn coming down from the watershed 
between the Avon and the Dee, on the east side of the Lairig 
Ghru. The stream loses itself among the boulders in the 
bottom of the pass and reappears below the Pools of Dee. 

Poor Man. A pile of stones in the form of a man, erected 
to mark a boundary or to indicate a route. 

Port an Doon. Port of the hill. Port, haven; an, of 
the; duin, gen. of dun, hill. 

Port Elphinstone. Port at the head of the Aberdeen- 
shire Canal, named after the chief of the Logie-Elphinstone 
family. 

Port Erroll. This is a name now given to a small town 



266 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

with its harbour. Formerly it was called The Ward. Port. 
harbour; Erroll, the place-name in the title of a Scotch earl. 

Port Keppies (for Port Ceapan). Haven of plots of 
ground. Port, haven; ceapan, gen. plural of ceap, small plot 
of ground. 

Port Rae. Safe harbour. Port, haven; reidh (pro- 
nounced rae), safe. 

Portie Shore. This name seems to mean shore where 
there is a small harbour. Portan, small harbour. An had 
become ie. 

Portstown. Porterstown in Poll Book, 1696. 

Posnett. Junction of burns. Posadh, marriage ; net, 
gen. plural of net, stream. 

Pot, Poit. Pot, deep pool in a river. 

Pot Howie (for Poit Chuithain). Pot at a small fold. 
Poit, pot; chuithain, gen. asp. of cuithan, small fold. C and 
th being silent had been lost, and ain had become ie. 

Pot Kello. Pot at a narrow place in the Don. Poit, pot; 
caoile, narrowness. 

Potarch, Poterch. Pot of difficulty. Poit, pot; airce, 
gen. of aire, difficulty. Before the Bridge of Potarch was 
built cattle from Aberdeenshire going over the Cairn o' Mount 
had to cross the Dee by swimming at a deep pool. Some- 
times men were drowned in trying to prevent cattle from 
going up or down the river. 

Potside. Place at a deep hole in a stream. Poit, pot. 

Potterton. Place where drink was sold. Poitearachd, 
drinking. 

Pottie Martin. Pot where cows were watered. Poitean, 
small pot ; martan, gen. plural of mart, cow. 

Pouk Howe. Howe in which there was a small pool. 
Pollag, small pool. 

Poundash (for Pund Eas). Pound at a burn. Pund, 
pound, enclosed space; eas, burn, water. 

Pourin. Burn formed by the drainings from a hillside. 
Pour an, small stream. Pourins is the name given to water 
mixed with mealy sids when it has passed through a sieve. 
The pourins become sour and are used to make sowans, a 
term meaning drainings. 

Pourleuchan. Wet harbour. Port, haven, harbour; 
fiiuchain, gen. of fliuchan, wetness. Fliuchan had been 
aspirated and then fh had been lost, being silent. 

Pout Pot. The last part is a translation of the first. 
Poit, pot. 

Pow Ford, Powford. Ford in a slow burn. Poll, pool, 
stagnant water. In Perthshire deep ditches for carrying off 
water from fields are called pows. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 267 

Powdagie, Powdeggie. Marshy ground. Polldach, 
place abounding in pools or marshes. 

Powie, Powis. Small burn. Pollan, softened to powan, 
small burn. An became ie, but in Powis it had afterwards 
been made s, which had been added to Powie, making first 
Powies and afterwards Powis. 

Powlair. Burn land. Poll, burn; lar, land. 

Poynernook. A nook of land about the south-west corner 
of the railway station house, where the Denburn turned east. 
It was on the west and south of the burn at the place where 
the rise of the tide ceased. It seems not to have belonged 
to the poyners or shore porters, but it may have been a place 
where they kept boats used in loading and unloading ships. 

Pratt's Grave. David Prat, a servant of the Laird of 
Gight, was killed by a shot from the head of Towie Castle, 
May 10, 1639.— Spalding's " Memorialls," I., 182. 

Prattshaugh. Perhaps for Sprothaugh. Pratt was for- 
merly pronounced prott in Aberdeenshire. 

Preas na Leitire. Bushes on the side of a hill. Preas, 
thicket, small wood; na, of the; leitire, gen. of leitir, hillside. 

Preas nam Meirleach. Bush of the thieves. Preas, 
bush ; nam, of the ; meirleach, gen. plural of meirleach, thief. 

Preasmor. Big group of trees. Preas, bush, small wood ; 
mor, big. 

Preas Whin. Bushy place on a hill. Preas, bush; fin, 
hill. In Aberdeenshire / and tvh are interchangeable, and 
whin represents fin, hill. 

Premnay (for Pramhan). Quiet gloomy place. Pramhan, 
quiet, gloom. Pramhan sounds pravan or prowan, but h had 
been dropped, and a and n had been transposed, producing 
pramna, now Premnay. 

Prenstone. Stone which had small cups in it in which 
oats were pounded into meal. Pronn, to pound. Small 
slabs with only one cup are found, but usually there are 
several cups in a group on a large boulder or on a smooth 
place of a solid rock. 

Pressendye. Black little wood. Preasan, dim. of preas, 
bushy place; dubh, black. 

Pricker. Meaning not found. Perhaps hill of the 
shieling. Braigh, hill; airidh (idh silent), shieling. 

Priest's Eig (for Preas Ruigh). Bushy hill slope. 
Preas, bushy place; ruigh, slope of a hill. 

Priest's Water (for Allt Preas). Burn of the bushes. 
Allt, burn, water; preas, gen. plural of preas, bush. 

Priest's Wood. Both parts mean wood. Preas, bush, 
wood. 

Proney, Prony. Place of pounding. Pronnaidh, gen. 
of pronnadh, pres. part, of pronn, to pound, bruise, bray. 



268 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

The reference may be to fulling cloth, bruising whins with 
flails for food for cattle and horses, or pounding oats in 
cup-like hollows in rocks or stones to make meal. Aite, 
place of, must be understood before pronnaidh. 

Pulwhite (for Poll Chuit). Pool at a fold. Poll, pool; 
chuit, gen. asp. of cuit, fold. 

Pumphel. See Golden Pumphel. 

Pumphill Burn. Burn of the penfold for cattle. Fund, 
pen; jauld, Scotch for fold. 

Punch Bowl. A deep circular hollow in shape re- 
sembling the bowls formerly in use when punch was made 
at festive meetings. 

Pundler Burn (for Pund Al Airidhe Burn). Burn of 
the hill of the fold on a shieling. Pund, fold ; al, hill ; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Pundlercroft. Croft held in virtue of his office by the 
pundler of a barony. It was his duty, among other things, 
to put in a pound cattle, etc., found astray and doing damage 
to growing crops. 

Purse, The. A long narrow opening in the rocky coast of 
Cruden, ending in a cave. 

Putachie. Burn at a fold. Acha, burn; chuit, gen. asp. 
of cuit, fold. The parts of the name had been transposed, 
and cuit had passed through the forms chuit, phuit, puit, 
put. There was a Putachie in Carnegie's Brae in Aberdeen, 
and others in Turriff, Keig, and Monymusk. 

Pyke. Pointed hill. Pic, point of hill or rock. 

Pykes Cairn (for Cam Picein). Pointed cairn. Cam, 
cairn; picein, gen. of picean, small sharp-pointed hill. Final 
s ought to have been ie. 

Pyot Bush. Place where a magpie made a nest in a 
small clump of trees. Pyot is the same as pied, having 
various colours or designs mixed. Bush usually means a 
small plantation or group of trees or bushes. 

Quarrian Knap (for Cnap Ciaran). Grey knoll. Cnap, 
knoll ; ciaran, grey. 

Quart ains (for Cuairtan). Stone circle round a grave, 
fold. Cuairtan, dim. of cuairt, circle. In Scotch an should 
have become ie, but by a twofold error it had been made s 
and added to cuairtan. 

Quartalehouse, Corthailhows, Cortailhows (1544). 
Alehouse at a place where there was a circular enclosure. 
Cuairt, circle, ring of stones round a grave, fold. 

Quartz Cliff. A deep open crack in primary rock had 
been filled in wet seasons by water containing quartz in 
solution. In dry seasons the water had been absorbed and 
the quartz had been left in crystals on the sides of the crack. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 269 

If the rock on one side of the crack has been removed the 
white crystals remaining on the other side become visible in 
a cliff. 

Quaynan. Strait. Cuingean, narrow passage. 
Queel. Nook. Cuil, turn, nook. 
Queel Burn. Burn from a nook. Cuil, nook. 
Queels (for Cuilean). Small corner. Cuilean, dim. of 
cuil, nook. Having been regarded as a plural termination 
an had been translated into s. 

Queelstone. Stone at a nook. Cuil, nook. 
Queen's Ford (for Ath Cuinge). Ford of the water 
channel. Ath, ford; cuinge, channel. 

Queen's Links. Meeting-place on the Links. Choinne, 
coinne asp., meeting. 

Queenzie, Queenie. Local names for the natural chan- 
nel between Peterhead and Keith Inch. It was covered 
with water at high tide and dry at low tide. When Peter- 
head harbours were made the channel was partially filled up, 
and afterwards again opened to admit of the passage of boats 
and small ships from one harbour to the other. Sometimes 
the name was given to the Keith Inch. Cuinge, narrow 
strait. 

Queys, The. Small cattle-fold. Cuithan, dim. of cuith, 
cattle-fold. Cuith had been corrupted into quey, and s had 
been added for an, which, however, is the dim. and not the 
plural termination here. 

Quiddie's Mill. Mill at a small cattle-fold. Cuidan, 
dim. of cuid, cattle-fold. An had first been translated into 
ie as a dim. termination and afterwards into s as a plural. 

Quillichan Burn. Little rill burn. Coileachan, dim. of 
coileach, rill. Coileachan is in Alltachoyleachan, the local 
name for the site of the battle of Glenlivet. 

Quilquox. Place where reeds grew. Cuilceach, reedy, 
fenny place growing bulrushes. 

Quinach (for Coinneamh or Coinneachadh). Meeting, 
assembly. 

Quithel (for Cuithail). Cattle-fold. See Cuid. 
Quittlehead (original form Cuitail). Cattle-fold. 
Cuitail had become Quittle, and its meaning having been 
lost cuid, fold, had been added and aspirated, producing 
Quittlechuid. C, being silent, had been lost, leaving Quittle- 
huid, which has become Quittlehead. 

Quoich Water. Stream from a cup-shaped valley. 
Cuach, wooden bowl, cup. 

Quhomery Burn. Burn formed by the union of two burns. 
Chomaran, plural asp. of comar, junction of two burns. An 
is a plural termination, but it has been translated by y, a. 
Scotch dim. termination. 



270 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Rack Burn, Hack Moss. Back represents ruigh, slope 
of a hill. 

Raebuss. Level place growing bushes. Reidh, level; 
buss (Scotch), bushy place, small wood. Raebuss may be 
a variant of robhas, violent death. See Roebuss. 

Raecloch. Circle of stones. Rath, circle; clock, gen. 
plural of clock, stone. 

Raedel Skellys. Perhaps Rocks at the red field. 
Ruadh, red; dail, field; sgeilgan, plural of sgeilg, rock, often 
a sea rock. 

Raeden. Perhaps for Level den. Reidh, level; dein, 
den. 

Raemurrack. Great plain. Reidh, plain; morachd, 
greatness. 

Raich. Crooks in Glendronach burn. Raich, elbow. 

Raigie Burn. Burn of the slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope 
of a hillside. 

Raik, The. The reach or straight part of the Dee, where 
there was a salmon fishing. Raik in Scotch means to extend 
in a straight line. In Henryson's " Robin and Makyne " 
sheep feeding are said to " raik in raw." 

Rainnieshill (for Coille Rainich). Hill of ferns. Coille, 
hill; rainich, gen. of raineach, fern. 

Rainy Meall. Ferny hill. Raineach, ferny; meall, hill. 

Raiths. Small circle. Rathan, small circle of stones. 
An had been regarded as the plural termination, and s had 
been affixed to raith improperly. 

Raittshill (for Coill Rathain). Hill of the small circle. 
Coill, hill; rathain, gen. of rathan, small fold, stone circle 
round a grave. The name had been in succession Coill 
Rathain, Coill Raths, Raths Choill, Raits Hoil, Raittshill. 
Ain had been changed to s instead of ie. The meaning having 
been lost the parts of the name had been transposed, and 
Coill had been aspirated, subsequently becoming Hoil and 
Hill. 

Rake Pot. Pot in a reach or straight part of a stream. 

Ram Holes. Holes filled at spring tide. Raimhe, high 
water of spring tide. 

Ram Pot. Grey stone pot. Ram Pot is in the Don at a 
grey stone which had been called Clach Riach, grey stone. 
Riach had become Riamh, and by loss of the aspirate Riam, 
which had subsequently become Ram. From the stone the 
pot had been called Ram Pot. 

Ram Stone, Ramstone. Grey stone. Originally the stone 
had been called Clach Riach, which name had afterwards 
assumed the forms Clach Riamh, Clach Riam, Ram Stone. 
There are two places of this name in Aberdeenshire. 

Ramshall (for Riabhach Choill). Grey hill. Riabhach, 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 271 

grey; choill, colli asp., hill. Biabhach had become in suc- 
cession Biamhach, Biamh, Eiam, Earn. Choill had lost 
silent c, and had become first Hoill and then Hall. Earn had 
been regarded as a personal name in the genitive, and s had 
been added to convert it into the English possessive. 

Banna. Place at a point. Ranna, gen. of rainn, point. 

Bantreeburn. Burn of the tree with red berries. 
RuadJian (dha silent), little red berry. 

Baongeodha (for Baongeadha). Field of geese. Raon, 
field, plain; geadha, gen. plural of geadh, goose. 

Eaplin. Noises. Rapalan, plural of rapal, noise. This 
is an opening of the sea with a cave at the end. 

Bappla Burn, Bapplich Burn. Noisy burn. Rapalach, 
noisy. 

Bashenlochy. Lochan with rushes on its margin. 
Rashen, Scotch for rushy; lochan, small loch. 

Bashiebottom. If the nature of the place suits the name 
it must be English, but as it is on a slope it may be Gaelic 
and represent Bothan Buigh, hut on a hillside. Bothan, 
hut; ruigh, hill slope. When Bothan became Bottom, 
Euigh had been converted into the Scotch adjective Eashie 
and put first. 

Bashieslack. Hollow descending a hillside. Slochd 
ruigh, gorge of the hillside. When Buigh became Eashie it 
had been put first. 

Bashiewell (for Baile Buigh). Town on the slope of a 
hill. Baile, town; ruigh, slope of a hill. The name had 
afterwards become Buigh Bhaile, and Bhaile (pronounced 
waile) had become Well, and then Buigh had been corrupted 
into Eashie. 

Bashypans (for Buigh Beann). Slope of a hill. Ruigh, 
slope; beann, hill. Beann has been supplanted by Beinn 
in modern Gaelic. Final s had been added because Beann 
ended in ann. 

Bashyward. Enclosed pasture ground on the slope of a 
hill for cows, calves, or sheep. The original form might have 
been Lios Buigh. Lios, enclosure; ruigh, hill slope. When 
Lios was translated it had been put last, and Euigh had been 
converted into an English adjective. If the place is on level 
ground it means enclosed place where rushes grow. 

Batch-hill (for Buigh Choill). Slope of a hill. Ruigh, 
lower slope on a hillside; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. 

Bath. Circle, stones round a grave, cattle-fold, fank, 
pigsty, ditch, and dyke round a farm-steading. In Ireland 
Bath in names indicates a place where the dwelling-houses 
and property of a hamlet are surrounded by a dyke or wall 
which could be closed at night. Th is usuallv silent, and 



272 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Rath may become Rae, Rait, Ray, Ree, Reive, Rieve, Rie, 
Ry, Wrae, Wray. 

Rathen. Small circle, fold, stones round a grave. 
Rathen, dim. of rath, circle. It assumes the forms Rathen, 
Raitts, Rayne. 

Ratlich (for Rath Leac). Stone circle. Rath, circle; 
leac, gen. plural of leac, stone. 

Rattray (for Rathrath). Circle. The second part is the 
oldest, and after it had become Ray, Rath had been prefixed 
to explain it. Rathray is now Rattray. See Rath. The 
circle had been a cattle-fold. 

Raven Hill (for Ruigh Bheinne). Slope of the hill. 
Ruigh, slope at the base of a hill; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, 
hill. Ruigh Bheinne has generally become Ruthven or Rivin 
in names of places. 

Ravenscraig. Rock on which ravens rested. Leave to 
build a castle on the rock was given by James IV. in 1491. 
The castle was ruined in the civil war in the reign of 
Charles I. 

Rawn, The. The point. Rann, point. See Roan and 
Ron. 

Raws of Noth. Rows of workers' houses at the foot of 
the Hill of Noth. 

Raxton (for Baile Ruigh). Town on the slope of a hill. 
Baile, town; ruigh, hill slope. When baile was translated 
into ton, ruigh had been put first. 

Rayne. Small circle. Rathan, small circle, stone circle 
round a grave. Th is often silent. 

Reams Hill, Reemshill. Grey hill. Riach, grey. In 
passing into modern forms Riach had become successively 
Riamh (pronounced ree-av), Riam, Ream, and Reem. To 
these last 's had been added in the belief that they were 
personal names in the possessive. 

Rechaish. Level ground at the foot of a hill. Reidh, 
plain; chaish, gen. asp. of cos, foot. 

Red Bog, Redbog. Red here probably represents reidh, 
level. 

Red Burn, Redburn. Burn whose water is tinged red 
in summer with iron oxide from the drainage of the ground. 

Red Cairn, Red Craig, Red Creag, Red Hill, Redhill, 
Redhills. All these names have the same meaning. Ruadh, 
red; earn, hill; creag, hill; craig, Scotch form of creag, hill. 

Red Cow's Haven. Red fold haven. Cuith (ith silent), 
cattle-fold. Cu had been pronounced coo. Redness on the 
rocks at the haven indicates that old red sandstone had ex- 
tended along the coast eastward from Quarry Haven. 

Red Lakes. Red flat rocks. Leacan, plural of leac, flat 
rock. In a glacial epoch an ice-sheet charged with stones 



Celtic Place-Namcs in Aberdeenshire. 273 

passed over the rocks at Cairnbulg, Inverallochy, and St 
Combs and ground down the surface to one uniform level. 
Traces of the ice-sheet are seen in scorings on the rocks. 

Red Loch. Loch of the level place. Reidh, plain, level 
place. 

Red Inches. Level islands. Reidh, level; innaean, 
plural of innis, island. Es in Inches represents an in 
innsean. 

Red Moss, Redmoss. Level moss. Reidh, level. 

Red Myre, Redmyres. Level marsh. Reidh, level; 
mire, marsh, bog. Final s may represent an in bogan, the 
Gaelic for a bog or myre. 

Red Slinn. Red path. Slighean, dim. of sliglie, road, 
way. Gh is silent. 

Red Spout. Small gushing spring of water tinged red 
with iron oxide. 

Red Well, Redwell. Spring or well whose water was 
tinged with red iron oxide. Red wells were visited by people 
who thought chalybeate water was beneficial to their health. 

Redfold. Fold in a level place. Reidh, plain. 

Redford. Ford at a level place. Reidh, level. 

Redheugh. Red high bank. 

Redbriggs. Bridge built of red sandstone. 

Redhouse. Probably a house with red tiles on the roof. 

Redleas (for Lios Reidhe). Fold of the plain. Lios, 
fold, enclosed space; reidhe, gen. of reidh, level ground. 
When the meaning of reidhe had been lost it had been re- 
garded as the English adjective red and put first, as being 
the qualifying part of the name. 

Redlums. Red chimneys, hum is a Scotch word mean- 
ing chimney. The red lums had been built of bricks. In 
Whitelums lums means hill. See Whitelums. 

Ree, Earl of Mar's. Enclosed space said to have been 
the camp of the Earl of Mar before the battle of Harlaw. 
See Rath. 

Ree Burn. Burn of the enclosure. Rath, circle, cattle- 
fold, sheep-fold. See Rath. 

Ree Newe. Sacred fold. Rath, circle, fold; naomh, 
sacred, consecrated to a church. Ree Newe had been a fold 
for the cattle belonging to the chapel at Belhandy. See 
Rath and Newe. 

Reedlaigh. Low level place. Reidh, level; laigh or 
laicli (Scotch), low hollow. 

Reed's Well (for Tobar Reidhe). Well of the plain. 
Tobar, well; reidhe, gen. of reidh, level place. The parts 
of the name had been transposed after reidhe was made the 
qualifying word, and 's was added to convert it into an 
English possessive. 

s 



274 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Reekie. Slope of a hill. Buigh, slope of a hill where 
cultivation begins. 

Reekitlane. Smoking by itself alone. After the 
disastrous year 1782 many farmers in the Cabrach left their 
holdings. In one place only one chimney sent out smoke, 
and it was called Reekitlane. 

Reem's Hill. See Ream's Hill. 

Reesk, Reisque. Wet mossy ground growing tough 
grass. Riasg, wet grassy ground unfit for cultivation till it 
has been drained. 

Reezielaw. Hill growing coarse mountain-grass. Rias- 
gach, growing tough grass, riesky (Scotch); lamh, hill. 

Refillan (for Allan Ruigh). Burn of the hill slope. 
Allan, small stream; ruigh, gen. of ruigh, hill slope. Ruigh, 
the qualifying word, had originally been last, but it is now 
first. 

Reidford. Same as Redford. 

Reid's Burn. Burn of the plain. Reidhe, gen. of reidh, 
plain. The final s in Reid's had been added because reidhe 
is in the genitive. 

Reid's Moss. Moss of the level plain. Reidhe, gen. of 
reidh, level place. Reidhe being in the genitive, 's had been 
affixed in English. 

Reid's Well. See Red Well and Reid's Burn. 

Reinchall. Point of the hill. Rainn, point; choill, gen. 
asp. of coill, hill. 

Reio Hill. Grey hill. Riach, grey. 

Reive (for Rath). Fold. See Rath. 

Reive of Shiels. Fold on a shieling. Rath, circle, fold; 
sealain, gen. of sealan, summer hill pasture. See Rath. 
Final s in Shiels represents ain of sealain, erroneously sup- 
posed to be a plural termination. 

Reivesley. Grassy place at a cattle-fold. Rathan, dim. 
of rath, stone circle, cattle-fold; ley, grassy place. Th had 
become bh, equivalent to v. S is a mistaken translation of 
an in rathan. 

Relaquheim. Grave by the footpath. Reidhlic, grave; 
a', of the; cheim, gen. asp. of ceum, footpath. 

Remicras. Plain of misfortune. Reidh, plain, level 
place; migrais, gen. of migras, bad luck, uncongenial place. 

Remora. Big plain. Reidh, plain; mor, big. 

Renatton. Level place at a small fold. Reidh, plain; 
chuitain, gen. asp. of cuitan, small fold. By loss of silent 
c chuitan had in several places become hatton, and atton in 
Clova. 

Resthivet, Rossochetis (1257), Rostheveot (1504), 
Rosseuiot (1506), Rothsyviot (1511), Ressavate (1511), 
Rasevat (1534). The original form had probably been 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 275 

Both a' Chuit. Hill of the cattle-fold. Roth, hill; a , of 
the; chuit, gen. asp. of cuit, cattle-fold. 

Resting Cairn. Cairn on Mormond where funeral 
parties carrying coffins halted to rest. 

Rettie (for Reidhean). Small plain. Reidhean, dim. of 
reidhe, plain. An had become ie. 

Rhindbuckie. Projecting point in a bend. Rinn, pro- 
jecting point; bogha, bow, bend. 

Rhindstock. Projecting point of land. Rinn, pro- 
jecting point; stuc, small hill projecting from a greater. 
Rhindstock is between two branches of a burn. 

Rhynie. Small point. Rinnan, small point, promon- 
tory. The Hole of Rhynie is a quarry on a hillside. Hole 
may be a corruption of choill, hill, in which c is silent and 
liable to be lost. 

Richard Pot. Pot in the Deveron at the base of a hill 
slope. RuigJi, slope of a hill where cultivation begins; ard, 
hill, height. 

Richarkarie (for Coire Ruigh Ard). Corry of the slope 
of the hill. Coire, corry; ruigh, slope; ard, hill. 

Richmond. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope; monaidh, gen. 
of monadh, hill. This name helps to show that the ancient 
language of Aberdeenshire was identical with that of Eng- 
land. 

Riddlehead (for Cuid Ruigh Dail). Fold on the slope of 
a field. Cuid, fold; ruigh, slope of a hill; dail, field. The 
name had in late time become Ruigh Dail Chuid, and after- 
wards gh of Ruigh and c of Chuid had been lost. 

Ridhebreac. Dappled slope. Ruighe, slope of a hill; 
breac, variegated, grass mixed with patches of heather. 

Riding Stone. Stone in a river by which riders could 
tell whether or not it was safe to try to cross. 

Riding Hill, Ridinghill (for Ruighean Choill). Slight 
slope on a hill. Ruighean, dim. of ruigh, slope ; choill, gen. 
asp. of coill, hill. C is silent in ch and had been lost, leaving 
hoill, which had become hill. 

Riegunachie Shiels (for Sealan Ruigh an Achaidh). 
Shieling on the slope of the field. Sealan, shieling; ruigh, 
slope ; na, of the ; chuith, cuith asp., fold. C and th of Chuith 
had been lost, being silent. 

Riffin. Slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope at the base of a 
hill; fin, hill. 

Riggin, Riggins (for Ruighean). Slopes of a hill. 
Ruighean, plural of ruigh, slope of a hill. Though in, for 
ean, is a plural termination this had been forgotten, and s 
had been added in one case, producing Riggins. 

Righorach, Hill of. Hill of summer pasture for sheep. 



276 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ruigh, summer pasture on the slopes of a hill; chaorach,. 
gen. plural of caora, a sheep. 

Rinabaich. Point of ground on which a cow-house stood. 
Rinn, point; na, of the; baich, cow-house. 

Rinalloch. Point projecting at a stream. Rinn, point; 
allaich, gen. of allach, water, stream. 

Rinasluick. High point near a burn howe. Rinn, 
point; a', of the; sluic, gen. of sloe, gorge. 

Rinavoan. Point on which there was a small house. 
Rinn, point; a', of the; bhothain, gen. asp. of bothan, hut, 
small house. Bh is equivalent to v, and th in the middle of 
a word is silent. 

Ringing Stone. Stone which emits a metallic sound 
when struck. 

Rinloan. Point of the meadow. Rinn, point; loin, gen. 
of Ion, moss, meadow. 

Rinmore. Big point. Rinn, point; mor, big. 

Rinn Dearg. Red point. Roinn, point; dearg, red. 

Rinnacharn Lodge. Sporting residence at a projecting 
part of a hill. Rinn, point; a', of the; chairn, gen. asp. of 
earn, hill. 

Rinnafenach. Point of the declivity. Rinn, point; a', 
of the; fanaidh, gen. of fanadh, gentle declivity. 

Rinnagailloch. Point of the whiteness. Rinn, point; 
na, of the; gealaich, gen. of gealach, whiteness. 

Rintarsin. Cross point. Rinn, point; tarsuinn, cross. 

Ripe. Rough place. Ribeach, rough. 

Rippachie. Rough place. Ribeach, rough. 

Risquehouse. House in a wet place growing tough herb- 
age. Riasg, wet or soft mossy ground covered with coarse 
grass. 

Rivefold (for Ruigh Chuith). Slope of the fold. Ruigh r 
slope ; cuith, fold. 

Rivehill (for Ruigh Choill). Slope of the hill. Ruigh, 
slope; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. C in ch is silent and 
had been lost. 

Rivenpumphal Burn. Burn at a cattle-fold on a hill 
slope. Riven (for ruigh bheinne), hill slope. Ruigh, lower 
slope of a hill; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. Ruigh 
Bheinne is usually made Ruthven and pronounced rivven. 

Rivestone (for Clach Ruigh a' Bheinne). Stone of the 
slope of the hill. Clach, stone (translated and transposed); 
ruigh, slope at the base of a hill; a', of the; bheinne, gen. 
asp. of beinn, hill. 

Road Burn (for Allt Roide). Burn of force. Allt, burn; 
roide, gen. of roid, force produced by motion. 

Roadside Craigie. Little hili by the roadside. Creagan r 
little hill. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 277 

Eoan. Point. Rann, headland. 

Roanheads. Point. Rann, point. Heads is a transla- 
tion of Rann, with s added because ann was supposed to be a 
plural termination. 

Roar Hill. Red hill. Ruadh, red. 

Robbie Rossie's Wood, Robie's Brig, Robertswells, 
Robie's Haven, Robie's Jetty, Robieston, Robin's Height, 
Rob's Butt, Rob's Nook, Rob's Pantry, Robslaw. In 
nearly every instance the first part of these names repre- 
sents roibeach, rough, shaggy, bushy, filthy. 

Robbie Rossie's Wood (for Bad Roibeach Rosach). 
Rough wooded place where wild roses grow. Bad, wood, 
bushy place; roibeach, shaggy, rough; rosach, productive of 
wild roses. 

Robertswells (for Baile Roibeach). Rough farm-town. 
Baile, town; roibeach, rough, shaggy. When Roibeach be- 
came Robert Baile was put last and aspirated and pronounced 
waile, which became Well, afterwards improperly made 
Wells. 

Robieston (for Baile Roibeach). Rough town. Baile, 
town; roibeach, rough. Roibeach became Robie, and s was 
added to make it possessive. Then Baile was aspirated and 
put last and translated into ton for Town. See Roberts- 
wells. 

Robslaw, Rubislaw, (for Lamh Roibeach). Bushy hill. 
Lamh, hill; roibeach, bushy, shaggy. Mh is equivalent to 
u, v, or w, and lamh had become law, but its meaning had 
been lost. Then the parts of the name had been transposed 
and roibeach had been put first, retaining the accent but 
corrupted into rob. This being regarded as a personal name 
s had been added to convert it into the English possessive 
case. 

Roch Ford. The ford is rough for riders and hardly pass- 
able for wheeled conveyances, and the name might well 
mean rough ford ; but it is on a hillside, and Roch probably 
represents ruigh, slope on the side of a hill. 

Rock Ernan. Rocky place near Ernan Water; which 
see. Rock may represent ruigh, slope. 

Rockhill. Hillside. Ruigh, slope of a hill where culti- 
vation begins. 

Rocking Stone. A name erroneously given to a large 
block of white quartz on the top of the Hill of Auchmaliddie. 
It had once formed part of a stone circle round a grave, but 
it could never have been a rocking stone. 

Rocks of Gleneilpy. See Gleneilpy. 

Roddentree. Rowantree. Rxtadhan, little red thing, 
red berry. 

Roddick. Red. Rodaidh, ruddv, reddish brown. 



278 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Rodger Ford. Ford of the slope of the hill. Ruighe, 
hill slope. The approach is steep on the west side of the 
Deveron. Here, as in Cadger for cadha, road, r had been 
appended to the Gaelic word. 

Rodshill (for Coill Roid). Hill of the road. Coill, hill; 
roid, gen. of rod, road. Coill had been put last and trans- 
lated, and roid being in the genitive s had been affixed to 
change it into the English possessive. 

Roebuss, Stone of the. Stone supposed to mark the 
place where a person was killed. Robhais, gen. of roblias, 
violent death. 

Roger's Well (for Tobar Ruigh). Well of the slope of 
the hill. Tobar, well; ruigh, hill slope. 

Rogerseat (for Suidhe Ruighe). Place on the slope of a 
hill. Suidhe, place; ruighe, gen. of ruigh, slope of a hill. 

Rogie Stripe. Wrinkled little stream. Rocach, 
wrinkled, crooked; stripe, very small stream. 

Roinn Fad. Point of peats. Roinn, point; fad, gen. 
plural of fad, peat. 

Rollomire. Slavering bog. Roillc, slavering. 

Roman Hill, Roman Mire. Roman (for Roth Man), hill. 
Roth, hill; man, hill. 

Ron, Ron a, Rawn. Point. Roinn, point. 

Ronald's Pot. Pot at a point of land where a burn 
joins the Ythan. Ron, point; uillt, gen. of allt, burn. 

Rookfolds. Fold on the side of a hill. Ruigh, hill slope. 
S is an improper addition. 

Rookford Bridge. Bridge which took the place of a 
ford at the slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope at the base of a hill. 

Rootie Linn. Fall of a stream. Linne, pool, fall; ruitlie, 
gen. of ruith, stream. 

Roquharold (for Allt Ruigh Airidhe). Burn of the hill- 
side shieling. Allt, burn (transposed and corrupted into 
old); ruigh, slope of a hill, where cultivation begins; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, pasture among hills far away from a farm. 

Rora. Red place. Ruarach, expansion of ruadh, red. 
Formerly Rora was covered with heather. 

Rose Cairn. Cairn of the point. Rois, gen. of ros, 
point ; cam, cairn. Roads and boundaries meet at Rose 
Cairn. 

Roseachie. Place abounding in roses. Rosach, abound- 
ing in roses. 

Roseiiearty. Promontory of the shieling. Ros, point; 
na, of the (suppressed); h (euphonic); airidhe, gen. of airidh, 
shieling. 

Roseseat. House at a point between two roads. Ros, 
point, promontory; suidhe, seat, place. 

Rosullah (for Ros Sughaile). Point of wetness, or wet 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 279 

point. Ros, point; sughaile (gh silent), gen. of sughail, 
wetness. 

Rot, Eoth. Hill. Rot, hill; roth, hill. 

Rotan, Rothan. Little hill. Rotan, dim. of rot, hill; 
rothan, dim. of roth, hill. 

Rothens (for Rathan). Small circular enclosure. 
Rathan, dim. of rath, circle, stone circle, sheep fank. 
Rathan had been supposed to be plural and s had been added 
to it. 

Rothie (for Rothan). Hill. Rotlian, dim. of rotli, a 
variant of rath, hill of symmetrical rounded shape. 

Rothiebrisbane. Part of Rothie given by Robert I. to 
Thomas Brisbane. 

Rothienorman. Part of Rothie which belonged to the 
family of Norman of Leslie. 

Rothmaise. Hill of a beautiful shape. Roth, hill; 
maiseach, handsome. Roth is a variant of rath, which in 
Irish means a mound. Rothmaise is a circular round-topped 
symmetrical hill, like a large mound. 

Rothney. Village near Rothney Hill; which see. 

Rothney Hill (for Rothan Hill). Hill is a translation 
of rothan. The letters in an had been transposed, and na 
had become ney. 

Rotten Holes. Little hill. Rotan, little hill; choillean, 
coillean asp., little hill. Ean ought to have been made ie 
and not s. 

Rotten Kaim. This is the name of a narrow ridge of 
rock on the coast of Cruden. If the ridge terminates sea- 
ward in a round knoll Rotten represents rothan, dim. of roth, 
hill. 

Rotten of Brotherfield. This seems a combination of 
two names having similar meanings. Rotten is rotan, dim. 
of rot, hill; which see. Brotherfield is a partial translation 
of Achadh Bruthaich, field of the hillside. Achadh, field, 
place, farm; bruthaich, gen. of bruthach, brae, side of a hill. 

Rotten Well. Well whose water has the smell of rotten 
eggs. These contain sulphuretted hydrogen gas, and water 
percolating long through soil containing decaying vegetation 
becomes charged with this gas and acquires medicinal 
virtues. 

Rottenhill, Rotten Moss. Rotten is a corruption of 
rotan, little hill; which see. 

Rough Bank, Rough Burn, Rough Craig, Rough Grip, 
Roughbush Burn. Rough, for ruigh, slope of hill; grip, 
channel, same as Scotch greep. 

Roughouster Quarries (for Buidhinneachan Aosda 
Ruigh). Old quarries on the hillside. Buidhinneachan, 



280 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

quarries (translated); aosda, old; ruigh, gen. of ruigh, slope 
of a hill. 

Round Lightnot (for Cruinn Fhliuchan Achaidh). 
Round wet place in a field. Cruinn, round; fhliuchan (fh 
silent), wet place; achaidh, gen. of achadh, field. The first 
t is a euphonic insertion 

Round Tore, Round Torr. Round steep abrupt hill. 
Cruinn, round; torr, steep round hill, usually with a flat 
summit. 

Roundabout. Site of a circular cattle-fold. 

Roundhill, Roundhome. The two names have the same 
meaning. Both had originally been Cruinn Thorn. Round 
hill. Cruinn, round; thorn, torn asp., hill. 

Roundie Law (for Cruinn Lamh). Round hill. Cruinn, 
round; lamh, hill. Mh is equivalent to w. Final ie repre- 
sents inn of cruinn, supposed to be a dim. termination. 

Rouplaw (for Ruigh Laimh). Slope of a hill. Ruigh, 
slope; laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. Gh had become ph, and 
then the aspirate had been lost. Mh is equivalent to w. 

Rowacks (for Ruadh Achaidhean). Red little field. 
Ruadh, red; achaidhean, dim. of achadh, field. Ean, a dim. 
termination, had been changed to s erroneously. 

Rownie's Sclate. A coast name in Cruden. Meaning 
unknown. 

Rowrandle. Red field. Ruadhran, expanded form of 
ruadh, red; dail, field. Dh is silent. 

Royhall. House with a large kitchen on a farm occupied 
by a tenant named Roy. A farm kitchen was called a hall 
because it was open to all connected with the farm. 

Roy Moss. Level moss. Originally the name had been 
Reidh Bac, level moss, and it had subsequently passed 
through the following forms: — Red Moss, Ruadh Moss, Roy 
Moss. Ruadh is red, but red in the name is a corruption of 
reidh, level. 

Royston (for Roy's town). Ruadh, red. 

Ruble. Rumbling. Rubail, rumbling, tumult. 

Ruidh an Loin, Burn of. Ruidh is a mistake for ruigh, 
dh and gh both having the sound of ye. See Ruigh an Loin. 

Ruigh an Loin. Part of a hill sloping down to a moss. 
Ruigh, hill slope, the lowest slope of a hill; an, of the; loin, 
gen. of Ion, moss. 

Ruigh nan Clach. Stony slope at the base of a hill. 
Ruigh, place sloping up to a hill; nan, of the; clach, gen. 
plural of clach, stone. 

Ruigh Speanan. Dividing ridge. Ruigh, slope at the 
base of a hill, here the two slopes at the ridge; spannadh, 
pres. part, of spann, to divide. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 281 

Kuighachail. Slope of the hill. Ruigh, slope; a', of 
the; choille, gen. asp. of coille, hill. 

Kuighcosach. Slope of the ascent. Ruigh, slope; cas- 
aich, gen. of casach, ascent. 

Euin. Small slope. Ruiglican, small slope. 

Rumblie Burn. Burn whose water rises up in volumes. 
Rumble, to roll about. 

Rumbling Gait. Chasm in which the water of the sea 
seems to boil up from the bottom. Rumble, to tumble about ; 
gja (Norse), chasm, gwight. 

Rumbling Gutter. Creek in which water rises in volumes 
from the bottom. Rumble, tumble about with noise; gutter, 
water channel, place for water falling from the eaves of a 
house. Latin gutta, drop. 

Rumbling Pot, Rumbling Pots. A pot is a deep hole in 
a river or channel in the sea, where water striking on the 
bottom rises in volumes, with or without noise. 

Rumfold. Fold at a marsh. Rumaielie, gen. of rumach, 
quagmire, bog. 

Rummicrae (for Ro-meud Rath). Very large round en- 
closure, cattle-fold, sheep-fold. Ro-meud, excessive great- 
ness; rath, circle. Final th is silent. 

Rumplehead. Place like the head of the tail of cattle. 
Rumpidl, tail, rump. 

Runnygurnal (for Roinn a' Ghairnil). Point of the 
girnal — that is the point of land on which it was situated. 
Roinn, point; a', of the; ghairnil, gen. asp. of gairneal, 
girnal, place where a proprietor stored meal rents brought 
by his tenants. 

Rush. Hillside. Ruigh, slope of a hill. 

Rushhead (for Cuid Ruigh). Fold on a hill slope. Cuid, 
fold; ruigh, lower slope of a hill. After ruigh had become 
rush, the parts of the name had been transposed, and cuid 
became chuid, subsequently losing c. Finally huid became 
head. 

Rushlach, The. The slope of a hill. Ruigh, slope at 
the base of a hill; laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. 

Rushmill (for Ruigh Mill). . Slope of a hill. Ruigh, 
slope; mill, gen. of me all, hill. 

Rushy Crook (for Ruighe Chnuic). Slope of a hill. 
Ruighe, slope; chnuic, gen. asp. of cnoc, hill. Cnoc is 
usually pronounced crochg by Gaelic-speaking people. The 
place is over 1000 feet above sea, on Kirkney Hill. 

Ruskie Moss (for Bac Ruighe). Moss of the slope of the 
hill. Bac, moss (translated and put last); ruighe, hill slope. 

Ruthrie Hill. Red hill. Ruadh, red, expanded into 
ruadhran, with dh changed to th. 

Ruthrieston. Ped town. Ruadhran, expansion of 



282 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

ruadh, red, with an changed to ie and dh to th. S had been 
inserted in the belief that Euthrie was a personal name in 
the possessive. 

Euthven (for Euigh Bheinne). Slope of a hill. Ruigh, 
slope; bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. Bh is equivalent to 
v, and Euigh Bheinne became Euthven, frequently pro- 
nounced rivvin. 

Euthven Fauld. Enclosed place for sheep on a slope. 
See Euthven. 

Eyall, Eyehill, Eyhill. Slope of a hill where cultiva- 
tion begins. Ruigh, slope; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. All 
represents choill with c silent and lost, and hill is a trans- 
lation of choiJl. 

Eyntaing. Point of the tongue. Rinn, point ; tainga, 
gen. of teanga, tongue. The place is on the point of a piece 
of land between two burns. 

Saak. See Savoch. 

Saddle Hill. Hill with a hollow between two tops. 

Saggie Pot (for Poit Sacaidh). Pot where a boat could 
land a cargo to be put in sacks and conveyed on horseback to 
the high ground above. Poit, pot; sacaidh, gen. of sacadh, 
pressing into sacks. Probably the reference is to the obsolete 
practice of cutting seaweed from the rocks and conveying it 
to land to be used as manure. There is a road from the sea- 
shore to the high ground. 

St Apolinaris Chapel. Chapel said to have been dedi- 
cated to a fictitious saint named Apolinaris. See Polinar. 

St Bride's Chapel. Chapel at Kildrummy dedicated to 
St Bridget, an Irish saint reverenced in Scotland. Bride is a 
familiar form of Bridget. 

St Catherine's Chapel. Prior to 1800 there was a hill 
of sand in Union Street at the entrance to Adelphi Court. 
On the summit there was an oratory dedicated to St 
Catherine. It is now commemorated by St Catherine's 
Wynd. 

Saint Cloud. Both these words mean hill. Saint repre- 
sents sithean, hill, with th silent and t added for euphony ; 
and Cloud is a corruption of cnoc, hill. Cnoc is pronounced 
with the tip of the tongue resting on the lower teeth, and 
Cloud can be pronounced with the tongue in the same 
position. In cloudberry, a name for the mountain bramble 
or aivron, the first part is really Cnoc, and so is Clod in 
Clodhill. 

St Combs. Church dedicated to St Columba. There is 
now a fishing village at the site of the church. 

St Congan's Church. Church of Turriff, dedicated to 
St Congan, corrupted to St Cowan. 

St Fergus. Church dedicated to St Fergus. The parish 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 283 

in which it stands now bears the same name, and there is 
also a village called St Fergus. 

St Machar's Chapel (Corriehoul). The idea that there 
had been at Corriehoul a chapel dedicated to St Machar 
must have originated after Gaelic ceased to be understood. 
Machair, alluvial plain by a river. 

St Maciiar's Church (Aberdeen). Church dedicated to 
St Machar. This dedication is a mere supposition. Machair, 
level ground, haugh by a river. 

St Mary's Chapel. King's College Chapel was dedicated 
to St Mary of the Nativity. 

St Mary's of the Snows. An ancient parish in Aber- 
deen, dedicated to St Mary of the Snows, now suppressed. 

St Nicholas Church. The ancient parish church of 
Aberdeen, dedicated to St Nicholas, the patron of sailors. 

St Olaus's Well. Well in Cruden dedicated to Olaf, a 
Norwegian saint. A church in Lerwick dedicated to him is 
called St Ola's, and a street in London named after him is 
called Tooley Street, initial t being the last letter of saint. 

St Peter's. An ancient parish in Aberdeen, now sup- 
pressed, on Spital Hill. 

St Sairs. Market stance where an annual fair is held 
about July 1, St Serf's day. 

St Thomas's Hospital. A hospital, dedicated to St 
Thomas a Becket of Canterbury, stood between St Nicholas 
Street and Correction Wynd, Aberdeen. 

Sanatorium. Place where sick persons are cured. Sana- 
tonus (Latin), pertaining to healing. 

Sandbrigs. Sandy hill. Bruch, hill. S is a euphonic 
addition. Sand may be a corruption of sithean, hill. 

Salter's Mire, Satter Hill, Satyr Hills. The first 
part of these names had been Tir Saith, land of plenty. Tir, 
land; saith, gen. of sath, plenty, abundance of grass. The 
position of the accent shows transposition of the parts of 
the names. L is inserted after a to show that it is long. 

Salthouse Head. Point on which a house for making 
salt stood. 

Satter Hill and Satyr Hills. See Salter's Mire. 

Sanyne (for Sandend). Place at the south end of the 
Sands of Forvie. 

Saphock. Same as Savock; which see. 

Saplinbrae. Brae growing young trees. Sapling, young 
tree full of sap. 

Satan's Howe. Howe of the droves. Sathan, gen. 
plural of satli, drove, flock. Final 's had been added to 
sathan to convert it into an English possessive. Satan's 
Howe is on the long drove road between Towie and Tarland, 
and droves had rested in it at night. 



584 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Satan's Well. Well of the droves. This well is on a 
hill near an old drove road from Buchan to Potarch. See 
Satan's Howe. 

Sauch, Saugh. Willow. Seileach, willow. Willow is in 
Latin salix, salicis; in French saule; in English sallow. 

Sauch Well. A dipping well with a willow tree planted 
near it to show its site when covered with snow. 

Sauchen. Small quiet place. Samhachan (mh silent), 
dim. of samhach, quiet, pleasant. 

Sauchen Stripe. Small stream bordered by willows. 

Sauchenbog. Willow bog. 

Sauchenbush. Thicket of willows. 

Sauchend. Same as Sauchen. 

Sauchenloan. Pleasant grassy place at a dwelling. 
Samhachan, dim. of samhach, quiet, pleasant; loan, grassy 
place before a dwelling-house. 

Sauchentree. Willow tree. 

Sauchenyard. Enclosed place growing willows. 

Saughs. Willows. 

Savey, Top of. Quiet hill top. Samhach, undisturbed, 
quiet. Mh is equivalent to v. 

Savoch, Savock, Saphock, Saak. Pleasant place. Sam- 
hach, quiet, mild, pleasant. Mh is equivalent to v. It is 
also equivalent to bh, which is similar to ph. Mh, like other 
aspirated letters, is liable to become silent and to be omitted. 

Scabbed Inch, Scabbit Fauld. In these names the first 
part represents sguabaidh, gen. of sguabadh, broom. Innis, 
island; fauld, small enclosed field of grass. 

Scad Hill, Scald Craigs. Bare hill. Sgall, bald, bare. 
Craigs represents creagan, dim. of creag, hill. An had been 
made s instead of ie, the corresponding Scotch dim. 
termination. 

Scantcairn. Drove hill. Sgann, drove; cam, hill. 
There is a small hill near a drove road, and there may have 
been a prescriptive right to rest cattle on it. 

Scar Hill, Scare Hill, Scarehill. Hill with pointed 
rocky top. Sgor, sharp rock. The east end of Bennachie 
is a good example of a " scar hill." 

Scareleys. Grassy place where there are rocky points. 
Sgorach, abounding in pointed rocks. 

Scarfauld Hill. Hill on which there is an enclosure 
containing some pointed rocks. 

Scars, The. The pointed rocks. Sgoran, plural of sgor, 
pointed rock. This name is given to sharp-pointed rocks on 
hills and in the sea. 

Scarsoch (for Sgor Soc). Mountain with a rocky snout 
on the summit. Sgor, pointed rock; soc for suic, gen. of 
soc, snout. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 235- 

Scarsoch Bheag. Little Scarsoch. Bheag, beag asp., 
little. 

Scarth Craig. Rock on which cormorants sit. Scart or 
scarth, cormorant; creag, rock. 

Scatter Burn, Scatterburn. Burn with a deep eroded 
channel. Sgathta (tli silent), eroded; tir, land. 

Scattertie (for Sgathta Tirte). Eroded lands. Sgathta 
(tli silent), eroded; tirte, euphonic plural of tir, land. 

Scattie Wood. Wood of the drove. Sgata, drove. 
Scattie might represent sgathta, eroded. An became ie. 

Scaur Wood; Scaurs, The. Scaur and Scaurs represent 
sgoran, plural of sgor, rock. An had become s in the last 
name. 

Scaurfauld Hill. Hill with a fauld on it in which 
there were pointed rocks. 

Scavie. Hay or corn barn. Sgamhan, barn for storing 
hay or straw. Mh had become v, and an had become ie. 

Schivas (for Seamhas). Good fortune. Seamhas (pro- 
nounced sJievas), prosperity. 

Sclattie. Ford protected against erosion by stems of 
trees laid down in the bed of the stream. Slatach, made 
with stems of trees. See Slateford. 

Scobach. Place abounding in broom. Sguabach, 
broomy. 

Scourgie (for Sgorach). Pointed, rocky. 

Scourie Burn. Burn which had cut out a deep channel. 
Sgorach, cutting, gashing. 

Scout Bog (perhaps for Bogan Sgeithe). Vomiting bog. 
Bogan, wet place, bog; sgeithe, gen. of sgeith, vomiting, 
throwing out. This name would be appropriate for a bog 
which in winter continuousl}" discharged a small stream of 
thin watery clay. 

Scotsbrae, Scotsmill, Scotston, Scotstown, Scott's 
Pool, Scottsbank, Scottsmill, Scottiesley, Scottiestone. 
Scot in these names represents Eas Cuit, burn at a fold. 
Eas, burn ; cuit, fold. From the same roots come also Escott, 
Ascot, Ascott, Asquith, Ayscough, Askew, Scotlandwell, etc. 

Scoube. Broom. Sguab, broom. 

Scrapehard. Bough hill. Sgrabach, rough, rugged; 
ard, height. 

Scraulac Hill from which the surface had been pared 
to provide litter for a cattle-fold or to make divots for the 
roofs of houses. Sgroilleach, peeling, paring. 

Scroghill (for Sgor Hill). Hill with one or more 
pointed rocks. Sgor, sharp-pointed rock. 

Scurbank. Steep bare bank with rocky places. Sgor y 
scaur (Scotch), bare rock. 



286 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Scurdargue. Red steep brae with bare places in it. 
Scaur, bare steep brae ; dearg, red. 

Seal Skelly. Seal rock. Sgeilg (Irish), rock. 

Seals Busk. Eock where seals lay basking in the sun. 

Sealscrook (for Cnoc Sealain). Hill of the shieling. 
Cnoc, hill; sealain, gen. of sealan, summer hill pasture. 
Cnoc is usually pronounced crochg. Final an had erroneously 
been supposed to be a plural termination and made s. 

Sean Choille or the Genechal. Site of a wood which 
had been cut. Sean, old; choille, coille asp., wood. Gene- 
chal is an imitation in English of the sound of Sean Choille. 

Searghee Hillock. Dried up hillock. Seargaichte, 
withered, dried up. 

Seatiton. Farm-town at a proprietor's residence. 
Suidhe, place, seat; ton, town. 

Seaton. Farm-town near the sea. 

Seats. Settlement. Suidhean, dim. of suidhe, seat. 
The dim. termination had been mistaken for the plural. 

Seedhill. Hill on which courts were held. Suidhe, seat 
of a court, site, place. 

Seelyhillock. Eocky knoll. Sgeilgan, dim. of sgeilg 
(Irish), rocky hill. An became ie in Scotch. 

Seggat. Windy situation. Suidhe, site; gaothach, 
windy. The same root words transposed have given the 
name Gateside. 

Seggiecrook, Seggiebog, Segybog, Seggieden, Seggie- 
hole. In these names the first part represents sedgy, 
abounding in Iris pseudacorus, sedge, in Scotch seg. 

Selbie Hill (for Tom Sealbhain). Hill of cattle. Tom, 
hill; sealbhain, gen. of sealbhan, cattle. The aspirate in bh 
had been lost. 

Semeil. Quiet hill. Seimh, quiet; al, hill. 

Seuch Burn. Draining burn. Suigh, gen. of sugh, 
moisture, drainings. 

Sewage Farm. Farm where sewage water is purified by 
irrigating grass. Sexver, large drain, from Latin ex-succare, 
to drain. 

Sgor. Upstanding rock on the summit of a hill, hill with 
a rocky summit. When an ice-sheet passed over the sum- 
mits of mountains it swept away loose matter but sometimes 
left masses of solid rock. 

Sgor an Eoin. Hill of the bird. Eoin, gen. of eun, bird. 

Sgor an Lochain Uaine. Hill of the green lochan. 
Lochain, gen. of lochan, small loch, lochan; uaine, green. 

Sgor Buidhe. Yellow hill. Buidhe, yellow. 

Sgor Damh. Hill of deer. Damh, gen. plural of damh, 
stag, deer, ox. 

Sgor Dubh. Black hill. Dubh, black. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 287 

Sgor Gorm. Blue hill. Gorm, blue. 

Sgor Mor. Big hill. Mor, big. 

Sgor na Cuileige. Hill of the fly. Cuileige, gen. of 
cuilcag, fly. Cuileige may be a mistake for culaige, gen. of 
culag, turf for the back of a fire. 

Sgor na h-Iolaire. Hill of the eagle. Iolaire, gen. of 
iolair, eagle. Eagles take flight from rocks because they 
cannot rise from level ground. 

Shackle Cairn (for Buigh Cairn). Slope of the hill. 
Ruigh, slope near the base of a hill; cairn, gen. of earn, hill. 
Buigh (gh silent), had been corrupted into Bye, and this had 
been translated into Gaelic by Seagal (pronounced slia-gal), 
rye. Seagal had subsequently been corrupted into Shackle. 
It must not be presumed that Gaelic forms of names are all 
•old. Some of them are absurd renderings into Gaelic of 
what seemed to be English names but were really corrupt 
forms of ancient Gaelic names. 

Shadowside. North side of a hill. 

Shaggart (for Sean Gart). Old enclosure. Scan (pro- 
nounced shan), old; gart, circle, stone circle round a grave, 
fold. 

Shallowplough. Farm in a sheltered place. Asgall, 
bosom, sheltered place. See Ashallow. 

Shand's Loch, Shandscross. Shand represents sithean 
(th silent), hill, with euphonic d added. After the meaning 
of sean had been lost s had been added to convert it into 
the English possessive. 

Shank of Corlich, Shank of Fafernie. Shank is sithean 
(tli silent), hill, with euphonic k added. See Corlach and 
Fafernie. 

Shannach Burn. Burn beside which meadow T grass was 
made into hay. Siannach (pronounced shannach), place of 
piles of grass. Formerly there were on farms cottars whose 
chief employment was to cut grass and make hay for food 
for cattle in winter. 

Shannach Moss, Shannock, Shannocks. In these names 
the root seems to be sunnach (Irish), summit. Shannach 
Moss is a high flat circular area, and Shannocks, near Tur- 
riff, is on high ground. 

Shannas. Burn near which meadow hay was made. 
Sian (pronounced shan), hillock of grass, coil; eas (pro- 
nounced as), water, burn. 

Shannel. Old burn course. Sean, old; allt, burn. 

Shanquhar (for Sean Carr). Old stone monument. 
Sean, old; carr, monumental pillar. 

Shantlerhill. Hill not under cultivation. Seantalamh, 
uncultivated land. Sean is pronounced shan. 

Shants of Murdoch (for Sithean Murdorch). Hill of the 



288 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

black wall. Sithean (th silent) hill, with t added for euphony 
and s added because sithean ends in an, sometimes a plural 
termination. See Murdoch. 

Sharp Pick (for Pic Sgarbh). Pointed rock, frequented 
by cormorants. Pic, pointed rock; sgarbh, gen. plural of 
sgarbh, cormorant, scart. In autumn immense numbers of 
young cormorants sit on rocks at the water edge in Shetland 
and other places where they breed, so that they can plunge 
in quickly for food or to escape danger. 

Sharper (for Ar Sgarbh). Ground of the cormorants. 
Ar, ground; sgarbh, gen. plural of sgarbh, scart, cormorant. 
Probably The Sharper had been bigger when it got its name 
than it is now. 

Sharperhillock. Eough hillock. Sgrabach, rough, 
rugged. 

Shawhill. Wood hill. Shaw, thicket. 

Shaw's Shiel. Shieling hut at a thicket. Seal, hut on 
a shieling; shaw, bushy place, small wood. Final s had been 
added to Shaw when its meaning had been lost, to change 
it into the English possessive. 

Sheal, Sheal Burn, Shealing Hillock, Sheals, Burn 
of Sheals. Sheal represents seal, a temporary summer resi- 
dence among hills. In English it is usually made shiel. 
Shealing and Sheals represent sealan, summer pasture among 
hills at some distance from a farm. An has become ing in 
Shealing and s, improperly, in Sheals. 

Shearer Hill. Black shiel hill. Sear, dark, black; 
airidh, shiel. 

Sheddockley. Grassy place where people lived in tem- 
porary quarters in summer, probably when engaged in hay- 
making or dairy work. Seideach, having beds of hay or grass 
spread on the ground; ley (Scotch), grassy place. See 
Mastrick. S before e is pronounced sh. 

Sheelagreen. Green place at huts on a shieling. 
Sealan, plural of seal, hut on a shieling. 

Sheeling Tor (for Torr Sealain). Steep bank with flat 
summit where cattle pastured in summer. Torr, steep, 
abrupt height; sealain, gen. of sealan, summer pasture. 

Sheldon (perhaps for Dun Seala). Hill of summer pas- 
ture. Dun, hill; seala, gen. of seal, shieling. 

Shelling Hillock. Hillock where corn which had been 
shelled in a mill was riddled to separate the sids and the 
shelled grain. 

Shenalt, Easter and Wester. Old burn. Sean, old; 
allt, burn. The digging of a long ditch between two burns- 
gave rise to the name Shenalt applied to them. 

Shenral, Shenval, Shenwall (for Sean Bhaile). Old 
town. Sean (pronounced shen), old; bhaile, baile asp.,. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 289 

town. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w. Shenral is a mistake 
for Shenval. 

Shepherd's Cairn. See Cairns. 

Sheriff Burn (for Sear Abh). Black water burn. Sear 
(Irish), dark, black; abh, water. Se is pronounced she. 

Shethin (for Sith Fhin). Hill. Both parts of the name 
mean hill, and the second had been added to explain the 
first. Sith (pronounced slieeth), hill; fhin, fin asp., hill. 
Fh is silent and had been lost. The accent on the final 
syllable shows that it represents a qualifying word. Perhaps 
fh had become th. 

Shevado (local pronunciation shevada — for Sith Bhad- 
ach). Bushy hillock. Sith (pronounced she), hillock; 
bhadach, badach asp., bushy. Bh is equivalent to v, and 
ch had become silent and had been lost. 

Sheverock, The. The hawk rock. Seabhaig, gen. of 
seabhag, hawk. Several names of the rocky coast between 
Boddam and Collieston indicate that hawks bred among the 
rocks. 

Shevock. Placid little burn. Seimh (pronounced shev), 
placid; og, small. Mh is equivalent to v. In the Chartulary 
of Lindores Abbey the Shevock burn is called the Ourie, 
which means small stream. 

Shiel, Shield Know, Shield Knowe, Shielhill, Shiels. 
See Sheal. Shiels might represent either sealan, plural of 
seal, or sealan, pasture ground. 

Shinnach (for Sitheanach). Abounding in knolls. S is 
pronounced sh before i, and th being silent had become lost, 
with its vowel e. 

Shiprow. Eow of houses on the north-west side of the 
road from the harbour of Aberdeen to the end of Broad 
Street. A row was the term for a single line of houses. 

Shuen (for Sughan). Wet place. In passing into Scotch 
s had been aspirated; gh became silent; and an became en. 

Shunies (for Sughanan). Wet places. Sughanan, plural 
of sughan, wet place. In passing into Scotch s had been 
aspirated, as is done in sugar, sure, suit. Gh being silent 
had been lost. An ought to have become s, but it became 
both ic and s. 

Sidegate (for Suidhe Gaothach). Windy place. Suidhe, 
seat, place; gaothach, windy. The common form of the 
name is Gateside. 

Siller Hill, Silverhillock. Hill where cattle fed. 
Sealbhar, cattle, wealth in cattle. 

Sillerton (for Baile Sealbhar). Town of many cattle. 
Bailc, town; sealbhar (bh silent and omitted), rich in cattle. 
Sealar had become siller, the Scotch term for wealth. 
Sillerton was long a local name for Gordon's Hospital, 



290 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Aberdeen. Gordon's Hospital was built on a farm called by 
this name because being near the Loch it had produced 
much grass. From Aberdeen the name had been transferred 
to a farm in Turriff on an estate purchased by the trustees 
of the hospital. 

Silver Burn, Silver Cairn, Silver Cave, Silver Coral, 
Silver Gight, Silver Hillock, Silver Stone, Silver 
Well, Silverfield, Silverford, Silverley Head, Silver- 
moss, Silverwells. In these names Silver represents 
sealbhar (pronounced sealvar), cattle. In names in which 
Well or Wells forms a part there may be a reference also to 
a custom of visiting sacred wells on the first Sunday of May 
and drinking of the water or washing sores with it, in the 
hope of deriving benefit from the water. Visitors usually 
dropped small coins into the well. But the reference to 
money is much later than to cattle. Cairn means hill. Cave 
shows that cattle had been folded in caves. Coral is cor, 
round hill, together with aill, hill. Gight is a chasm which 
had been utilised as a pumphal. Stone shows that a pillar 
had served as a rubbing-post for cattle. In Silverley Head 
ley means grassy place, and head means a cattle-fold. 

Simpson's Cairn. Cairn commemorating a person named 
Simpson who was found dead on the site of the cairn. 

Sinclair Hills. Hills rising from a level plain. Sithean 
(th silent), plural of sith, mount, hillock; clair, gen. of clar, 
level plain. 

Sinnaboth. Knoll at the hut. Sithean (th silent), knoll; 
a', of the; both, hut. 

Sinnahard (for Suidhe na h-Ard). Place on the hill. 
Suidhe, place; na, of the; h (euphonic); ard, height. 

Sinsharnie (for Sithean Charnach). Stony hill. Sithean 
(th silent); carnach, stony. The aspiration of carnach had 
taken place at a late time. 

Sittinghillock. Both parts of the name mean the same 
thing. Sithean, small hill. 

Skair, The. Rock on a hill. Sgeir, rock. 

Skares. Bocks. Sgeirean, plural of sgeir, rock in the 
sea or on a hill standing apart from others. An became s. 

Skate Lakes. Flat smooth rocks on which skate were 
dried. Sgat, skate; leacan, plural of leac, flat stone. 

Skate Wood, Skatebrae. In these names Skate repre- 
sents sgitheach, hawthorn. 

Skellarts. Bocky little heights. Sgeilg, rock; ardan, 
plural of ard, height. An had been translated into s. 

Skellater. Extensive land. Sgaoilte, extended; th, 
land. 

Skellies, Skellyis. Bocks. Sgeilgan, plural of sgeilg, 
rock. An had been regarded at first as a dim. termination 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 291 

and changed to ic, and afterwards as a plural termination 
and s had been added to ie. 

Skelly Eock, Skellybogs, Skellyhill. Skelly repre- 
sents sgeilgan, dim. of sgcilg, rock, or sgeilgan, plural of 
sgeilg, rock. 

Skelmonae, Skilmonae. Eock of the hill. Sgeilg, rock; 
monaidh, gen. of monadh, hill. 

Skelmuir (for Sgaoilte Muir). Extonsive moor. 

Sgaoilte, extended. Muir may represent mur, hill. 

Skene. Burn at a small fold. Eos, burn; cuithan, small 
fold. Tha is silent. 

Skene Square (for Skene's Square). A block of build- 
ings at the north-west corner where Eosemount Place meets 
Skene Square. See Skene. 

Skene Street. Street on the road to Skene. Skene is 
for [Ea]s Cui[tha]n. Burn at a small fold. Eas, burn; 
■cuithan, dim. of cuith, fold. The letters within brackets had 
been lost. Ea is sounded as in head, and would hardly have 
been heard before s. Th medial is silent and had been lost. 

Skerry. Small sea rock. Sgeirean, dim. of sgeir, sea 
rock. An had become y. 

Sketrie Burn. Burn whose water was purgative. 

Skeugh Burn. Burn of the hawthorn bush. Sgeach, 
hawthorn. 

Skillymarno (for Sgeilg na Bearna). Eock of the gap. 
Sgeilg, rock; na, of the; bearna, gap. Bh and mh are both 
equivalent to v, and hence by loss of the aspirate b may 
become m. 

Skilmafilly (for Sgeilg na Fine). Eock of the hill. 
Sgeilg, rock; na, of the; fine, gen. of fin, hill. 

Skilmonae. See Skelmonae. 

Skinna Burn, Skinner's Pot. The first part of the 
names represents sgannain, gen. of sgannan, small herd or 
flock. 

Skipleton (for Baile Sgiobail). Town of a barn. Baile, 
town (translated); sgiobail, gen. of sgiobal, barn, granary. 

Skirl Naked. Eocky hill from which tidings were 
signalled. Sgeir, rock, rocky hill; naigheachd, tidings. 

Skirts of Foudland. Places on the borders of the Hill 
of Foudland. 

Skite Hole. Skate hole. Sgait, gen. of sgat, skate. 

Skurrie. Sharp little rock at the mouth of the Ugie. 
Sgorran, dim. of sgor, sharp rock. 

Skybrae. Brae growing hawthorns. Sgeach, hawthorn 
bush, hawthorn berry. 

Slack. Hollow. Sloe, hollow, gorge, space between two 
heights near each other. 



292 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Slack Merlin. Hollow frequented by a small hawk. 
Merlin, small hawk. 

Slack Methland. Hollow of the wet hill. Sloe, hollow; 
maoth, wet; lamhan, hill. 

Slack o' Causeway. Slack along which a made road 
passed. Slochd, gorge, slack; o' , of the; causeway, road 
made with broken stones and gravel. See Causeway. 

Slack of Etry. Hollow at a house on a hillside. Sloe, 
hollow; aite, place; ruigh, slope of a hill. 

Slack of Larg. Hollow of the footpath. Sloe, hollow; 
learg, hillside, road on a hillside. 

Slack of Menie. Hollow of the gap between two hills. 
Sloe, hollow; meanain, gen. of meanan, gap. Ain had 
become ie. 

Slackadale. Hollow of the riverside field. Sloe, hol- 
low; a', of the; dail, for dalach, riverside field. 

Slackmore. Big trench-like hollow. Sloe, slack, slug, 
den, gorge ; mor, big. 

Slacks of Cairnbanno. Hollow crossing a road at Cairn - 
banno. Slocan, dim. of sloe, gorge, hollow, low place in a 
road. An had been erroneously translated into Scotch by 
s instead of ie. 

Slai na Gour. Mountain of the goat. Sliabh, mountain; 
na, of the; gabhair, gen. of gabhar, goat. 

Slampton (for Baile Sleibh). Town on a hill. Baile,. 
town; sleibh, gen. of sliabh, hill. M and b are often inter- 
changed because mh and bh both sound v. P is a euphonic 
insertion. 

Slains. Unbroken coast. Slan, whole, without opening. 
Final s represents an of slan, which though translated into 
s had been allowed to remain. A card term, slam, is the 
equivalent of Gaelic slan, whole. 

Slaskie. Sloping. Sliosach, having sloping sides. 

Slateheugh. Cliff of slate rock. Heugh, overhanging 
precipitous cliff. 

Slatersford (for Ath Slatach). Ford laid with trunks 
of trees. Ath, ford; slatach, formed of trunks of trees. The 
stems of small trees were laid side by side across a stream 
to give a safe footing for horses. 

Slaties Pot. Pot in the Ythan near Slateheugh. 

Slaughter Head (for Cuid Tir Sleibh). Fold of the land 
of the hill. Cuid, fold; tir, land; sleibh, gen. of sliabh, hill. 
After being corrupted and losing its meaning the name had 
become Sliabh Tir Chuid, and by loss of c after aspiration 
chuid had become first huid and then head. 

Sleac Gorm, Sleach. Sleac and Sleach both represent 
sliabh, hill. Gorm is blue. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 293 

Sleek of Tarty. Soft muddy place at the mouth of the 
Tarty burn. Slike (Middle English), greasy, smooth, soft 
and muddy. 

Sleepy Hillock. The original form of this name may 
have been Cnapan Sleibh. Knoll of the mountain. Cnapan, 
hillock (translated); sleibh, gen. of sliabh, extensive moun- 
tain. 

Sleepynook. Corner of the hill. Sleibh, gen. of sliabh, 
hill. 

Sleepytown. Town on a hill. Baile, town (translated); 
sleibh, gen. of sliabh, hill. 

Slewdrum (for Druim Sleibh). Ridge of the hill. Druim , 
ridge; sleibh, gen. of sliabh, hill. 

Sliddery Brae. Brae on a road near Potarch, dangerous 
to cattle and horses from ice. If Sliddery is a word of Gaelic 
origin it represents sliabh airidhe, hill of the shieling. 

Slidegate (for Slighe Gaothach). Windy path. Slighe, 
road, path; gaothach, windy. Gh and dh are pronounced 
alike, and hence they were liable to be used for one another. 

Slioch. Hill. Sliabh, hill. Bh had become ch as the 
result of resemblance to slochd, pass between two hills. 

Sliochd Hill. Hill of the gorge. Sluichd, gen. of 
slochd, slug, pass, gorge. 

Sloc, Slog, Slug. Hollow. Sloe, gorge, howe. 

Sloc of Dess. Gorge of the Dess burn. Sloe, hollow, 
gorge; deas, south. 

Slochd Mor, Slockmore. Big gorge. Slochd, gorge; 
mor, big. 

Slog, The. Narrow margin of the Don at Kildrummy. 
Sloc, gorge, valley. 

Slogs, The. Narrow burn valley. Slocan, dim. of sloc, 
river valley. The Slogs is the valley of a very small stream, 
and an had erroneously been translated by s instead of ie. 

Slogan, Sloggan, Sloggie. Small howe. Slocan, dim. 
of sloc, howe, gorge, burn valley. 

Slogganbuidh Burn. Burn of the little yellow gorge. 
Slocan, dim. of sloc, gorge, river valley; buidhe, yellow. 

Slogwell. Well in a gorge. Sloc, gorge. 

Slouch Moss, Slouch of Bath, Slouch Well. Slouch 
represents slochd, howe, gorge, river valley. Bath is 
beathach, producing birches. 

Slough, The; Slough Well. Slough represents slochd, 
gorge, stream valley, howe. 

Sluie, Sluey, (for Sluigan). Little slug. G had been 
aspirated and afterwards lost. An became ie. 

Sluievannochie. Happy little valley. Sluigan, little 
slug, valley; bheannachaidh , gen. asp. of beannachadh, 
blessing, blessedness. 



294 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Slydie (for Slighe). Roadside. Gh and dh are sounded 
alike, hence arose mistakes of d for g in passing into Scotch. 
Slydie is at the side of a road. 

Small Burn, Smallburn. In Gaelic this had been 
caochan, small burn. In English it is sometimes by mistake 
made Blind Burn. 

Smiddy Hillocks. Hillocks emitting smoke or white 
vapour. In a frosty morning hillocks covered with hoar frost 
seem to emit vapour when the sun shines on them. Smui- 
deach, emitting smoke. The hillocks are at too great an 
altitude to be smithy hillocks. 

Snarleshow. Howe is the translation of ioclid. Snarles 
may represent Easan Airidh Lise. Burn of the shieling at 
the cattle-fold. Easan, dim. of eas, burn; airidh, shieling; 
lise, gen. of lios, fold, circle. 

Sneck, The. The creeping burn. Snaig, to creep. 

Snowy Slack. Hollow in which snow lies long. In 
Gaelic, Sloe Sneachdach. Sloe, slack, slug, gorge; sneach- 
dach, snowy. 

Snub, The. Short thick point of land looking as if the 
sharp end had been cut off. Snub (Teutonic), to cut off the 
point. 

Socach, Socagh, Succoth. Hill with a projecting sum- 
mit. Socach, snouted, beaked. 

Socach Mor. Hill with a big snout on the summit. 
Socach, snout, beak; mor, big. 

Soliken. Wet hillside. Sogh, wetness; leacainn, gen. 
of leacann, hillside. 

Sonach. Fold for cattle made by a circle of trunks of 
trees let into the ground. Sonach, palisade. Near Aber- 
deen there were two folds of this kind, called Stockets. 
Sometimes skins or mats were attached to the tree-trunks 
to give shelter to the cattle. 

Sourfold. Wet fold. Sogliar {gh silent), wet; fauld, a 
small field outside the cultivated land on a farm, usually 
enclosed with a dyke made of sods. Sour as applied to land 
simply means wet. To sour lime means to pour water on 
roasted limestone. 

SOUTERFORD, SoUTERHILL, SoUTERS' HOLE, SOUTERTON. 

In these names Souter represents sogh tire, wet land. Sogh, 
wetness; tire, gen. of tir, land. Souterford is on the Ugie, 
a slow stream which is bordered by wet land. 

South Allans. See Allans. 

South Fardine, or Sweet Farding, (for Suidhe Fir-dam). 
Seat of the judge. Suidhe, seat; fir-dain, gen. of fear-dain, 
man of judgment, judge of a barony court. 

Sow, The. Large rounded stone like a sow. Smaller 
stones round it are supposed to be pigs. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 295 

Spa Well, Spawell. Well with medicinal virtue. Spa, 
a town in Belgium, where there are springs whose water is 
impregnated with carbonate of iron. Hence chalybeate 
springs in Aberdeen and elsewhere were called Spa wells. 
The Spa Well near Fraserburgh is said to be sulphurous. 

Spar Craigs (for Spardan Creag). The second part ex- 
plains the first. Spardan, small hill; creag, hill. Spardan 
had erroneously been supposed to be plural, hence an had 
been changed into s, added to Craig. 

Sparhillock (for Spardan). Hillock. Spardan, flat- 
topped hillock. 

Spearrach Burn. Bum near which cows with fetters 
on their feet pastured. Spearrach, fetter for feet of cows or 
goats. 

Spensal Brae, Spensal Mire. Spensal may represent 
spinan aill, spinney on a hill. Spinan, plural of spin, thorn; 
aill, hill. An had become s, normally. 

Spill arsford (for Ath Speil Airidhe). Ford for cattle 
on a shieling. Ath, ford; speil, drove of cattle; airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling. 

Spingie Mire. Spingie may represent spinan, plural of 
spin, thorn, and perhaps also bush. 

Spital. House where entertainment is provided gratuit- 
ously for sick, poor, aged, and infirm persons or for travellers 
on long desolate roads. Hospitale (Latin), place pertaining 
to gratuitous entertainment. 

Spital in Aberdeen. Hospital for infirm priests. It was 
on the east side of the street now called Spital, within St 
Peter's Cemetery. Its chapel became the church of St 
Peter's parish, now suppressed. 

Spital Hill. Hill on which St Peter's hospital was 
situated. 

Spittal of Kendal. Hospital, probably for poor old 
farmers, on the estate of Kendal. Hospitale (Latin), place 
where kindness was shown gratuitously. See Kendal. 

Spittal of Glenmuick. House in Glenmuick where 
travellers unable to cross the Capel Mount found hospitality. 

Springleys. Grassy places near a spring of water. 

Spreader Hill. Hill of many cattle. Spreidheach, 
abounding in cattle. Er may represent airidh, shieling. 

Sprottienook. Nook where sprots grow. Sprots are 
hollow rushes, formerly grown for use in making ropes for 
thatching ricks. 

Spunkie's Knowe. Knowe on which lights were re- 
ported to have been seen at night. The general name for 
lucifer matches for many years after they w T ere introduced 
was " spunks," meaning small lights. Spunkie was sup- 
posed to be a ghost who carried a light. 



296 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Sput Geal. White spout. Sput, gushing spring; geal, 
white. Probably geal represents white not as a colour but 
as a corruption of chuit, cuit asp., cattle-fold. 

Spy Far. Place with a good view. 

Sron a' Bhoidhche. Point of great beauty. Sron, point; 
a', of the; bhoidhche, extreme beauty. 

Sron a' Bhruic. Headland tenanted by badgers. Sron, 
projecting point of a hill; a', of the; bhruic, gen. asp. of 
broc, badger. 

Sron Aonghais. Point of the hill. Aonghais is a mistake 
for aonaich, gen. of aonach, hill. 

Sron Bhuic. Projecting point of a hill where he-goats 
pastured. Sron, nose, promontory; bhuic, gen. asp. of boc, 
buck, he-goat. 

Sron Dubh. Black point. Sron, point; dubh, black. 

Sron Gharbh. Rough point. Sron, projecting moun- 
tain; garbh, rough. 

Sron na Gaoithe. Windy point. Sron, projecting moun- 
tain ; na, of tbe ; gaoithe, gen. of gaoth, wind. 

Sron nam Fiadh. Point of the deer. Sron, point; nam, 
of the; fiadh, gen. plural of fiadh, deer. 

Sron nan Gabhar. Point' of the goats. Sron, projecting 
point; nan, of the; gabhar, gen. plural of gabhar, goat. 

Sqreuchaig, Coire na. Corry of the jackdaw. Coire, 
corry ; na, of the; sgreuchaig, gen. of sgreuchag, jackdaw, 
kae. Q is a mistake for g. 

Sron Riach. Grey point. Sron, point; riach, grey. 

Stable Stank. Ditch from the point of a hill. Stank 
(Latin stagnum), standing water; stob, point; aill, gen. of 
aill, hill. 

Stag's Well. In Gaelic this name had been Tobar 
Damh. Well of stags or Well of oxen. Till a recent date a 
mature male deer was called a hart, not a stag, and prob- 
ably Stag's Well should be Oxen's Well. 

Stale Head. Steep rocky head. Stalla, rock, precipice. 

Standing Stones. Circle of upright stones guarding a 
sepulchral chamber or an urn containing incinerated bones. 

Stane of Heebreem. Boundary stone. Clach, stone; 
chuibhrinn, gen. asp. of cuibhrionn, partition. The Gaelic 
i is pronounced ee. 

Staners, The. (In Gaelic Airidhean Clachach.) Stony 
pasture grounds. Airidhean, plural of airidh, pasture; 
clachach, stony. B in Staners represents air of airidhean, 
and s represents an, a plural termination. 

Stankside. Ditch side. Stagnum (Latin), pool, stand- 
ing water. Stank usually means a deep ditch with water 
nearly at rest. 

Stanryford. Probably ry represents ruigh, slope, and 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. £97 

the original form of the name might have been Ath Ruigh 
Clachaich. Ford of the stony brae. Ath, ford (translated); 
ruigh, slope, brae; clachaich, gen. of clachach, stony (trans- 
lated). 

Star Bog, Star Hill, Starbridge, Starhill, Starna- 
fin, Starnakeppie. Star means stepping-stones over a burn, 
or stems of trees or wickerwork for crossing a wet place. At 
Starbridge a bridge had taken the place of the stones. On 
Starhill a burn was crossed by stepping-stones. Starnafin 
is for Stair na Fin, stepping-stones at a hill. Stair, step- 
ping-stones; na, of the; fin, hill. Starnakeppie is for Stair 
na Ceapaich, stepping-stones at a plot of cultivated ground. 
Stair, stepping-stones; na, of the; ceapaich, gen. of ceapach, 
small piece of ground. 

Starry Eed Craig (for Stairean Eeidh Creige). Stepping- 
stones of level rock. Stairean, plural of stair, stepping- 
stones; reidh, level, smooth; creige, gen. of crcag, rock. 
Several glacially smoothed rocks off the coast of Peterhead 
have some resemblance to a row of stepping-stones. 

Stay Know (for Stey Knowe). Steep knoll. Stey 
(Scotch), stiff; knowe, knoll. 

Steenynook. Stony corner. 

Stein, The. The stone. A solitary rock near the land 
in Peterhead parish. 

Steinmanhill. Stony hill. Stein, Scotch for stone; 
man, hill. Man occurs also in Longmanhill and Fourman. 
Man is represented in English names by mynd, hill. 

Stells, The. The stations. The Stells were salmon 
fishings on the south side of the Dee, east of Torry, where 
fish were caught when the tide flowed by a net attached to 
a rope. One end of the rope was fastened to a post on the 
shore and the other to a boat in the river. Stells is the same 
word as Stalls. 

Sterin. Stepping-stones. Stairean, plural of stair, 
stepping-stone. 

Steven sburn (for Allt Stuib Bheinne). Burn from the 
head of the hill. Allt, burn; stuib, gen. of stob, point; 
bheinne, gen. asp. of beinn, hill. Final c is silent in names. 

Stewart Park. Pleasure park at Woodside, named in 
honour of Sir David Stewart, Provost of Aberdeen. 

Stey Well (for Tobar Staibh). Well at a roadside with 
an iron cup chained to it. Tobar, well: staibh (bh silent), 
gen. of stabh (Irish), drinking cup. 

Steybrae. Steep brae. Stey (Scotch), steep, difficult. 

Stillswells. Gushing well. Steall, gushing spring. 
S is needless after Still and Well. 

Stirling, Stirling Craig, Stirling Hill, Stirling 
Hillock. Stirling in these names seems to represent Stor 



298 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Lein. Steep high rock rising from low ground. Stor, high 
cliff; lein, gen. of lean, plain. G is a euphonic addition to n. 

Stithivage— Ellon— (for Sith Chuithail). Hill of the 
fold. Sith, hill; chuithail, cuithail asp., fold. Sith became 
Stith; Chuith lost ch with its vowel, and th became bh or v ; 
and Ail became Hill, which was turned into Gaelic by aod, 
brae, pronounced nearly as age. This produced Stith-iv-age, 
accented on a. The name is now extinct, but it was supposed 
to be a corruption of Stay-the-voyage. 

Stob Cors, Stob Dubh, Stob Liath, Stobhall. Stob in 
these names means point. Cors may represent coran, round 
little hill, with an made s. Dubh is black, and liath is grey. 
Hall may be the kitchen or public place in a farm-house 
situated on a point. 

Stob Dubh an Eas Bhig. Black-pointed hill near the 
small burn. Stob, high promontory; dtibh, black; an, of the; 
eas, water, waterfall; bhig, gen. of beag, little. 

Stobhall. Farm-house on a point of land. Stob, point; 
hall, farm-house with a large kitchen — the public room of the 
house. 

Stockbridge, Stockbriggs. Trunk of a tree laid across 
a burn to serve as a bridge. Ggs represents the sound of dge 
with g soft. 

Stocked Head, South Stocket, Stocket, (for Cuid 
Stocaichte). Fold made with trunks of trees or posts planted 
upright in the ground so close that cattle could not pass 
between them. Cuid, fold; stocaichte, planted with posts or 
stocks. Folds of this description are in common use in 
Argentina at the present time. When the name had been 
corrupted cuid and stocaichte were transposed and cuid was 
aspirated. C being silent chuid became first huid and then 
head. The Stocked Head or South Stocket was between 
Oakbank School and Maryville. There was also a Stocket 
Head in Gamrie. 

Stockethill. Hill where there was a cattle-fold made 
with stocks or trunks of trees planted in the ground. Stoc- 
aichte, planted with posts. See Stocked Head. The site 
of the cattle-fold had been in the angle between Cairncry 
Road and Long Walk Road, perhaps in a rectangular plot 
where there is a well in the line of Mastrick Road. This had 
been the North Stocket. 

Stockie Bridge (for Drochaid Stocach). Bridge made of 
trunks of trees laid side by side on bearers. Drochaid, 
bridge; stocadh, made of tree trunks. 

Stodfold. Fold formed of posts set in the ground. 
Stochd (ch silent), trunk, post. 

Stone of Midgate. Stone half-way on a long road. See 
Midgate. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 299 

Stone of the Roebuss (for Clach Robhais). Stone com- 
memorating a violent death and where prayers ought to be 
said for the soul of the deceased. Clach, stone ; robhais, gen. 
of robhas, violent death. Robhais is also the gen. of robhas, 
information, notification, and the stone might have been set 
up to mark a boundary or to indicate the way to a place. 

Stonefolds. In Gaelic the name had been Cuidan 
Clachach, small fold with a stone wall. Cuidan, dim. of 
add, fold; clachach, made of stones. Cuidan had been 
supposed to be the plural of cuid, hence the final s in Stone- 
folds. 

Stonegate. Road made with stones and gravel. 

Stonebriggs (for Stonebridge). Ggs and dge are like 
one another in sound. 

Stonegavel. House with end built of stones and sur- 
mounted by a chimney. The early houses in Scotland were 
built of sods, and the fire was necessarily at some distance 
from the end. The gables were round at the top, but in the 
newer style they ended in a point. Gabhal, fork. 

Stonehead. Stone circle. Chuid, cuid asp., circle, stone 
circle round a grave, cattle-fold. See Cuid. 

Stonehouse. This name indicates that it was the first 
house in the locality built of stones and mortar. Old houses 
were built of courses of clay, mossy sods, or alternate courses 
of stones and sods. The ends of couples were supported by 
legs resting on the ground. 

Stonekiln. Primitive kilns for drying oats to be made 
into meal were circular towers built of sods with wooden 
rafters supporting a bed of straw or divots, on which the grain 
was laid. Hot air from a fire outside the tower passed 
through the divots and the grain. A stone kiln was such an 
improvement on the ancient structures that it gave a name 
to a place. 

Stot Hill. Steaming hill. Stoth, steam. A hill facing 
the south-east often steams on a calm frosty morning. The 
sun melts the hoar-frost on it and turns the water into 
vapour, which is again condensed on rising into the cold air. 

Stotwell Burn. Burn of a well which steams in a cold 
calm morning. Stoth, steam. A well with a supply of water 
coming up from a great depth gives off invisible vapour into 
the air. In a cold calm winter morning the vapour is con- 
densed and the well seems to steam. 

Strabathie. Burn valley growing birches. Srath, strath, 
river valley; beatheach, abounding in birches. 

Straggles (for Srath Glas). Green strath. Srath, strath, 
flat river valley ; glas, green. 

Straitinnan (for Srath Tainain). Strath of the little 



300 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

burn. Srath, river valley; tainain, gen. of tainan (Irish), 
small burn. 

Straloch. Strath in which there was a loch. Srath, flat 
river valley; loch, lake. 

Stranduff (for Srondubh). Black point. Sron, nose; 
dnbh, black. 

Stranled (for Leathad Srathain). Side of the small 
strath. Leathad, side; srathain, gen. of srathan, small river 
valley. 

Strath. Level place in the valley of a stream. Srath, 
wide alluvial river valley. 

Strath Bogie, Strathbogie. Valley of the Bogie. Srath, 
alluvial flat valley; bogain, gen. of bogan, quagmire, burn 
draining a quagmire. 

Strath Isla. Alluvial valley of the Isla. Srath, flat- 
bottomed river valley; Isla, stream name. S shows that i is 
long. Isla perhaps represents All Laimh, burn of the hill. 
All, burn; laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. An old form is Hilefs. 
Strath Howe. The second part explains the first. See 
Strath. 

Strathbeg. Small strath. Srath, river valley; beag, 
small. 

Strathdon. Level valley of the Don. Srath, level river 
valley ; donn, brown river. 

Strathellie. Valley of the small burn. Srath, river 
valley; attain, gen. of allan, small stream. 

Strathgirnock. Broad valley of the Girnock. Srath, 
broad river valley. See Girnock. 

Strathgyle. White strath. Srath, strath, broad- 
bottomed valley; geal, white. Geal probably represents cuit, 
cattle-fold, which had been corrupted into white and after- 
wards translated into Gaelic by geal. 

Strath-horn. River valley between two hills. Srath, 
strath; cham, gen. plural asp. of earn, hill. 

Strathlunach (for Srath Fhliuchanach). Valley abound- 
ing in wet places. Srath, river valley; fhliuchanach, abound- 
ing in wet places. Fh, i, cha, had become silent and had 
been lost. 

Strathmore. Big level place through which a burn flows. 
Srath, alluvial ground beside a river; mor, big. 

Strathnaterick (for Srath Netan Ruigh). Strath of the 
little burn from the hillside. Srath, strath, alluvial river 
valley; netan, dim. of net, burn; ruigh, slope at the base of a 
hill. In passing into Scotch an of netan had become ie, and 
then netie lapsed into nate. 

Strathray. Level haugh. Srath, strath, alluvial valley; 
reidh, level. 

Strathstodley. River valley where there is pasture for 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 301 

cattle. Srath, strath; stuichd, gen. of stochd, cattle; ley t 
grassy place. 

Strath weltie. River valley in which there are farm- 
towns. Srath, flat part of a valley; bhailtean, gen. plural 
asp. of baile, farm-town, village. Tean, the euphonic plural 
termination, becomes te by loss of an. 

Strathwhapple (for Srath Chapull). Strath where horses 
fed. Srath, strath, alluvial valley of a stream; chapull, gen. 
plural asp. of capull, horse. Gh had become wh. 

Strathy. Little strath. Srathan, dim. of srath, flat 
river valley. An, the Gaelic dim. termination, became y, a 
Scotch dim. termination. 

Street of Monaltrie. Street is evidently a corruption 
of srath, low-lying ground by a river. See Monaltrie. 

Strichen. Small river valley. Srathan, small alluvial 
valley. 

Stripe of Netty. Netty represents netan, dim. of net, 
stream. Stripe and Netty have the same meaning. 

Strocherie, Straquharie (1696), Strathairy (old local). 
In Gaelic Srath Airidhe. Valley of the shiel. Srath, burn 
valley; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shiel, hut on a shieling. 

Stroin, Stron, Strone. These are forms of the Gaelic 
word sron, nose, point. Sr at the beginning of Gaelic words 
became str in passing into Scotch. 

Stron na Crois Araich. Promontory of the cross of the 
battlefield. Sron, nose; na, of the; crois, cross, crossing, 
cross-road; araich, gen. of arach, field of battle. 

Stronagaich. Windy point. Sron, nose, point; na, of 
the; gaothaiche, windiness. 

Stronagoar. Point of the goat. Sron, promontory; a', 
of the; gobhair, gen. of gobhar, goat. 

Strone Baddoch. Bushy point. Sron, projecting point; 
badach, bushy. 

Strow Burn. Sruth, burn. The second part is a trans- 
lation of the first. Th is silent. 

Struach Ford. Ford in the Deveron at burns. Sruthach, 
abounding in burns. Tli is silent. 

Stuartfield. Village in Deer named after the proprietor 
of the site. 

Stuc Gharbh Bheag, Stuc Gharbh Mhor. Little rough 
projecting hill, and big rough projecting hill. Stuc, pro- 
jection on a hill; gharbh, fern, of garbh, rough; bheag, 
fern, of beag, small; mhor, fern, of mor, great. 

Studdy Stone, Study Stone. Stone like an anvil. 
Studdy (Scotch), anvil. 

Stuic, The. The sharp point of a hill. Stuic, for stuc, 
pinnacle on a hill. Stiiic is the gen. form. 



302 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Stulan. Small waterfall. Steallan, dim. of steall, 
spring, spout of water. 

Stulan Burn. Burn from a gushing spring. Steallain, 
gen. of steallan, small spring. 

Sturdy, Sturdy Hill. Sturdy is a disease in the brain 
of sheep caused by swallowing with their food the embryos 
of tapeworms, voided by sheep-dogs. Formerly it was sup- 
posed that the disease was caused by a particular kind of 
food, and the places where it was supposed to grow were 
called Sturdy Hill, Sturdy Loch, etc. 

Stypleton (for Baile Sgiobail). Town of the granary. 
Baile, made ton and transposed; sgiobail, gen. of sgiobal, 
barn, granary. 

Succoth. Snouted hill. Socach, having upstanding 
rocks like snouts. 

Succothbeg. Little snouted hill. Socach, snouted; 
beag, small. 

Sughallan. Little wet place. Sughail, wet; an, dim. 
termination. 

Summer Craig (for Creag Sughmhor). Wet hill. Creag, 
hill; sughmhor, wet. Gh is silent, and mh has lost the effect 
of the aspirate. 

Summerhill. Same as Summer Craig. 

Suie. Watery. Sughach, watery, oozy. Gh is silent and 
•ach had become ie. 

Suie Cairn. Cairn on Suie hill. Cam, cairn, hill. See 
Suie. 

Suie Hill. Wet hill. See Suie. 

Sundays wells. Well visited on the first Sunday of May 
(old style) by people afflicted with diseases. Some washed 
their sores with the water of the well, and 'all drank of it. 

Sunhoney (for Sithean a' Choinne). Hillock of the 
assembly. Sithean, hillock; a , of the; choinne, coinne asp., 
assembly. Sithean is pronounced she-a?i, which by loss of 
the aspirate had become sun. Choinne had lost c, which is 
silent in ch, and hoinne is now honey. There is a fine stone 
circle on the knoll, which had led to its selection as a 
meeting-place. 

Suttie. Seat. Suidhe, site, seat, place where a house 
is built. 

Swailend. The end of an oozing bog. Sughail (gh 
silent), wet, emitting water. Swailend may represent sugh- 
ailan. See Sughallan. 

Swanford (for Athan Uan). Small ford for lambs. 
Athan, dim. of ath, ford; uan, gen. plural of uan, lamb. By 
mistake an of athan had been turned into s instead of ie, and 
the name had become first Ath Suan, and then Swanford by 
translation of ath into ford. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 303 

Swanny Hill. Watery hill. Suglianach, watery. 
Sweetiehillock. Place at a hillock. Suidhe, place. 
Swell Burn, Swellend, Swelling Well. Swell in 
these names represents sughail {gh silent), wet. See Swail- 

END. 

Swineden (for Dein Sughain). Den of wetness. Dcin, 
den; sughain, gen. of sughan, moisture. Gh had become 
silent and had been lost. 

Swinton (for Baile Sughain). Town of wetness. Baile, 
town; sughain (gh silent), gen. of sughan, wetness. Swinton 
might be an imported name. Margaret, Countess of Mar, 
had for her second husband Sir John Swinton of Swinton. 
She died about 1389. 

Syllavethie (for Suil a' Bheithe). Well-spring at the 
birch. Suil, eye, well-eye; a' of the; bheitlic, gen. asp. of 
beith, birch. Bh is equivalent to v. 

Syde. Site, situation, place where a court met. Suidhe, 
site, place. 

Syde, Mill of. Perhaps mill at a proprietor's residence 
or the seat of a barony. 

Taarty Burn. See Tarty. 

Taciiore Pot. Pot in the Deveron well supplied with 
fish. Tacar or tachdar, fish, multitude. Tacar is pronounced 
tachgur. 

Taitswell. Hot well. Teth, hot. S had been inserted 
to convert teth into a possessive in English. The well had 
sometimes seemed to emit steam as if hot. 

Tallin Burn (for Allt Tollain). Burn of the little howe. 
Allt, burn (translated and transposed); tollain, gen. of tollan, 
little howe. 

Talnamounth. Howe of the mountain. Toll, hollow; 
■an, of the; monaidh, gen. of monadh, mountain. 
Talpabrae. Mole brae. Talpa (Latin), mole. 
Tam, Little (for Toman). Little hill. Tarn is Scotch 
for Tom, and before the name assumed its present form its 
meaning had been quite lost. 

Tamclay. Hill of stones. Tom, hill; clach (ch silent), 
gen. plural of clach, stone. 

Tamduff. Black hill. Tom, hill; dubh, black. 
Tamhead (for Tom Chuid). Hill of the fold. Tom, hill; 
chuid, gen. asp. of cuid, fold. By loss of c chuid had become 
huid and subsequently head. A few thousands of years ago 
Tamhead had been large enough to be of some value as a 
grazing place. It is now a small islet off the coast at Pennan. 
Tamley Head (for Tom Liath Chuid). Grey hill of the 
cattle-fold. Tom, hill; liath, grey; cliuid, gen. asp. of cuid, 
•cattle-fold. 

Tammies Burn (for Allt Tomain). Burn of the little hill. 



304 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Allt, burn; tomain, gen. of toman, little hill. S had been 
affixed to convert the Gaelic genitive into the English 
possessive. 

Tamnagorn (for Toman Guirn). Knoll . of cinders. 
Toman, small hill ; guirn, gen. of gorn, ember, firebrand. 

Tampie (for Tom Beith). Hill of birches. Tom, hill; 
beith, gen. plural of beith, birch. Tom becomes Tarn in 
Scotch, and beith becomes bae, which had lapsed into pie. 

Tam's Trink (for Slochd Tomain). Gorge in a small hill. 
Slochd, gorge, trench, trink in Scotch; tomain, gen. of 
toman, knoll, small hill. 

Tana, Tanar, Tanner. Burn of the narrow glen. Tana, 
slender. Tanner is the spelling in the O.S. maps. 

Tangland (for Lamhan Taine). Small hill where cattle 
fed. Lamhan, small hill; taine, gen. of tain, cattle. The 
parts of the name had been transposed after lamhan became 
the English word land. 

Tantons, perhaps for Saint Anthony's Well. By pre- 
fixing t of Saint to Anthony and omitting h and y the form 
Tanton is obtained. There is a personal name Tant, sup- 
posed to be a derivative from Saint Anton, the short form 
of Anthony. 

Tap o' Mast. Summit of a hill where red berries grow. 
Tap, top; o' , of the; masaig, gen. of masag, small red berry. 

Tap of Noth. Vitrified wall of a cattle-fold on the top of 
the hill of Noth. Tap, something rising above the head of 
an object; noaidh, gen. of noadh, watching, guarding. 

Tappie Crunnich. Small round knoll. Tapan, small top ;. 
cruinneach, round. 

Tappies (for Tapan). Small top. An had been made both 
ie and s. 

Tarty, Tauarty (1461), Tawartie (1461), Taaertie (1589), 
Taartie (1696). Productive place. Tabhartach (bh silent), 
ready to give, generous. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w, or is 
silent. Ach became ie. 

Tarbothill. Hill of the hut. Torr, steep round hill ; 
botha, gen. of both, hut, house. There is a house on the 
summit of the hill. 

Tarbuckle Hill. Hill of the cowherd. Torr, steep, 
abrupt hill; buachaille, gen. of buachaille, protector of cows, 
herd. 

Tardight Eye (for Cuith Torr Dubh). Fold of the steep 
black hill. Cuith, fold; torr, steep hill; dubh, black. Cuith- 
had afterwards been made chuith and had been put last. 
Subsequently ch and th had been lost and ui became eye. 

Tarfat. Hill of the fold. Torr, steep hill; chuit, gen. 
asp. of cuit, fold. Ch had become /, equivalent to ph, and 
fuit had subsequently become fat. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 305 

Tarmair (for Torr Maoir). Hill of the officer of a court of 
justice. Torr, steep flat-topped bill; maoir, geu. of maor, 
steward, officer of a court. 

Tarmoir. Big hill. Torr, steep flat-topped hill; mor, big. 

Tarland (for Torr Lamhan). Hill. Torr, steep, abrupt 
hill; lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. The second part had been 
added to explain the first when it had been corrupted into 
tar. 

Tarness Haven. Haven at a cape on which there is a 
steep, abrupt knoll. Torr, steep flat-topped knoll; ness, 
promontory. 

Tarntoul (for Torr an Tuill). Steep flat-topped hill in a 
howe. Torr, hill; an, of the; tuill, gen. of toll, howe. 

Tarsan, Burn of (for Allt Tarsuinn). Cross burn. Allt, 
burn; tarsuinn, perpendicular to something else. 

Tarves. Old forms are Tarueys, Taruays, Tarwas, Tar- 
vas, Tarvays. The accent on the first syllable shows that it 
had originally been last. The original form may have been 
Bathas Torr, brow of the hill. Bath as, brow; torr, steep 
abrupt hill. This is appropriate for the site of the church. 
When the meaning of the parts of the name had been lost 
they had become transposed, and it had become Torr 
Bhathais (pronounced torvais). Hill of the brow. Torr, hill; 
bhathais, gen. asp. of bathas, brow : Bh is equivalent to 
u, v, or w. Th is silent. 

Tarwathie (for Torr Bheathach). Birch hill. Torr, hill; 
bheathach, producing birches. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Tassack. Warm place. Teasach, warm. 

Tassatshill. Warm hill. Teasach, warm. 

Tavelty (for Tamhach Alltan). Sluggish burn. Tamli- 
ach, slow; alltan, dim. of allt, burn. Mh is equivalent to u, 
v, or w ; ach had become silent and had been lost; and an 
had become y, its Scotch equivalent. 

Tayloch (for Taithleach — th silent). Bright pleasant, 
place. Taithleach (Irish), bright, quiet, peaceful. 

Techmuiry. House on a hill. Teach, house; murean, 
dim. of mur, hill. Ean became y. 

Teller's Well (for Tobar Toathaill Airidhe). Well of 
resort on a shieling. Tobar, well; taothaill (th silent), fre- 
quented; airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. S is an addition 
converting the last part into a possessive. 

Temora. Big house. Tigh, house; mor, big. Temora is 
an Ossianic name in which mor had been extended to mora. 

Temple, Temple Burn, Temple Croft, Temple Hill, 
Temple Stripe, Templand, Templeland. In these names 
Temple indicates that the places were on land which once 
belonged to the Knights of the Temple at Jerusalem. Many 



306 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

persons bequeathed lands and rents of houses to the Knights 
Templar. 

Temple Feu. A feu in Turriff which had been bequeathed 
to the Knights of the Temple at Jerusalem. 

Templefold. Fold for cattle near an ancient stone circle, 
which was for a time believed to be a Druidical temple. 

Tennen Burn. Small burn. Tainan, dim. of tain (Irish), 
water, burn. 

Termanity Hill (for Der Man Aite Hill). Place on a 
little hill. Der, little; man, hill; aite, place. 

Terpersie. Little row of houses. Der, little; peirse, row. 

Terpersie Castle. Castle at a little row of houses. Der, 
little; peirse, row. 

Terry Chapel. Chapel situated on a small plot of land. 
Tirean, dim. of tir, land. An became y, its Scotch equiva- 
lent. 

Terryfield. Field of cultivated land. Tire, gen. of tir, 
land. 

Terryoron. Hill of the little burn. Tulach, hill; onrain, 
gen. of ouran, small burn. Tulach usually becomes tilly or 
tully, sometimes tirry, which here had become terry. 

Terryvale (for Baile Tire). Town on the land. Baile, 
town; tire, gen. of tir, land. Tire became Terry, and the 
meaning of the name having been lost it became Terry Bhaile. 
Baile had been aspirated, being in the qualifying place ; but 
bh being equivalent to v Bhaile had become first Vaile and 
afterwards Vale. There are two places called Terryvale — 
Upper and Nether Terryvale. 

Tersets. Small place. Der, small; suidhcan, dim. of 
suidhe, place. He being silent disappeared, and an became, 
improperly, 's instead of ie. 

Tershinty (for Der Sithean Aite). Place on a little hill. 
Der, small; sithean (pronounced shin), hill; aite, place. 

Tertowie. Small house. Der, small; tollan, dim, of 
toll, house. 

Teuchan. Small dry pace. This place is on the margin 
of an O.S. map. 

Teuchar. Dry shieling. Teuch, dry; airidh, shieling. 

Teuchitfold, Teuciiithaugh. Teuchit is the Scotch 
name for a lapwing. The name doubtless represents some 
Gaelic words which the bird was supposed to utter. Lap- 
wings frequent heathery ground when they arrive in spring, 
because they find food among the heather and safe places for 
their nests. In autumn they descend to the lower ground. 

Thain's Burn. Burn named after a man named Thain, 
who lived near it. 

Thainston, Thainestone. Seat of the Thane of Kintore. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 307 

The thanes paid fixed rents for their estates but did not give 
military service. 

Thernie (for Charnach). Hilly place. Charnach, carnach 
asp., abounding in knolls. Ch had become tli, and ach had 
become ie. See Knaps of Thernie. 

Thief's Craig, Thief's Kock. Places where thieves were 
hanged. Craig and rock are both translations of creag, which 
in names means hill and sometimes rock. Hill is the appro- 
priate meaning here. 

Thief's Burn, Thief's Pot, Thief's Well. Places where 
thieves convicted at a barony court were drowned. At a 
well a hole had been dug and filled with water from the well. 
Usually men were hanged, and young lads and women were 
drowned. 

Thief's Eye (for Tigh-suidhe). Site of a house. Tigh, 
house; suidlie (dh silent), site. 

Thief's Loup. A place in a long narrow chasm near 
Boddam, into which the sea enters. It is nearly 100 feet 
wide, but the name implies that a thief jumped across it to 
escape from pursuers. 

Thief's Slack. Place in a hollow where thieves lurked 
to rob travellers. 

Thief's Well (^perhaps for Tigh Well). Well at a house. 
There is not a house near the well now. 

Thindam (for Dig Fine). Dam of the hill. Dig, dam; 
fine, gen. of fin, hill. F is an aspirated letter and it had been 
changed to th, another aspirated letter, when dig was trans- 
lated into dam. Thus fine became thine, which was made 
thin to convert it into an adjective qualifying dam. It was 
also put first to be in the qualifying place in the English 
manner. 

Thinfords (for Ath an Fine). Ford of the hill. Ath, 
ford; an, of the; fine, gen. of fin, hill. But the name had 
come to be regarded as Athan Fine, fords of the hill, and 
when athan was translated it was made fords instead of ford 
of. F, an aspirated letter, had been changed to th, another 
aspirated letter. See Thindam. 

Thomastown (for Baile Tuim). Town on the hill. Bails, 
town (translated and transposed); tuim, gen. of torn, hill. 
Tom. had been supposed to be an English colloquial name 
and had been changed to Thomas. 

Thomson Burn. This must be a modern name, for the 
burn appears to have been identified with one mentioned in 
a modern song. But Thorn might be for torn, hill, and son 
for sithean (th silent), hill. 

Thorndale. Small vale growing thorn trees. In an 
ancient name thorn would represent charn, cam asp., hill. 



308 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Thornhill. Both parts mean hill. Cam, hill. C had 
become ch, which had been changed to th. 

Thornroan (for Eoinn Chairn). Point of the hill. Roinn, 
point; chairn, gen. asp. of earn, hill. Ch had become th, 
and the second part of the name had been put first. This is- 
shown by its being aspirated and by retaining the accent. 

Thornton (for Bade a' Chairn). Town on the hill. 
Baile, town; a', of the; chairn, gen. asp. of earn, hill. Baile 
had been translated and put last, and then a' had been 
omitted. 

Thornyford (for Ath a' Chairn). Ford of the hill. Atli,. 
ford; a', of the; chairn, gen. asp. of cam, hill. 

Thornymuick (for Ton- na Muich). Hill of the mist. 
Torr, steep flat-topped hill; na, of the; muich, gen. of muc, 
mist. 

Thornywest Well (for Tobar Cam a' Bheiste). Well of 
the hill of the beast. Tobar, well; cam, hill; a, of the; 
bheiste, gen. asp. of beist, beast. The ancient Celts had a 
dread of many imaginary animals. Beist is masculine here. 

Threepleton. Three farms held under the same lease. 
Before 1782 it was the custom to let a large farm, called a 
" plough," to three tenants jointly, who were bound to 
furnish each a specified number of oxen for the common 
plough. After 1782 the large farms were divided. Hence the 
names Upperthird, Middlethird, and Netherthird. 

Threepnook (for Cuil a' Threith). Nook of the hill. Cuil, 
nook; a', of the; threith, gen. asp. of triath, hill. To become 
threep triath passed through the following forms :— triath, 
tlireith, threiph, threip, threep. When cuil was translated 
and put last a' had to be omitted because it could not qualify 
cuil. 

Thriepfield (for Achadh a' Threith). Field of the hill. 
Achadli, field; a', of the; threith, gen. asp. of triath, hill. 
See Threepnook. 

Throat, The. Gorge, ravine. The use of this term for 
gorges seems to have originated in throat being the English 
for Latin gula, the throat, from which gullet and gully are 
derived. 

Throopmuir (for Moine a' Threith). Moor of the hill. 
Moine, moor; a', of the; threith, gen. asp. of triath, hill. See 
Threepnook. 

Thunder Hole (for Toll Feun Airidhe). Howe of the hill 
of the shieling. Toll, howe; feun, hill; airidhe, gen. of airidh, 
shieling. Toll had been aspirated, and then initial t had been 
lost. Feun is a provincial variant of fin, hill. F became th, 
and d had been inserted after n, as in sound, thunder. 

Thunderton (for Baile Feun Airidhe). Town of the hill 
of the shieling. Baile, town; feun, hill; airidhe, gen. of 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 309 

airidh, shieling. Feun is a variant of fin, hill. F had 
become tli, and d had been inserted for euphony after n. 

Tiberchindy. Well at a small fold. Tobar, well; 
chuidan, cuidan asp., small fold. A and n had been trans- 
posed, and d had been inserted for euphony. 

Tiffery. House on a shieling. Tigh, house ; airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling. Aspirated g became aspirated p or its 
equivalent /. 

Tifty. House of rest. Originally the name had been 
Tigh Taimh (pronounced tee tave), but the order of the parts 
had been changed in post-Gaelic times to get the qualifying 
word first, as in English words of two parts. Tigh, house; 
taimh, gen. of tam-h, rest. Tifty is on the old main road from 
Aberdeen by the old Bridge of Don, Oldmeldrum, and Fyvie 
to Gamrie, and the name would have been suitable for a 
roadside inn. 

Tile Burn. Burn by which small vessels and boats had 
access to the brick and tile works at Seaton. Tuile (French), 
tile, from Latin tegula, little cover. The Tile Burn is the 
lower part of the Powis Burn. 

Tillakae. Hill of the fold. Tulach, hill; a , of the; 
cuith, gen. of cuith, fold. 

Tillathrowie (for Tulach Fraochach). Heathery hill. 
Tulach, hill; fraochach, heathery. F, which is equivalent to 
ph, had become th ; ch had become bh, which is equivalent 
to w; and ach had become ie. 

Tillenhilt. Hill of the burn. Tulach, hill; an, of the; 
uillt, gen. of allt, burn. 

Tillenteach (for Tulach an Teach). Hill of the house. 
Tulach, hill; an, of the; teach, house, mansion. 

Tillenturk. Hill of the boar. Tulach, hill; an, of the; 
tuirc, gen. of tore, boar. 

Tillery (for Tulach Eeigh). Hill of the gallows. Tulach, 
hill ; reigh, gen. of regh, gallows, cross. In a rhyme regarding 
the Church of Deer in which Tillery is named it probably 
means hillock of the cross. Eigh sounds ae-yc. 

Tilliescook. Hill of clumsy shape. Tulach, hill; 
sgugach, clumsy. 

Tillyboy. Yellow hill. Tulach, round hill; buidhe, 
yellow, growing broom. 

Tillioch. Hill of the howe. Tulach, hill; iochd, howe. 
Tillishogle, Tillyshogle, (for Tulach Sughail). Wet 
hill. Tulach, hill; sughail, wet. 

Tillyangus (for Tulach Aonach). Both parts mean hill. 
Tulach, small round hill; aonach., hill, heath. Probably the 
place had been known by both names and after a time the 
two had been combined. 



310 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Tillybin. Both parts mean hill. Tulach, hill; beinn T 
hill. 

Tillybirloch (for Tulach Bior Laimh). Hill of the burn 
of the hill. Tulach, hill; bior, burn; laimh, gen. of lamh, 
hill. Lamh has sometimes become loch. 

Tillybo. Hill of the cows. Tulach , hill ; ho, gen. plural of 
bo, cow. 

Tillybreedless. Hill of the judgment-seat enclosure. 
Tulach, hill; breith, judgment; Use, gen. of lios, enclosure. 

Tillybreen. Hill of filth. Tulach, hill; brein, filth. 
When a hill covered with peat-moss has lost its natural coat 
of heather it becomes unspeakably filthy and almost impass- 
able after rain. Breen might represent braoin, gen. of braon, 
hill burn. 

Tillybrigg. Hill of moisture. Tulach, hill; brigh, sap. 

Tillybrother (for Tulach Treith Airidhe). Hill of the 
hill of the shieling. Tulach, hill; treith, gen. of triath, hill; 
airidhe, gen. of airidh, shieling. Tulach is an addition pre- 
fixed after the meaning of the second part had been lost. 
Brother had been at first pronounced brither in the Scotch 
way. T of treith had passed through the following stages : — 
t, th, bh, b. Triath is an Irish word, but it is in Threepnook, 
Thriepfold, Throopmuir, Troup, with the meaning hill. 

Tillycairn. Both parts mean hill. The first part had 
been prefixed to the second to explain it after its original 
meaning had been lost. Tulach, rounded knoll; cairn, for 
earn, hill. 

Tillychaddy. Long hill. Tulach, hill; fada, long. 

Tillychardoch (for Tulach Ardan). Both parts mean 
height, the second having been added to explain the first. 
Tulach, hill; ardan, dim. of ard, hill. Ardan had become 
first ardie, then ardo, and lastly ardoch, as if it were an 
adjective. 

Tillychetly (for Tulach Chuitail). Hill of the fold for 
cattle. Tulach, hill; chuitail, cuitail asp., fold. 

Tillyching (for Tulach Choinne). Knoll of assembly. 
Tulach, knoll; choinne, coinne asp., meeting, probably at a 
barony court. 

Tillycorthie. Hill of the small circle. Tulach, hill; 
corthain, gen. of corthan, small circle, stone circle guarding 
a grave. 

Tillychrad (for Tulach a* Chradh). Hill of the wild 
duck. Tulach, hill; a , of the; chradh, gen. asp. of cradh, 
large wild duck, shelldrake. 

Tillycroy. Both parts of the name mean hill. Tulach, 
hill; cruach, steep high hill. 

Tillydaff. Hill of the oxen. Tulach, hill; damh, gen. 
plural of damh, ox, deer. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 311 

Tillydesk. Hillside facing the south. Tulacli, hill; 
deas, south. 

Tillydrine. Hill of the sloe. Tulacli, hill; droighinn, 
gen. of droigheann, sloe. 

Tillydron. Hill of the ridge. Tulach, hill ; drown, ridge, 
back. 

Tillyduff. Black hill. Tulach, hill; dubh, black. 

Tillyduke. Hill of darkness. Tulach, hill; duibh, gen. 
of dubh, darkness, blackness. The steps of the change from 
duibh. to duke had been duich, duic, duke. Not infrequently 
one aspirated letter is changed into another. 

Tillyeve. Hill of the fold. Tulach, hill; chuith, cuith 
asp., fold. Chu had become silent and had been lost; th 
had become bh, sounded v; and ibh had become eve. 

Tillyfar. Hill land. Tulach, hill; far, land under 
cultivation. 

Tillyfaud, Tillyfauld. Hill of peats. Tulach, hill; 
fad, gen. plural of fad, peat. The letters u and /. had been 
intended to show that a was long. 

Tillyfoddie. Hill abounding in peats. Tulach, hill; 
foideach, abounding in peats. 

Tillyfour. Hill of grass. Tulach, hill; feoir, gen. of 
feur, grass. 

Tillyfoure. Grassy hill. Tulach, hill; feurach, abound- 
ing in grass. 

Tillyfourie. Hill of the spring. Tulach, hill; fuarain, 
gen. of fuaran, spring. Or, Hill abounding in grass. Tulach, 
hill ; feurach, grassy. 

Tillyfro. Hill of the wattled fold. Tulach, hill; cro, 
sheep-fold. 

Tillyfruskie. Hill of the crossing. Tulach, hill ; chraisg, 
gen. asp. of crasg, crossing. Ch had become //(, then the 
aspirate h had been dropped. 

Tillyfunter Hillock. Tulach, hill, the first part of the 
name, is an addition made to explain the last part whose 
meaning had been lost. The original form of the last part 
had been Tir Fine, land of the hill. Tir, land; fine, gen. of 
fin, hill. Fin becomes fund in Ord Fundlie. 

Tillygarmonth. Hill of the rough moor. Tulach, hill; 
garbh, rough; monaidh, gen. of monadh, moor, hill. 

Tillygreig. Both parts mean hill. Txdach, hill; creag, 
hill. 

Tillyhermack. Hill of the buzzard. Tulach, hill; 
armuigh, buzzard. Before grouse were preserved the buz- 
zard (Circus aeruginosus) was abundant among the heathery 
hills. Now it is extinct. Newton (" Ency. Brit." IV.) says 
it wns not destructive to game. It bred on hills and islands 



312 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

in lochs. See " Gaelic Names of Beasts, Birds, etc.," by 
A. E. Forbes. 

Tillyhilt. Hill near a burn. Tulach, hill; uillt, gen. of 
allt, burn. 

Tillykerrie, Tillykirrie. Hill of sheep. Tulach, hill; 
chaoracli, gen. plural of caora, sheep. 

Tillylodge (for Tulach Lodach). Hill abounding in 
pools. Tulach, hill; lodach, abounding in wet places. 

Tillymair. Hill of the judge. Tulach, hill; maoir, gen. 
of maor, officer of justice, mair. The place may have been 
the seat of a court. 

Tillymannoch. Middle hill. Tulach, hill; meadhonach, 
middle. 

Tillymaud. Hill of the seat of judgment. Tulach, hill; 
moid, gen. of mod, court of justice. 

Tillymauld (for Tulach Maol). Bare hill. Tulach, hill; 
maol, bald. 

Tillymorgan. Hill of the big cattle-fold. Tulach, hill; 
mor, great; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattlefold. There are 
traces of a circular enclosure 260 feet in diameter on the east 
brow of the hill. 

Tillymuick. Hill of the swine. Tulach, hill; muc, gen. 
plural of muc, pig. A swine-fold on Bennachie gives the 
name to this hill. Swine were sent to hill pastures along 
with dairy cows. 

Tillynamolt (for Tulach nan Mult). Hill of the wed- 
ders. Tulach, hill; nan, of the; molt, gen. plural of molt, 
wedder. 

Tillyneckle (for Tulach na Faicille). Hill of the watch. 
Tulach, hill; na, of the; faicille, gen. of faicill, watch. F 
being an aspirated letter, equivalent to ph, is liable to be 
lost. Fh is nearly always silent and is lost. 

Tillyorn (for Tulach Charn). Hill. Tulach, hill; charn, 
cam asp., hill. Ch of charn had been lost under the influ- 
ence of final ch in tulach. 

Tillypestle. Small hill. Txdach, hill; paisdeil, dim- 
inutive. 

Tilphoudie. Peat hill. Tulach, hill; foidcach, abound- 
ing in peats. 

Tillypronie. Knoll of pounding or bruising. Tulach, 
knoll; pronnaidh, gen. of pronnadh, pounding. The refer- 
ence might be to a hill where whins were bruised for winter 
food for cattle and horses by a large millstone revolving on 
its edge. Meal was made in primitive times by pounding 
dried oats in small cups made in earth-fast stones and in 
small slabs. 

Tillyreach. Grey hill. Tulach, hill; riach, grey, 
brindled. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 313 

Tillyronacii. Pointed hill. Tulach, knoll; roinneach, 
having a sharp point. 

TlLLYSHOGLE. See TlLLISHOGLE. 

Tillyskukie. Hill of clumsy shape. Tulach, hill; 
sgugach, clumsy. 

Tillysnaught. Bare hill. Tulach, hill; nochd, bare, 
naked. 8 is sometimes inserted before n, as in snip, to nip. 

Tillysoul. Wet hill. Tulach, hill; soghail, wet. Gh 
had been silent and had been lost. 

Tillytarmont (for Tulach Torr Monadh). All the three 
parts mean hill. The oldest had been torr, which had been 
corrupted into tar and then needed additions to explain it. 

Tillywater (for Tulach Uachdar). Upper hill. Tulach, 
hill; uachdar (ch silent), upper. 

Tilquhillie (for Tulach Choille). Both parts of the 
name mean the same thing. Tulach, hill; choille, coille 
asp., hill. The first part had been added to give the mean- 
ing of coille after it had been forgotten. 

Timberford. Ford laid with wood. The trunks of trees 
were laid close to one another, up and down, to prevent the 
excavation of holes in the river bed in spates. 

Tippercowan. Well of the howe. Tobar, well; cobhain, 
gen. of cobhan, howe. 

Tipperty (for Tobairte). Wells. Tobairte, plural of 
tobar, well, formed by adding te to the gen. singular. The 
plural is sometimes used in names of places where there is 
only one well. See St John's Wells, Fyvie. 

Tippet Hill, The Tippoch. Lumpy mass of a hill. 
Taipeach, lumpy, rough. 

Tirebagger (for Tulach Bac Airidhe). Hill of the peat- 
moss of the shieling. Tulach, hill; bac, peat-moss; airidhe, 
gen. of airidh, shieling. 

Tirrygowan (for Tillygowan). Hill of the cattle-fold. 
Tulach, hill; gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, cattle-fold. 

Titaboutie, Tabourtee (1696). Titaboutie is for Tigh a' 
Buailteach, dwelling-house at the cow-byre. Tigh, house; 
a', of the; buailteach, cow-byre. The cow-byre had been a 
large hut accommodating all the cows on a summer shieling, 
and the house had been the residence of the dairy-women. 
Tabourtee represents Tamh a' Buair-teach, house of the 
cow-byre. Tamh, house; a', of the; buair-teach. gen. of 
buar-teach, cow-byre. 

Toberairy. Well of the shiel. Tobar, well; airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shiel or summer hut for women in charge of cows 
at pasture. 

Tobar Fuar. Cold spring. Tobar, well; fuar, cold. 

Tobar Machar. Well of the level place. Tobar, well; 



314 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

machair, gen. of macliair, plain. The usual gen. of macliair 
is macharach. 

Tobar Ruadh. Red well. Well whose water is tinged 
red with iron oxide. Tobar, well; ruadh, red. 

Tocher. Casay. Tocher, casay or raised road through 
a wet place, footpath made by laying down wickerwork in a 
muddy place. 

Tocher, Over. Farm above a place where a marsh and 
a burn were crossed by a casay and stepping-stones. See 
Tocher. 

Tocherford. Ford at a place where there was a row 
of stones across a burn. Tochar, casay, stepping-stones. 

Tochy Burn. North burn. Tuathach (th silent), 
northern. 

Toddlehill, Toddlehills. Hills in which there are tod 
holes or foxes' dens. 

Toddley Hill. Grass land on a hill where there were 
foxes. Tod (Scotch), fox; ley, grassy place. 

Todfold, Tod's Fauld. Small enclosed field outside the 
cultivated area on a farm. It was manured by keeping 
cattle on it at night, and then it was cropped for a short 
time. Todhar, field manured by cattle. 

Todholes. Foxes' dens. In old raised marine beaches 
foxes excavate long tunnels which by friction and scraping 
increase greatly in diameter. Long-occupied holes are of 
great size internally. There is a raised beach at 400 feet 
above sea, and some of the todholes are at this level. 

Todlachie (for Tod Lamhan). Tod's hill. Lamhan, 
dim. of lamh, hill. Mh had become ch, and an had been 
changed to the Scotch dim. ie. 

Tod's Fauld. See Todfold. 

Tod's Hill. Fox's hill. Tod (Scotch), fox. 

Tod's Strath. Fox's howe. Tod (Scotch), fox; srath, 
level valley of a river. 

Tod stone. Stone of the fox. Tod (Scotch), fox. 

Todswells. Warm well. Teodh, verb, to warm. 

Tofthills. Uncultivated hill where a small clearance 
had been made and a dwelling had been built. 

Tolbooth, Toll Booth. Tent or office where toll was 
levied on cattle entering a market or on provisions entering 
a burgh. In connection with the toll-booth of a town there 
was usually a place where offenders could be detained for a 
time. Hence a toll-booth came to mean a prison. 

Toldhu. Black hollow. Toll, hollow, howe: dubh, 
black, dark. 

Tolduquhill. Hollow of the black hill. Toll, hollow; 
dubh, black; choille, gen. asp. of coille, hill. 

Tolla. Hill. Tulach, hill. 



Celtic Place-Navies in Aberdeenshire. 315 

Tollafraick. Hill of heather. Tulach, hill; fraoich, 
gen. of fraoch, heather. 

Tolloiiill. Both parts mean hill, the second being a 
translation of the first. Tulach, hill. 

Tolly, Tollybrae. Tolly means little howe. Tollan, 
dim. of toll, howe. Tollybrae, brae above a little howe. 

Tolm Buirich. Hill of the rutting of deer. Tolm, hil- 
lock, hill; buirich, gen. of outreach, rutting, bellowing of 
deer. 

Tolmaads, Tolmauds. Hollow where there was a small 
hillock at which courts of justice were held. Toll, howe; 
modain, gen. of modan, dim. of mod, mound where courts 
were held. An had become s instead of ie. 

Tolmount. Both parts mean hill. Tolm, hill; monadh, 
hill, heath. 

Tolophin. Hollow on the side of a hill. Toll, howe; 
fine, gen. of fin, hill. 

Tolquhon (for Toll Chon). Howe of dogs. Toll, howe; 
chon, gen. plural asp. of cu, dog, fox, water-rat, squirrel, 
badger, or any other small quadruped. 

Tom. Hill, round hillock, rising ground, eminence. 

Tom, The (for An Tom). The hill. An, the; torn, hill. 

Tom a' Bhealaidh. Hill of the broom. Tom, hill; a', 
of the; bhealaidh, gen. asp. of bealaidh, broom. The hill is 
nearly 2000 feet high and it is crossed by a road. This 
makes it likely that the last word should be bhealaich, the 
gen. asp. of bealach, pass, road. 

Tom a' Bhealuidh. Hill of the broom. Tom, hill; a', 
of the; bhealuidh, gen. asp. of bealuidh, broom. 

Tom a' Bhuraich (for Tom a' Bhuiridh). Hill of the 
rutting of deer. Tom, hill; a', of the; bhuiridh, gen. asp. 
of buireadh, rutting, roaring, bellowing. 

Tom a' Ciiaisteil. Hill of the castle. Tom, hill; a', of 
the; chaisteil, gen. asp. of caisteal, castle. The castle hill 
had been the seat of the courts of the barony of Glenbucket, 
and the place where criminals were hanged. 

Tom a' Chaoruinn. Hill of the rowan-tree. Tom, hill; 
a', of the; chaoruinn, gen. asp. of caorunn, rowan-tree. 

Tom a' Char. Tomachar. Hill of the fen. Tom, hill; 
a', of the; char, gen. asp. of car, fen, level hilly ground. 
There is a pool on the top of the hill. 

Tom a' Charraigh. Hill of the stone. Tom, hill; a', of 
the charraige, gen. asp. of carraig, pillar, rock. 

Tom a' Chatha. Hill of the path. Tom, hill; a', of 
the; chatha, gen. asp. of cath, path. See Ca. 

Tom a' Chuir, Tom a' Churr. Hill of the hole. Tom, 
hill; chuir, gen. asp. of curr, pit, hole. The normal form of 



•316 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

the gen. of curr is corra, but cuir and curr are also found in 
names. 

Tom a' Gharraidh. Hill of the enclosure. Tom, hill; 
a', of the; gharraidh, gen. asp. of garradh, garden, fold, any 
enclosed place. 

Tom an Lagain. Hill of the little howe. Tom, hill; an, 
of the ; lagain, gen. of lagan, little howe. 

Tom an Totaich (for Toman Tothach). Vapoury knoll. 
Toman, knoll; tothach, vapoury. Probably the knoll is so 
named because in a calm, frosty winter morning when the 
sun shines on it the hoar-frost on the ground is converted 
into invisible vapour, which afterwards becomes visible 
when it rises into the cold atmosphere. 

Tom an Uird. The top of the high ground. Tom, hill; 
an, of the; uird, gen. of ord, hill, upland. 

Tom Anthon (probably for Tom an Chona). Hill of the 
cotton-grass. Tom, hill; an, of the; chona, gen. asp. of 
■cona, cotton-grass, cat's-tail (Eriophorum angustifolium). 
Ch often became th. 

Tom Bad a' Mhonaidh. Hill of the grove on the moor. 
Tom, hill; bad, bush; a', of the; mhonaidh, gen. asp. of 
monadh, moor, hill. 

Tom Ban. White hill. Tom, hill; ban, white. See 
Chuithail. 

Tom Beith, Tombay. Hill of birches. Tom, hill; beith, 
gen. plural of beith, birch-tree. 

Tom Bheithe. Hill of the birch. Tom, hill; bheithe, 
gen. asp. of beith, birch-tree. 

Tom Breac, Tombreck. Hill showing patches of dif- 
ferent colour from the main part. Tom, hill; breac, spotted, 
dappled. 

Tom Buailteach. Hill of the cow-houses. Tom, hill; 
buailteach, gen. plural of buailteach, byre, cow-house occu- 
pied only in summer. 

Tom Buirich. Hill of rutting. Tom, hill; buirich, 
rutting of deer. 

Tom Cholige. Hill of the Cholige burn. Tom, hill; 
choilleig, gen. asp. of coilleag, loud cheerful sound. 

Tom Dubh. Black hill. Tom, hill; dubh, black. 

Tom Dunan. Both parts mean hill. Tom, hill; dunan, 
dim. of dun, hill. The first had been added to explain the 
second. 

Tom Full (for Tom a' Chuil). Hill of the bottom. 
Tom, hill; a', of the (suppressed); chuil, gen. asp. of cul, 
bottom. The name is given to a hillock having on the top a 
hollow with a closed curved end, between two borders of 
higher ground. The letter c had been aspirated and ch had 
been changed to ph, which is /. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 317 

Tom Garchory. Hill of the rough corry. Tom, hill; 
garbh, rough; choire, gen. asp. of coire, corry. 

Tom Giubhais. Fir hill. Tom, hill; giubliais, gen. of 
giubhas, fir. 

Tom Glady Wood. Wood of the protected hill. Tom, 
hill; gleidhtc, protected, preserved, retained from general 
pasturing. 

Tom Harlach (for Tom Airidh Laimh). Hill of the 
shieling on the hill. Tom, hill; airidh,- shieling ; laimh, gen. 
asp. of lamh, hill. Tom is probably a late addition. 

Tom Lair. Hill of the cultivated ground. Tom, hill; 
lair, gen. of lar, ground. 

Tom Liath. Grey hill. Tom, hill; Uatli, grey. 

Tom Meann. Hill of the kids. Tom, hill; meann, gen. 
plural of meann, kid. 

Tom Mor. Big hill. Tom, hill; mor, big. 

Tom na Croich, Tom na Croiche. Hill of the gallows. 
Tom, hill; na, of the; croiche, gen. of croich, gallows. 

Tom na Dubh Bhruaich. Hill of the black bank. Tom, 
hill; na, of the; dubh, black; bhruaich, gen. asp. of bruach, 
bank. 

Tom na Gabhar. Hill of the goat. Tom, hill; na, of 
the; gabhair, gen. of gabhar, goat. 

Tom na h-Elrig. Hill of the rocky slope. Tom, hill; 
na, of the; h (euphonic); ail, gen. of al, hill, rocky hill; 
ruigh, slope at the base of a hill. 

Tom na h-Ola. Hill of the oil. Tom, hill; na, of the; 
h (euphonic); olaidh, gen. of ola, oil. Scum on water im- 
pregnated with iron is supposed to be oil. 

Tom na Moine. Hill of the moor. Tom, hill; na, of 
the; moine, gen. of moine, moor. 

Tom na Wan Wood. Wood of the hill of the lambs. 
Tom, hill; nan, of the; van, gen. plural of nan, lamb. 

Tom of Balnoe. Hill of new town. Tom, hill; baile, 
town; nodha, new. 

Tom Odhar. Dun hill. Tom, hill; odhar, dun. 

Tom Tough's Well (probably originally Tobar Tulaich). 
Well of the hill. Tobar, well; tulaich, gen. of tulach, hill. 
When tobar was translated into well and put last, torn, hill, 
had been prefixed. 

Tom Ullachie. Hill of preparation. Tom, hill; ullach- 
aidli, gen. of ullachadh, preparation. The name seems to 
refer to sorting cattle collected at markets and arranging 
them for their journey southward. See Loch Ullachie. 

Tomachal. Hill of the narrow place. Tom, hill; a', of 
the; chaoil, gen. asp. of caol, narrow. 

Tomachallich (for Tom a' Choilich). Hill of the burn. 
Tom, hill; a', of the ; choilich, gen. asp. of coileach, hill burn 



•318 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Tomachon (for Tom a' Chona). Hill of cotton-grass. 
Tom, hill; a', of the; chona, gen. asp. of cona, cotton-grass, 
cat's-tail grass (Eriophorun angustifolium). 

Tomachuirn. Hill of the hill — a tautological name. 
Tom, hill; a', of the; chuim, gen. asp. of cam, hill. 

Tomanchapel (for Tom an Seipeil). Hill of the chapel. 
Tom, hill; an, of the; seipeil, gen. of seipeal, chapel. 

Tombay. See Tom Beith. 

Tombeg. Little hill. Tom, hill; beag, little. 

Tombreck. See Tom Breac. 

Tomcur (for Tom Curra). Hill of the bend in the 
Deveron. Tom, hill; curra, gen. of curr, pit, hole, corner. 

Tomdarroch. Oak hill. Tom, hill; daraich, gen. of 
darach, oak tree, oak wood. 

Tomdubh. See Tom Dubh. 

Tomhearn. Hill of the sloes. Tom, hill; h (euphonic); 
■airne, sloe. 

Tomiedhu. Black hillock. Toman, hillock; dubh, black. 

Tomintoul. Knoll of the hollow. Toman, knoll; tuill, 
gen. of toll, howe. 

Tommy's Castle. Perhaps the first part of this name had 
been toman, little hill. 

Tomnahay (for Tom na Chuidh). Hill of the cattle-fold. 
Tom, hill; na, of the; chuidh, gen. asp. of cuidh, cattle-fold. 
C had become silent after aspiration. Dh is equivalent to y, 
and huidh had been at first pronounced hoo-i-y, later hey, 
and finally hay. 

Tomnamoine. Same as Tom na Moine. 

Tomnaeiest (for Tom na Ciste). Hill of the cist. Tom, 
hill; na, of the; ciste, cist, stone grave chamber. 

Tomnavan. Hill of the women. Tom, hill; nam, of the; 
bhan, gen. plural of ban, woman. 

Tomnaverie (for Tom na Faire). Hill of the watch. Tom, 
hill; na, of the; faire, guard. F is an aspirated letter, and it 
had been changed to bh, equivalent to v. 

Tomnvey (for Tom a' Bheithe). Hill of the birch-tree. 
Tom, hill; a , of the; bheithe, gen. asp. of beith, birch-tree. 

Tomnavone (for Tom a' Mhoine). Hill of the moss. 
Tom, hill; a , of the; mhoine, gen. asp. of moine, moss, 
moor. 

Tom's Cairn, Tomscairn, Tam's Hill. Both parts of 
these names mean hill. Tom, hill; earn, hill. The insertion 
of 's had been made in the belief that Tom was a personal 
name in the possessive. 

Tom's Forest. Forest on a hill. Tom, hill. 8 is non- 
significant, being an affix made in the mistaken belief that 
Tom was a man's name. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 319 

Ton Burn. Burn in the bottom of a hollow. Ton, 
bottom. 

Tonley (for Ley Tona). Grassy place in the bottom of a 
valley. Ley, grass land; tona, gen. of ton, bottom. 

Tonnagaoithe. Back of the wind. Ton, back, backside; 
na, of the; gaoithe, gen. of gaoth, wind. 

Tonrin Burn. Burn at the bottom of a promontory. 
Ton, bottom; rinne, gen. of rinn, point. 

Tophead. Top of the cattle-fold. Top, upper end; cliuid, 
gen. asp. of add, cattle-fold. After aspiration c had become 
silent. 

Toppies. Small tops. But perhaps the original form had 
been tapan, small top, and an had been made both ie and s, 
representing an both as a dim. and a plural termination. 

Tor Hill (for Torr). Hill. Torr, steep abrupt hill. 

Torandarroch. Hill of the oak wood. Torr, hill; an, 
of the; daraich, gen. of darach, oak, oak grove. 

Torbeg. Small hill. Torr, steep hill; beag, little. 

Tore Burn. Hill burn. Torr, steep abrupt hill. 

Torgalter. Coward's grave. Torr, grave; gcaltaire, 
gen. of gealtair, coward. 

Torhendry (originally Kuigh Fhin). Slope of the hill. 
Ruigli, slope; fhin (/ silent), fin asp., hill. Ruigh was put 
last, and torr, hill, was prefixed to explain fhin. D is a 
euphonic insertion. 

Torminade. Flat-topped abrupt hillock on a moor. Torr, 
hillock; monaidh, gen. of monadh, moor. 

Tornabuckle. Hill of the shepherd. Torr, steep hill ; 
an, of the; buachaille , shepherd, cowherd. 

Tornagawn. Hill of the fold. Torr, hill; na, of the; 
gabhainn, gen. of gabhann, fold. 

Tornahaish. Steep hill. Torr, hill; na, of the; chais, 
gen. asp. of cas, steep ascent. 

Tornahatnach (for Torran Chatanach). Steep, rough 
hillock. Torran, steep, abrupt hillock; chatanach, catanach 
asp., rough, shaggy. 

Tornamean. Hill of the kid. Torr, hill; na, of the; 
minn, gen. of mean, kid. 

Tornauran. Hill of the little water. Torr, steep flat- 
topped hill; na, of the; ourain, gen. of ouran, small stream. 
See Our. 

Tornaveen (for Torr na Bheinne). Hill of the hill. Both 
parts mean hill. Torr, steep, abrupt hill ; na, of the ; bheinne, 
gen. asp. of beinn, bill. 

Torphins (for Torr Finain). Both parts mean hill, and 
the first is a late addition to explain the second. Torr, steep, 
abrupt hill; finain, gen. of finan, little hill. Ain had been 
changed to s in the belief that it was a plural termination. 



320 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Torquhandallochy (for Torr Ceann an Allachain). Hill 
at the head of the small stream. Torr, steep, abrupt hill; 
ceann, head; allachain, gen. of attachan, dim. of attach, burn. 

Torr Hill. The second part is a translation of the first. 
Torr, steep, abrupt hillock. 

Torr na Sithinn. Hill of the fairy knoll. Torr, abrupt 
hill; na, of the; sithein, gen. of sithean, fairy hill. 

Torr nan Sithean. Hill of the fairies. Torr, small steep- 
hill ; nan, of the; sithean, gen. plural of sith, fairy. 

Torr Uainean. Hill of the little lambs. Torr, steep hill; 
uainean, gen. plural of uainean, little lamb. 

Torra Duncan (for Torr an Dun Can). Hillock of the 
white hill. Torr, hillock; an, of the; dun, hill; can, white. 
Duncan is a late translation into Gaelic of Whitehill, a cor- 
ruption of chuithail, cattle-fold. 

Torran. Small, steep, abrupt hill. Torran is the dim. 
of torr, steep, flat-topped hill. 

Torran Buidhe. Yellow little hill. Torran, small, steep, 
abrupt hill; buidhe, yellow. 

Torran Deallaig (for Torran Deallaichte). Little steep 
hill cut off from others. Torran, little hill, deallaichte, 
separated. 

Torran Dubh. Black knoll. Torran, knoll; dubh, black. 

Torran Toll. Hillock in a howe. Torran, steep hillock 
with flat top; tuill, gen. of toll, howe. 

Torranbuie. Yellow little knoll. Torran, small knoll;. 
buidhe, yellow. 

Torrancroy. Hard little hillock. Torran, small knoll; 
cruaidh, hard. 

Torrandarroch. Knoll growing oaks. Torran, small 
hillock; darach, producing oaks. 

Torrandhu. Black little hill. Torran, small steep hill; 
dubh, black. 

Torrangin. Hillock of sand. Torran, small hill; gain- 
imh, gen. of gaineamh, sand. 

Torries. Small knoll. Torran, dim. of torr, knoll. An 
had been made first ie normally, and secondly s improperly. 

Torrnaflossie (for Torr na Fleosga). Hill of the crown. 
Torr, hill; na, of the; fleasga, gen. of fleasg, crown. The hill 
gets its name from the appearance of its summit. 

Torrnagawn. Steep round hill at a cattle-fold. Torr, 
abrupt, flat-topped hill; na, of the; gabhainn, gen. of 
gabhann, pen-fold for cattle, sheep, goats. See Cachna- 

MINNIEGAWN. 

Torry. Small hill. Torran, steep, abrupt hillock. An 
became y. 

Torry Been (for Torran Beinn). Abrupt, steep hill. 
Torran, small hill; beinn, hill. In post-Gaelic time torran 
had been added to beinn to explain it. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 321 

Torryburn. Burn from the little hill. Torran, dim. of 
torr, steep hillock with flat top. 

Torrycriex. Small steep knoll. Torran, little hill; 
crion, small. 

Torryhillock. Hillock. Torran, dim. of torr, steep, 
abrupt hill. 

Torryleith, Torrylieth. Grey hill. Torran, little hill; 
Hath, grey. 

Torsiiixach. Fox hill. Torr, steep, abrupt hill; sion- 
naich, gen. of sionnach, fox. 

Torterston (for Baile Torr Teasach). Town at a warm 
hill. Baile, town (translated and transposed); torr, steep, 
flat-topped hill; teasach, warm. The second r in Torterston 
had been introduced under the influence of the first. 

Tough. Hill. Tulach, hill. Tough, parish name, is not 
entered in the six-inch O.S. map. 

Tournament Hillock. This name simply means hillock. 
Torr, hillock; an, of the; monaidh, gen. of monadh, hill. 

Toux, Touxhill. Hill. Tulach had been corrupted to 
Touch, to which s had been added in the belief that it was 
a name in the possessive. Ch and s combined had made x, 
as in Bruxhill, for Bruchshill. 

Towanreef (for Buigh an Tuim). Slope of the hill. 
Ruigh, slope; an, of the; tuim, gen. of torn, hill. When the 
meaning of the name had been lost its parts had been re- 
arranged and the name had become Tom an Buigh, hill of 
the slope, and subsequently torn had become tomh, pro- 
nounced tow. Gh of ruigh had been changed to /, which is 
itself an aspirated letter equivalent to ph. 

Towie, Tolly. Small howe. Tollan, dim. of toll, howe. 
before 11 is usually sounded on. 

Towie Barclay. The part of Towie belonging to the 
Barclay family. 

Towie Turner. The part of Towie belonging to the 
Turner family. 

Towmill. Mill of the hollow. Toll (o pronounced ou), 
hollow. 

Towleys. Grassy places in a howe. Toll (pronounced 
toull), hollow; ley, grassy place. 

Tramaud (for Torr Moid). Hill of the court, Torr, hill; 
moid, gen. of mod, court of justice. 

Trancie Hill. Hill of the trench. Treinsc (Irish), 
trench. 

Trefor Hill (for Tir For). Front land. Tir, land; for, 
in front of a farm or house. Sometimes tir and for become 
Fortrie. 

Trefynie (for Tir Finain). Land of the little hill. Tir, 
land: finain, gen. of finan, small hill. 

v 



322 Celtic Plaee-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Treeroot. Perhaps the place had got this name from 
the root of an oak tree having been found there under moss. 

Trinity Quay. This name is given to the part of the quay 
of the harbour of Aberdeen on the east of Market Street. 
The Red Friars, called also Trinitarians, had prior to 1560 a 
convent in the angle between Market Street and Guild 
Street, and this has given the name Trinity to a part of the 
quay and a street and a lane. Trinitas (Latin), the union 
of three in one. 

Trochie. Rock like a dwarf. Troich or droich, dwarf. 

Trotten Slack. Hollow along which droves of cattle 
passed. Treudan, plural of treud, drove; slochd, slack, 
slug, hollow between heights. 

Truffhill, Truff Hillock, Truffhillock. Hillock 
where mossy sods with short heather on them were cut for 
fire-backs or for building walls. Turf, sod. 

Troupsmill. Mill of the hill. Threith, gen. asp. of triath 
(Irish), hill. Triath passed through the following forms in 
becoming troup : — threith, threiph, threip, throop, troup. 

Trumpeter Hillock. Hillock from which a trumpeter 
made signals. 

Truncher Craig. Rock resembling a wooden plate on 
which loaves are cut into slices. Trancher (French), to cut. 
In Scotland a bread-basket is also called a truncher, in ignor- 
ance of its true meaning. 

Truttle Stones. Nothing is known of the meaning of 
this name. It has a slight resemblance to the Gaelic word 
treudail, pertaining to a herd of cattle, being treud, herd, 
with the terminal ail, pertaining to. Truttle stones might 
mean stones set up to mark the boundary of a shieling. 

Tuach Burn, Tuach Hill. North burn, North hill. 
Tuach, north. 

Tula, Tullich, Tullo, Tulloch, Tullos, and Tully at 
the beginning of names represent tulach, a round-headed 
hill. 

Tula Mutton. Middle hill. Meadhonach, middle. 

Tullich. Hill. 

Tullich Burn. Hill burn. 

Tullo. Hill. 

Tulloch. Hill. 

Tullocharroch. Hill of the sheep. Chaorach, gen. 
plural asp. of caora, a sheep. 

Tullochbeg. Little hill. Beag, little. 

Tullochcoy. Hill of the cup-like hollow. Cuach, cup. 

Tullochleys. Grassy places on a hill. Leys, plural of 
ley, grass land. 

Tullochmacarrick. Hill of the rock. Na, of the; car- 
raige, gen. of carraig, rock. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 323 

Tullochmuih. Muir on a hill. 

Tullochpark. Enclosed place on a hill. 

Tullochs. Little hill. Tulachan, dim. of tulach, hill. 
An had been made s instead of ie. 

Tulloch venus (for Tulach Bheannain). Hillock of the 
little hill. Bheannain, gen. asp. of beannan, little hill, which 
had been aspirated to show that it was a qualifying word. 
Bh is equivalent to v, and bheannain had been pronounced 
veannain. Ain had been regarded as a dim. termination and 
had been made ie, but afterwards it had been regarded as a 
plural termination and s had been added to ie, making vean- 
nies, which is now venus. 

Tullochwhinty (for Tulach Choinnte). Hill of meetings. 
Choinnte, euphonic plural asp. of coinne, meeting. 

Tulloford. Ford on a hill. 

Tullos House. Mansion on a small hill. Tulachan, 
dim. of tulach, hill. An had been made s instead of ie. 

Tullykeira. Hill of sheep. Tulach, hill; chaorach, gen. 
plural of caora, sheep. 

Tullynessle (for Tulach an Iseil). Hill of the glen. 
Tulach, hill; an, of the; iseil, gen. of iseal, glen, hollow. 

Tully's Cairn. This is a cairn on a long hill road, serving 
as a guide. The name had probably been at first Carn 
Tulaich, cairn of the hill. Carn, cairn; tulaich, gen. of 
tulach, hill. The order of the parts had been changed, and 
tully having been supposed to be a personal name 's had been 
added to convert it into the possessive. 

Tumuli. Heaps. Tumulus (Latin), heap of stones or 
earth. In some places heaps have been formed of stones 
gathered off the ground to let more grass grow, or to facilitate 
the cultivation of the ground. Many tumuli have been 
found to cover urns and cists containing calcined bones or 
skeletons of uncremated bodies. More modern cairns mark 
the site of places where persons were killed or found dead. 
Tumuli are supposed to mark the site of an engagement 
between Lulach and Malcolm Canmore in 1057. 

Turaraich. Dry Plain. Tur, dry; araich, plain. 

Turclossie. Hill of peace. Torr, steep hill; closaidh, 
gen. of closadh, quiet. 

TURFCRAIG, TuRFGATE, TuRFHILL, TuRFSLACK. Turf 

means peaty soil growing heather or grass, from which were 
cut sods suitable for building walls or for placing at the back 
of hearth fires. Craig means hill, gate is a road, and slack 
is hollow between two heights. 

Turk Wood (for Coille Tuirc). Hill of swine. Coille, hill, 
wood; tuirc, gen. of tore, pig, hog, boar. Coille in old Gaelic 
means hill, not wood. 

Turlundie (for Torr Fhliuchanach). Wet hill. Torr, 



324 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

hill; fJdiuchanach, fliuchanacli asp., wet. Fh being silent 
had been lost; ch had also been lost, and ach had become ie, 
giving Liuanie. D had been inserted after n. 

Turnalief (for Toit na Laimh). Hill. Both parts mean 
hill. Torr, hill; na, of the; laimh, gen. of lamh, hill. 

Turner Hall. Mansion on an estate belonging about 
1732 to a man named Turner. 

Turnishaw Hill (for Torr na Sithe). Hill of the fairy. 
Torr, steep, abrupt hill; na, of the; sithe (pronounced shee), 
gen. of sith, fairy. Sith also means hill, and the second part 
may have been added to explain the first. In Poll Book 
(1696) Turnishaw is made Turnasse, which would represent 
Torr an Eas, hill of the burn. Torr, hill; an, of the; eas 
(pronounced ass), burn. In names eas is often rendered ash. 

Turquschoonach. Frosty hill. Torr, hill; chuisneach, 
cuisneach asp., frosty. 

Turriff. Hill of the circular enclosure. Torr, steep, 
flat-topped hill; rath, circle round a grave, fold. Th had 
become yh, equivalent to /. Riff may represent ruigji, slope 
of a hill. The accent on tur indicates transposition of the 
parts, and the name may mean slope of the hill, referring 
to the site of the castle and the manse. 

Tuskie Braigh (for Braigh an t-Uisge). Hill of the 
water. Braigh, hill; an t-, of the; uisge, water. When 
braigh was put last an had been dropped as not being appro- 
priate for it, but t had been left and annexed to uisge. 

Tweed-dale (for Bail Tuid). Field of the haycock. Dail, 
riverside field; tuid, gen. of tud, cock of hay. The name had 
been given to a riverside haugh where grass was cut and 
made into hay. 

Tyaksnook (for Tigh na Cuile). House at a corner. Tigh, 
house; na, of the; cuile, gen of cuil, nook, corner. 

Tynabaich. House of the cow-byre. Tigh, house; na, 
of the; bathaich, gen. of bathach (th silent), cow-byre. 

Tyrie (for Tirean). Small place. Tirean, dim. of tir, 
land. Ean had become ie. 

Tyries. Bit of land. Tirean, small bit of land. Final an 
had been translated into ie, and afterwards s had been added 
in the belief that it was the plural termination. 

Tyrebagger (for Tulach Bac Airidhe). Hill of the moss 
of the shieling. Tulach, hill; bac, peat-moss; airidhe, gen. 
of airidh, shieling. Tulach becomes tilly, and this is some- 
times corrupted into tirry. 

Tyronhill. Hilly places. Tirean, plural of tir, land. 

Udny (for Uchdan). Brae of a slight eminence. Uchdan, 
dim. of uchd, breast. The letters a and n had been trans- 
posed, as in nearly all names ending in ny or nie. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 325 

Ugie. River flowing with an unbroken surface. Uidh, 
smooth-flowing river. The sound of dh resembles that of gh, 
and in both the sound of ye is audible. The last ten miles of 
the course of the river have little fall. 

Ulaw (for Lamh Chuith). Hill of the fold. Lamh, hill; 
chuith, gen. asp. of cuith. Lamh and Chuith had lost the 
aspirated letters and had then been transposed to get the 
accented syllable first. This had produced Ui La, which is 
now Ulaw. 

Uisge na Meann. Water of the kids. Uisge, water; 
nan, of the; meann, gen. plural of meann, kid. 

Uncle's Hillock. Perhaps the first part represents An 
Coillean, the hillock. An, the; coillcan, hillock, with an 
changed to s instead of ie. 

Une. Old form of Oyne. See " Collections," p. 120. 

Union Street. Street whose name commemorates the 
Union of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Upperthird. The uppermost of three parts into which a 
large farm had been divided after 1782. See Nethertiiird 
and Middlethird. 

Uppertown. In Gaelic Baile Uachdar. Baile, town; 
uachdar, upper. 

Upper YVatererne. See Waterene. 

Urie, Ury. River. Ouran, dim. of our, stream. In the 
Chartulary of Lindores Abbey the Shevock is called Ourie. 
The modern Urie rises on the north side of Wind's ~E*ye hill. 
It is called The Glen Water and The Kellock, and it joins 
the Don at Inverurie. 

Valentine Burn (for Allt Bhaile Taine). Burn of the 
town of wealth in cattle. Allt, burn; bhaile, baile asp., 
town; taine, gen. of tain, herd, wealth in cattle. Baile had 
been aspirated because it is a qualifying word, and as bh is 
equivalent to v it had become vaile, now vale. 

Vat, The. In Gaelic Am Bat. The bath. Bat had been 
aspirated, and as bh is equivalent to v it had been pronounced 
am vat, meaning the bath. 

Vennie (for Bheannan). Little hill. Bheannan, beannan 
asp., little hill. Bh is equivalent to v, and an had been 
translated into ie in Scotch. 

Veshels, The. In Gaelic Am Bhasailan. The danger- 
ous rocks. Am, the; bhasailan, basal asp., with the plural 
termination an added. Then, by translating am into the 
and an into s and changing bh to its equivalent v, the name 
becomes The Vasails. The Veshels are rocks very near to the 
coast of Cruden. 

Viaduct. A road on arches crossing a hollow at a high 



326 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

elevation. The name represents the Latin words via ducta, 
way led over something. 

Vine. Old form of Oyne. See " Collections," p. 120. 

Vitrified Fort. Places called by this title are ancient 
cattle-folds. Attempts had been made in the course of 
erection to fuse the walls together by means of wood ashes, 
salt, or dry seaweed. On Dunnideer the fusion had been 
successfully effected but not on the Tap of Noth. 

Waggle Hill (for Bhagach Aill Hill). Big hill. Bhag- 
ach, bagacli asp., big; aill, bill. Bh is equivalent to tv. Ach 
had been lost, c being silent. 

Wagley (for Bhagach Lamh). Big hill. Bhagach, bag- 
ach asp., big; lamh (mh silent), hill. 

Walla Kirk. Kirk at a town. BJiaile, gen. asp. of 
baile, town. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w. The church is 
said to have been dedicated to a fictitious fifth-century 
bishop named St Volick. 

Walton. Perhaps both parts mean town. Bhaile, asp. 
form of baile, town, might become wal since bh is equivalent 
to w. 

Wakendale (for Uachdar an Dail). Upper field. JJach- 
dar, upper; an, of the; dail, field. 

Wakenwae (for Bhac an Bheath). Moss of the birch. 
Bhac, bac asp., moss; an, of the; bheath, gen. asp. of beath, 
birch. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w. 

Walker Dam. If Walker is of Gaelic origin the name 
means upper dam. Uachdar, upper. 

Walkerhill (for Uachdar Tulach). Upper hill. Uach- 
dar, upper; tulacli, hill. 

Wanton Wells. Town at a fold. Wanton was origin- 
ally chuitail, cuitail asp., which was corrupted into White- 
hill. This was turned into Gaelic by bhandum, white hill 
(bhan, ban asp., white; dun, hill). Wells was originally 
bhaile, baile asp., town. Bh is equivalent to w, and bhandun 
became Wanton, and bhaile became waile, variously made 
Wall, Well, Walls, Wa's, and Wells. 

Ward. Enclosed place. When the cattle on a farm were 
sent to distant pastures cows, calves, and work oxen were 
sometimes kept at home and tethered or put into wards. A 
small plot of grass that could be irrigated and protected was 
also called a ward. 

Ward, The. The prefix " the " indicates a public ward 
to which all the cows in a district or hamlet could be sent. 
The village now called Port Erroll was formerly called The 
Ward. 

Ward Hill, Wardend, Wardford, Wardhead, Ward- 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 327 

house, Wards. These places had all taken their name from 
being enclosed or in the neighbourhood of enclosed places. 
Small plots reserved for cutting grass or for ha}" were called 
wards. 

Wardhouse. The residence provided for a person in 
charge of cattle in a ward. 

Wards of Faichhill. Enclosed places in which live 
stock were guarded. Ward, enclosed protected place ; 
faicille, gen. of faicille, guard, watching. 

Wardlesend. An out-of-the-way place. 

Wareland. If Scotch this name means land on which 
seaweed was frequently laid down for manure. 

Warey Craigs. Rocks overgrown with seaweed. Till 
the middle of last century seaweed collected on beaches or 
cut from rocks was used as manure for grass and grain crops. 
It was also burned for the soda and potash in the ashes, 
called kelp, which were used in glassworks to fuse sand. 
Iodine was also extracted from the ashes. The use of sea- 
weed for manure and manufacturing purposes is now nearly 
obsolete. 

Wark. The hill. This place is over 1000 feet above sea. 
The original form had been Am Braigh, the hill. Avi, the; 
braigh, hill brow. Subsequently the name had passed 
through the following forms: — am bhraigh (pronounced am 
icraigh), ivraich, waricli, warch, wark. 

Warm Burn. Burn which steams in a calm, cold morn- 
ing in winter by the condensation of vapour rising from it. 

Warrackston. If this is a Gaelic name it means high 
town. Bharrach, barrach asp., high up. 

Warthill, Wartle. Hill on which there was a ward for 
cattle. 

Washing Hive. Narrow opening in the rocky coast at 
Inverallochy, where people went to wash clothes. Hive, 
Scotch for haven. 

Watch Craig. Hill on which a watch was kept for cattle 
thieves. Creag, hill. 

Watch Mount. Mount on which a watch was kept. 
Monadh, mount, hill. 

Watchman. Translation of the Gaelic gocaman, domestic 
sentinel. Meikle and Little Watchman are the names of two 
hills in Rhynie. 

Water. Scotch name for a large burn or a river. In 
Aberdeenshire North W T ater and South Water mean the Don 
and the Dee. 

Water of Allachy. Small burn. Allachan, little burn. 

Water of Gairney. Bushing burn. Garbh, rough, 
rushing; abhainn, water. 

Water of the Bogie. River Bogie. 



328 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Watererne, Upper. This name means upper stock of 
cattle. It represents Uachdar Uachdar Airne. Uachdar, 
upper; airne, stock of cattle. After the second uachdar had 
been corrupted into water, the first had been prefixed and 
subsequently translated into upper. 

Waterfolds. Upper folds. Uachdar (ch silent), upper. 

Wateridgemuir. Upperhill moor. Uachdar, upper; aod, 
hill, brae; muir (Scotch), moor, heathery ground. Aod has 
become edge in several names. 

Waterloo. Wet meadow. A Belgian name imported 
into Britain after 1815. At the battle of Waterloo the 
French and the British armies were separated by a low place 
which had been excavated by running water. 

Waternaldy. Far up place on the Corntulloch burn. 
Uachdar, upper, summit; na, of the; alltain, gen. of alltan, 
little burn. 

Wateryslack, Wateryslacks. Wet hollow. Sliochd, 
slack, howe in which a burn runs. A single hollow is often 
spoken of as The Slacks. 

Watthill (perhaps for Chatt Hill). Hill of the drove 
road. Chatt, catt asp., drove road, hill road. 

Watt's Gwight. Boat haven. The original form of the 
name might have been Gja Bhatan, gap of boats. Gja 
(Norse), chasm, opening into the land; bhatan, gen. plural 
asp. of bat, boat. Bh is equivalent to u, v, or w, and an, the 
plural termination, is equivalent to s in Scotch, hence bhatan 
might have become first ivats and then watt's, and being 
regarded as a personal name it would have been put first. 

Waughton (for Bhagach Dun). Big hill. Bhagach , 
bagach asp., big; dun, hill. Bh is equal to w. 

Waulkmill. Mill where cloth was fulled by beating it 
while wet. This made the fibres of wool creep along one 
another and so thickened the cloth. Originally fulling was 
done by walking on the cloth while wet. Hence came the 
personal name Walker. In Gaelic fuller is luadhadair (dh 
silent), which has become Lauder. 

Wealthyton (for Baile Sealbhan). Town of a great herd 
of cattle, which represented wealth. Baile, town; seal- 
bhain, gen. of sealbhan, large number of cattle. 

Weaverwells (for Baile Beath Airidhe). Town of the 
birch-wood on a shieling. Baile, town; beath, birch-wood; 
airidhe, gen. of airidJi, shieling. By aspiration of baile and 
heath, and change of th into bh the name had become Bhaile 
Bheabh Airidhe, sounded waile weav ari. Waile had been 
transferred to the end and the name had then lapsed into its 
present form. 

Wedderhill, Wedderlairs, Wether Hill, Wether 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 329 

liAius. Wedder and Wether represent uachdar (ch silent), 
upper. Lairs is laran, plural of lar, ground. 

Wkktingshill (for Coille Chuitain). Hill of the cattle- 
fold. Coillc, hill; chuitain, gen. asp. of cuitan, dim. of cuit, 
cattle-fold. Ch became wh, which afterwards lost h. Ain 
became ing, and afterwards s was inserted because ain or 
ing was erroneously supposed to be plural. See Cuid. 

Weets. Small cattle-fold. Chuitan, curtail asp., small 
fold. Ch had become bh, equivalent to w, and an, a dim. 
termination, had erroneously been translated by s. 

Weistern, Hill of. This name might have been origin- 
ally Druim Tirean Bheithan, ridge of the lands growing 
birches. Druim, long hill; tirean, plural of tir, land; 
bheithan, gen. plural asp. of beith, birch-tree. Weistern Hill 
is a long ridge. The accent on weis shows that this part of 
the name had been last at first. Beithan would become Weis 
by aspiration of b (which would make it equivalent to w) and 
change of an into s. Th is normally silent in Beithan. 

Well of Auchlaws. Well at a place on a little hill. 
Achadh, place; lamhain, gen. of lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. 
The well is far up on the slope of a hill. Ain, the dim. ter- 
mination, had been supposed to be a plural termination and 
had been translated into s. 

Well of Don. The source of the Don. The Don rises 
on a hillside at 2000 feet above the sea, very near the 
western boundary of Aberdeenshire. A small stream of clear 
water spouts out between a layer of moss and a bed of clay 
in the side of a small pot-shaped hole. 

Well PiOBIN. Well in which long green hair-like vegeta- 
tion grows. Roibein, gen. of roibean, beard-like growth. 

Wellheads. Town at a small fold. Bailc, town; 
ciiuidain, gen. asp. of cuidan, small fold. Baile had become 
Bhaile, which had been corrupted into Well. Chuidain had 
become Huids, c being lost and ain becoming s instead of ie. 

Wellhow (for Howe of the town). Bhaile, baile asp., 
town. Bhaile is pronounced wally, and this had lapsed into 
Well. 

Wells, Hill of (for Baile an Tulaich). Town of the 
hill. Baile, town; an, of the; tulaich, gen. of tulach, hill. 
When tulach had been translated Hill had been put first and 
baile an, made one word, had been put last. Bailean is the 
plural of baile and means towns. By aspiration and change 
of ean into s it had become Bhails, pronounced wails, which 
is now Wells. 

Wells of Dee. The sources of the river Dee. The 
longest and largest branch of the Dee rises on Braeriach at 
4000 feet above sea. Five springs unite and form the Allt a' 
Garbh-choire. For a short distance it is lost to sight among 



330 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

debris. It receives the Allt an Lochain Uaine from Lochan 
Uaine, and is soon after joined by the Allt Lairig Ghru from 
Ben Macdhui. At the junction the west branch is 2 miles 
1100 yards long, and the east branch is 2 miles 440 yards 
long. Below the junction the stream is called the Dee. 

Wells of Kothie. As a large district bears this name 
wells must represent bhailean, plural asp. of baile, town. 
Bh is equivalent to w, and ean had become s, producing 
Wails, which had become Wells. The usual plural of baile is 
bailte or bailtean, euphonic forms. See Kothie. 

Wester Kirn. By the O.S. map Western Kirn appears 
to be the west branch of a burn; but Kirn represents cirein y 
crest of a ridge or long hill. 

Westhall, Vesthall (1451), Wasthall (1549). Both 
Old Westhall and Westhall are in the Poll Book, 1696. 
There is no place called Easthall, and it is certain that West- 
hall must be a corrupted form of a Gaelic name, because it 
is accented now on the first syllable. Probably the original 
name had been descriptive of the site of Old Westhall, and 
it may have been Coill Uisge, hill above the burn (the Gadie). 
Coill, hill; uisge, water, burn. After Uisge had been cor- 
rupted into West and its meaning had been forgotten the parts, 
of the name had been transposed to get the qualifying word 
first as in English. This had produced West Choill, coill 
being now aspirated because it followed its adjective. C in 
choill is silent and had been lost, the name becoming West 
Hoill, which is now Westhall. See Westlewie. Gaelic 
names corrupted into English forms are usually meaningless 
or not appropriate. 

Westlewie (for Uisge Luath). Swift water. Uisge, 
water, burn; luath, swift. 

Wet Fold, Wetwards. These places both mean an 
enclosure in a wet place, which therefore could be used only 
in dry weather. Wet may be a corruption of cuit, fold. 

Wetlands. Probably this name had been originally 
Fliuch Lamhan, wet little hill. Flinch, wet; lamhan, dim. 
of lamh, hill. Fliuch had been translated and lamhan had 
been corrupted into lands, an becoming s. 

Wetness (for Chuit an Eas). Fold at the burn. Chuit, 
cuit asp., fold; an, of the; cas, water. 

Wharlish Burn (for Allt Char Lise). Burn of the mossy 
plain on which there was a fold. Allt, burn; char, car asp.,, 
mossy plain; lise, gen. of lios, fold. Ch had become ivh. 

Wheedlemont (for Monadh Chuidail). Hill of the fold. 
Monadh, hill; chuidail, gen. asp. of cuidail, fold. 

Wheel Burn (for Allt Chuile). Burn of the nook. Allt, 
burn; chuile, gen. asp. of cuil, nook. Ch had become wh. 

Whigabuts (for Uig a' Bhuthain). Corner of the hut. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 331 

Uig, nook; a', of the; bhuthain, gen. asp. of buthan, hut. 
When the meaning of the name had been forgotten ain had 
become s instead of ie, and the aspirate had been transferred 
from Bhuthain to Uig. This had produced Huig a' Buths, 
now Whigabuts. 

Whin Burn. Hill burn. Fin, hill. 

Whin Hill (Old Aberdeen). Hill where whins grow. 

Whinhill (Aberdeen). As there is no indication of whins 
at this place the name may be a duplicate, both parts mean- 
ing hill. Fin, hill. 

Whinear (for Fin Airidhe). Hill of the shieling. Fin, 
hill; airidhe, gen. of airidli, shieling. Idhe had been lost, dh 
being silent. 

Whineye (for Fin Chuidh). Hill of the fold. Fin, hill; 
chuidh, gen. asp. of cuidh, fold. Ch had become silent and 
had been lost, and so also had dh. This left ui, pronounced 
wee, which had become first ee and then eye. 

Whinnyfold. Fold in a place where whins grew. Old 
Whinny fold is on a knoll, and Whinny might represent finain, 
gen. of fin, hill. 

Whistlebare Hillock. Sheet of water at the top of a 
knoll. Uisge, water; barr, point; tulaicli, gen. of tulach, 
knoll. For euphony Barr had been put at the end of the 
name. 

White Cairn, White Cairns. Cairn is cam, hill, even 
though there may be a cairn on the hill-top. 

White Goose (for Giubhas Chuit). Fir tree at a cattle- 
fold. Giubhas (bh silent), fir; chuit, gen. asp. of cuit, 
cattle-fold. Giubhas had been corrupted into Goose, and 
Chuit had been corrupted into White and put first as being a 
qualifying word. 

White Horse. The figure of a horse on Mormond, 
formed with white quartzite stones. The natural coat of 
heathery peat moss had been removed, and stones gathered 
on the hill had been laid down in the excavation. 

White Inch, Whiteinches, (for Innis Chuit). Enclosure 
forming a cattle-fold. Innis, enclosure ; chuit, gen. asp. of 
cuit, fold. Chuit had been corrupted into White and had 
then been put first because it was thought to be an English 
adjective. Final s in Whiteinches represents s in Innis. 

White Lady (for Leathan Chuit). Broad fold. Leathan, 
broad; chuit, cuit asp., fold. Leathan had become success- 
ively Leadhan, Leadan, Leady, Lady. Chuit had. been 
aspirated because its adjective preceded it. When it had 
been corrupted into White it had been put first as being an 
adjective in English. 

White Mounth, White Mountain. Hill had been trans- 



332 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

lated into monadh, hill, mountain, and it had been made 
mounth and mountain when it was turned again into English. 

White Rock. This name is purely English. It repre- 
sents a white rock in a field. 

White Well, Whitewell, (for Baile a' Chuit). Town 
of the fold. Baile, town; a', of the; chuit, gen. asp. of cuit, 
fold. When Chuit became White it had been put first, and 
Baile had become Bhaile, pronounced waile, which had 
become Well. 

White Whins. Whins means small hill. It was origin- 
ally finan, small hill. By aspiration of / and change of an 
into s it became first fhins and then whins. 

Whttebog, Whiteburn, Whitemyre, Whitestripe. In 
these names white represents chuit, gen. asp. of cuit, cattle- 
fold. Cattlefolds were usually near a supply of water. The 
English or Scotch part of the names had originally been 
Gaelic words preceding chuit. 

Whitebrow. Broiv represents bruch, hill, with ch silent. 

Whitecross (for Crasg Chuit). Crossing at a cattle-fold. 
Crasg, crossing; cliuit, cuit asp., cattle-fold. 

Whitefield, Whitefields, Whitehaugh, Whiteley, 
Whiteleys, White Links, Whitelinks, Whiteside, White 
Spot, Whitespot, White Stone, Whitestone, White- 
stones. White in these names represents chuit, gen. asp. of 
cuit, cattle-fold. It had originally been last in the names, 
but having been corrupted into an English adjective it had 
been put first. The second parts had been Gaelic words 
descriptive of something at the folds or places around them, 
and these had afterwards been turned into English, unless 
they are recent additions. See Links. Side and Spot mean 
site, place. Side represents suidhe, site, and Spot is a trans- 
lation of suidhe. Stones were frequently set up at folds to 
let the cattle rub their necks, and stone circles were some- 
times made into folds. 

Whitehall. From the situation of this place Hall may 
be held to mean farm-house, and White is probably also 
modern. 

Whitehill, Whitebrow, White Cairn, Whitecairn, 
White Cairns, White Hill, Whitehill s, Whitehillock, 
Whitehillocks, White Knowe, Whiteknowes, Whitelam, 
Whitelums, White Mounth, White Mountain, White- 
rashes, Whiteshin, White Whins, Whythal. All these 
names had originally been chuithail, fold for cattle, which had 
been corrupted into Whitehill, an English term of similar 
sound. There are more than thirty places in Aberdeenshire 
called White Hill, Whitehill, Whitehills, Whitehillock, or 
Whitehillocks, the slight variations from the original form 
having been made in comparatively recent times ; but in a 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 333 

large number of eases the name Whitehill had been turned 
into Gaelic by two words, one meaning while and the other 
hill or some part of a hill. These new names have no refer- 
ence to folds or resemblance to chuithail, from which they 
originally sprung. Geal Cham, Torbane, Melvin, Bainshole, 
Pinkie, Duncan are specimens of this class. In another 
large class the first part of Whitehill has remained un- 
changed, but the second part has been translated into Gaelic 
by words meaning hill or part of a hill. Some of these have 
preserved the hybrid form of White combined with a Gaelic 
word, but others have been made wholly English, either by 
corruption of the second part (as in Whitebrow, Whiteshin, 
Whiterashes, White Whins) or by translation again into 
English (as in White Mounth, White Mountain, White 
Knowe, Whitelmowes). Usually final s is a euphonic, non- 
significant addition ; but it may represent final an in a Gaelic 
word, as in cnapan, dim. of cnap, small hill, where an had 
improperly been regarded as a plural termination and 
Cnapan had become Knowes, instead of Little Knoll. 

t Whiteknowes. Hill had been made cnapan because 
there had been no hill but only a knowe at the place, and 
Cnapan had afterwards been translated by Knowes, instead 
of Knappie or Small Knoll. 

Whitelam, Whitelums. Lam represents lamh, hill, h 
being dropped, and Lums represents lamh an, dim. of lamh, 
in which an had been made s instead of ie. The reason of 
introducing the dim. form was that there was nothing fit to 
be called a hill at the place. 

Whiterashes. Rashes is for ruighcan, dim. of ruighe, 
slope of a hill. An had become s instead of ie. Ie, however, 
is used in Reekie, a farm on a slope, and in Auld Reekie, the 
local familiar name for Edinburgh, meaning the town on 
the high slope between the Castle and Holy rood. 

Whiteshin. Shin is sithean, small hill, with th and its 
vowels omitted because silent. 

Whiting Craig (for Creag Chuitain). Rocky place of the 
small fold. Chuitain, gen. asp. of cuitan, small fold. After 
being converted into an English word the last part had been 
made the first. 

Whynietown (for Baile Choinne). Town where as- 
semblies were held. Baile, town (translated and transposed) ; 
choinne, gen. asp. of coinne, meeting, perhaps to hold a 
barony court. 

Whythal. Hal represents choill, coill asp., hill. C being 
silent had been dropped. Whythal was the name of a cattle- 
fold on the south side of the Don, half-way between the Brig 
of Balgownie and the site of the new bridge. 



■334 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Wicket Well (for Tobar Uige). Well of the nook. 
Tobar, well; uige, gen. of uig, corner, bay, nook. 

Wicketslap. Hill of the corner. Sliabh, hill; uige, gen. 
of uig, nook. Very likely the original form of the name had 
been Uig Sleibhe, corner of the hill. 

Wicketwalls (for Baile Uige). Town of the nook. 
Baile, town; uige, gen. of uig, nook. The parts of the name 
had. been transposed, and Baile had become Bhaile, pro- 
nounced waile, which had become first Wall and afterwards 
Walls. 

Widdie Hillock. There is said to be the site of a camp 
on this hillock, which shows that the names means cattle- 
fold hillock. The name had originally been Toman Chuidain, 
hillock of the cattle-fold. Tvman, hillock (translated) ; 
chuidain, gen. asp. of chuidan, small cattle-fold. Gh had 
been changed to wh, and subsequently h had been dropped. 

Wife's Step (for Chuidh, cuidh asp.) Fold. Wife repre- 
sents chuidh with eh lost and dh made ph, equivalent to /. 
Final 's had been added to convert ivife into the possessive 
case. Step is the translation of the Gaelic word Uidh left 
after loss of ch in Chuidh. Wife's Step is a combination of 
two corruptions of Chuidh. 

William's Stones, Williamston, Willie Wood's Hole, 

WlLLIEHEAD, WlLLIE'S FaULD, WlLLIE'S HAVEN, WlLLIE'S 

Well, Willings, Wills Forest. The first part of these 
names represents uileann, corner, turning. Ie represents 
ann regarded as a dim. termination, and s represents it as a 
plural termination. In Willings ann became ing, and s had 
been added in the belief that it was a plural termination. 
Wood's and Head both represent chuid, cuid asp. fold. In 
the first ch had become wh, and afterwards h had been 
dropped. In the second c had been lost, being silent, and 
Huid had become Head. Willings is a place where a burn 
makes a turn at a right angle. 

Windhill. In Gaelic Coill Gaothach. Windy hill. 
Coill, hill; gaothach, windy. 

Wind's Ee, Wind's Eye, Windseye, Windyside, (for 
Gaothach Suidhe). Windy site. Gaothach, windy; suidhe, 
-site. In some of the names s had been transferred from 
Suidhe to Wind. Suidhe had lost dhe in some of the names, 
but had kept it in Windyside. Suidhe by loss of s and dhe 
became ui, pronounced ive, but this had become ee, supposed 
to be a Scotch word and therefore changed to eye with a new 
sound. In many cases Gaothach Suidhe became Gateside. 

Windy Edge (for Gaothach Aod). Windy brae. Gaoth- 
ach, windy; aod (o silent), brae. Ge in Edge arises from the 
forcible sounding of d in Aod. The same change of Aod into 
Edge is seen in Edgehill. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 335 

Windyheads (for Gaothach Chuidan). Windy little fold. 
Gaothach, windy; clinician, cnidan asp., dim. of mid, fold. 
Cuidan had been aspirated because it follows its adjective. 
Ch in Chuidan, being silent, had been lost, and an had been 
regarded as a plural termination, wherefore s had been added 
to Huid, and it is now Heads. 

Windy Hills. In Gaelic Coillean Gaothach. Coillean, 
plural of coill, hill; gaothach, windy. 

Windywalls Bog. The original form of Windywalls had 
been Gaothach Bhaile, windy town. Gaothach, windy; 
bhaile, baile asp., town. Gaothach had been translated into 
Windy and Bhaile had been corrupted into Walls. See 
Baile. There had been shieling huts at Windywalls Bog at 
an early time. 

Wine Well (for Tobar Laimh). Well of the hill. If Tobar 
had been translated into Wells and Laimh had as usual be- 
come Lamb the name would have become Lamb's Well. By 
translating Lamb's into uain, gen. of nan, lamb, the name 
would have become Uain Well^ which would readily have 
become Wine Well. There was a tendency to change Gaelic 
names into somewhat similar English names, but at a later 
time many of these were translated into Gaelic words quite 
different in meaning from the original name. 

Wineburn (for Allt Uan). Burn of lambs. Allt, burn 
(translated and transposed); uan, gen. plural of uan, lamb. 
The banks of the burn had been the feeding-place of lambs. 

Wisdom How (for Iochd Uisge Tuim). Howe of the loch 
of the hill. Iochd, howe; uisg, water; tuim, gen. of torn, 
hill. There is a loch near this hill farm. 

Wishach Hill. Watery hill. Uisgeach, watery. 

Witches Hole. Hole in the rocks on the coast of Cruder: 
supposed by fishermen to be inhabited by witches. 

Witchhill (for Coill Bheith). Hill of birches. Coill, hill ; 
bheith, gen. plural asp. of beith, birch-tree. Bheith had been 
strengthened by the insertion of c between t and h, and bh 
had been sounded like w. 

Witchock Loch. Loch in a place growing birches. 
Bheathach, abounding in birches. Bheathach is beathach 
asp., which changes its pronunciation to wcathach, and it 
had lapsed into Witchock. 

Witter, The. In the first edition of the Ordnance Sur- 
vey maps Witter was the name given to a survey mark. In 
the second it is made a place name, but this seems a mistake. 

Wogle Burn (for Allt Bhaoghail). Burn of danger. Allt, 
burn; bhaoghail, gen. asp. of baoghal, danger. Bh is here 
•equivalent to w. Wogle may be the same as Waggle. 

Wolf Grain. Branch of a burn once haunted by a wolf. 



336 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Wolf Hill. Perhaps hill of the grave. Uam/t (pro- 
nounced oo-av), grave. Wolf is pronounced oof in Scotch. 
The hill seems unlikely to have been the haunt of a wolf. 

Wolflaw. Hill of the wolf. Lamh, hill, law. 

Wolfstone, Woofstone. Perhaps these stones marked 
places where graves had been made. 

Womblfhill. Hill of assembly. Chomhdhala , gen. asp. 
of comhdhail, meeting, assembly. 

Woodhead. This is likely to be a modern name given to a 
place at the upper side of a wood. In ancient names head 
represents chuid, cuid asp., cattle-fold. 

Woodie Knowe, Wuddy Hill. These names may be 
wholly English, but they seem to represent Tom Chuidain, 
hill of the small fold. Tom, hill, knowe; chuidain, gen. asp. 
of cuidan, dim. of cuid, fold. Oh had become first wh and 
afterwards w by losing the aspirate. Ain became ie. 

Woodthorpe. Village at a wood. Dorp (Dutch), village. 

Woolhillock (for Toman Uileinn). Hillock in a corner 
of an estate. Toman, hillock; uileinn, gen. of uileann, 
corner. Einn had been regarded as a dim. termination and 
uileinn had become u-il-y, resembling woolly in sound. From 
this had been developed Woolhillock. 

WOOLMANHILL, WOOLLEN HlLL, WOMAN HlLL. Hill at 

the corner. Uileann, corner. These three names are found 
applied to the high ground beside Schoolhill Railway Station, 
Aberdeen. The corner is the bend in the course of the Den- 
burn, which is now covered up. The turn is at the east end 
of Skene Street. See Woolhillock. 

Worldsend. Out-of-the-way place. 

Wormiewell. Well with drowned worms at the bottom. 
Worms enter drains to get water and are swept on to a well 
or burn into which the drain discharges. They breathe by 
the skin and drown if long immersed in water. 

Wormyhillock. Hillock growing wormwood. Bhurmaid, 
barmaid asp., wormwood. Bhurmaid is pronounced wur- 
maid, and the local pronunciation of wormwood is wurmit. 
This plant was formerly grown to supply a decoction to be 
used in curing children and domestic animals affected by 
intestinal worms. 

Wrae. Hill. Bhraighe, braigh asp., hill. Bh is equi- 
valent to v or w, and Bhraighe is locally pronounced vrae. 
The spelling wrae shows that bh had at first been sounded w ; 
now w is silent. 

Wraes. Small place on a hill. Bhraighean, braighean 
asp. dim. of braighe, hill. An had improperly been regarded 
as a plural termination and had been changed to s. Bh is. 
equivalent to w, and Braighean had become Wraes. 



Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 337 

Wrangham (for Bhran Thuim). Hill burn. Bkran, bran 
asp., burn; thuim, gen. asp. of torn, bill. Bh in bhran is 
equivalent to u, v, or w. Th of Thuim had been lost after 
being aspirated. 

Wreaton (for Baile Bhraigh). Town at a hill. Baile, 
town; bhraigh, gen. asp. of braigh, hill. When Bhaile was 
translated the parts of the name had been transposed. 

Wrightstone. Stone on a hill slope. Ruigh, slope on a 
hill near the base. 

Wyndford. This name may mean Ford on a country lane 
or narrow road. If of Gaelic origin it represents Ath Uan, 
ford of the lambs. Ath, ford; uan, gen. plural of uan, lamb. 
The ford is near the Brimmond Hill, where sheep had 
pastured. 

Yad, Yaud. These names are probably corruptions of 
gja (Norse), chasm, passage into a place. 

Yearly Auld Hole (for Airidh Allt a' Choill). Shieling 
of the burn of the hill. Airidh, shieling; allt, burn; a', of 
the ; choill, gen. asp. of coill, hill. Dh in airidh is sounded y, 
and c of choill is silent. 

Yokieshill (for Tulach Iochdain). Hill of the small 
howe. Tulach, round-topped hill; iochdain, gen. of iochdan, 
dim. of iochd, howe. Ain had properly been changed to ie, 
the Scotch dim. termination, but it had also improperly been 
made s, and this letter had been added to ie. 

Yarrowhillock. Hillock growing Achillea millefolium, 
yarrow. 

Yonder Bognie, for the farthest off of three farms called 
Bognie. Bognie, for bogan, wet place, bog. The two letters 
in an had been transposed. See Yonderton. 

Yonderton. Farther off town. After the bad year 1782 
large farms which had been held jointly by three tenants 
were divided into three parts, often called Oldton, Midton, 
and Yonderton, or Netherthird, Middlethird, and Upperthird. 

Youlsfold (for Cuit Phollain). Fold near a small pool. 
Cuit, fold; phollain, gen. asp. of pollan, small pool. Subse- 
quently the name had passed through these forms: — Cuit 
Fhollain, Cuit Ollain, Oils Fold, Oulsfold, Youlsfold. Ain had 
improperly been changed to s instead of ie. before 11 
sounds ou. Y is a euphonic addition. 

Yowlie Burn (for Allt Phollain). Bum of the little pool. 
Allt, burn (translated and transposed); phollain, gen. asp. of 
pollan, little pool . After Phollain was put first it had lost ph, 
and, as o before 11 sounds ou, Phollain had become Oulain ; but 
ain represents ie in Scotch, and thus the name had become 
Oulie, which had lapsed into Yowlie. 



338 Celtic Place-Names in Aberdeenshire. 

Ythan. Broad river. Othainn, broad river. 

Ythan Wells. Wells of Ythan. The parish church and 
the public school are near the sources of the Ythan. 

Ythan side. Bank of the river Ythan. 

Ythsie (for Suidhe Chuith). Place near a fold. Suidhe, 
site, place; chuith, gen. asp. of cuith, fold. By transposition 
the name had become Chuith Suidhe. Ch had become silent 
and had been lost with u. Suidhe had lost dh, which is often 
silent. There remained Ith Suie, which is now Ythsie. 



VOCABULARY OF WORDS AND MEANINGS 

Bequired for the Etymology of the Names of Places 
in A bcrdcenshire but not contained in Macleod 
and Dewar's Gaelic Dictionary. 



In working out the etymology it was found that for some 
names the meanings of words given in dictionaries were 
not suitable. Though many mountain names begin with 
earn the nearest meaning given is a heap of stones. In 
names it generally means a mountain or hill rising above 
its neighbours. Creag or craig is very common in names 
with the meaning of hill. In dictionaries the only meaning 
is rock or cliff. 

For a considerable number of names it was necessary to 
postulate the existence of Gaelic words not to be found in 
any dictionary. Allan, stream; fin, hill; calla, marsh; lamh, 
hill, are not in dictionaries, but they are in Aberdeenshire 
place-names. It became evident that the ancient language 
of Scotland had been fuller than modern literary Gaelic, 
and that the etymologist must to a great extent fall back 
on his own resources. Cam and creag were easily made out 
by studying the look of objects with these words in their 
names. Calla is not found in any dictionary, but the look 
of the Ordnance Survey map suggested that in Callamalish 
it must mean marsh, and this guess was confirmed by the 
level meadow-land at Loch Callater. Coill, according to 
dictionaries, means wood ; but this meaning is not appro- 
priate for Glaschoil, Collylaw, Collyhill, Coilsmore, etc. 
The Latin word collis means hill, and this meaning suits 
almost every place with coill in its name. Fin is the first 
syllable of several names, and as it is not in any dictionary 
it was supposed to be connected with fionn, fair. To an old 
woman who lived on a bleak hillside at a place called Finlarig 
the question was put — " Do you think Finlarig a pretty 
place since its name begins with fionn, beautiful? " Her 

answer was that the name began with fin, a hill. It was 

w 2 



340 Vocabulary of Words and Meanings. 

seen at once that this would suit the place and many others 
besides. Fin, hill, explains the names Findlater, Findlay, 
Torphins, Blairfindy, Finnygauld, and others with fin in 
them. 

It had been observed that many names were composed 
of two parts, both meaning the same thing. This gave a 
key to the meaning of names of which only one part was 
to be found in a dictionary. Lamh-bheinn is a name in 
Islay. Lamh was guessed to mean hill, the same as bheinn, 
beinn aspirated, hill, which proved to be true, and this gave 
the root and meaning of names beginning with lam or lamb, 
and of others ending in lam or law. 

The Scotch word cuid, tub, suggested that from the same 
root had come the names Cuidhe Crom, Quiddie, and Fiddie, 
and that they must mean something like a large tub. This 
was found in a cattle-fold made by letting into the ground 
a circular row of the trunks of trees, as in an Argentine 
corral at the present day.. 

There are in x\berdeenshire several places named Fittie- — 
one of them in the city of Aberdeen. This was a puzzle to 
the inhabitants of the place long ago, and no new light 
could be got till it was remembered that one of the Fitties 
is also called Whitehill. As it is neither white nor a hill it 
was thought that Whitehill must be a meaningless corrup- 
tion of some Gaelic word. A search for a word corruptible 
into Whitehill discovered cuitail, meaning cattle-fold. 
Then other names possibly from this word were found in 
Whittlesea, Cuttlehill, Kettle, and Quithel. It was also 
seen that Fittie might be a corruption of cuit, cattle-fold, 
or some of its other forms — chvit, chuith — and that Footie, 
Keith, and Hythie might come from the same root. 

Old Gaelic and Old Irish were identical, and though 
modern Gaelic and modern Irish have diverged from one 
another it was imagined that some words which had 
dropped out of Gaelic might still be found in Irish. 
O'Keilly's Irish dictionary has supplied the roots of many 
Gaelic names not to be found in Gaelic dictionaries. 



Vocabulary of Words and Meanings. 



341 



The following list contains words and meanings which 
it was found necessary to postulate in writing the Etymology 
of the Gaelic Place-Names of Aberdeenshire: — 



Ach, ) 

Ac/,,, f Water " 

Ail( (Irish), hill. 

Airbkeadh (Irish), division. 

Airmheadh (Irish), herd of cattle. 

Airne | (Irish), watching cattle at 

Airnean ) night. 

Aisir, hill. 

Ai/io/iitach, growing junipers. 

^4//, burn — Allamuc. 

Allach, burn— Rinallach. 

A llachan, dim. of allach — Inver- 

allcehy. 
Allan, dim. of all, burn — Inverallan. 
Alt (Irish), high, cliff -Old Head of 

Kinsale. 
Alltan, small burn. 
A/pan, small hill. 
Aod, hill, brae — Aad Braes. 
Aodann, dim. of aod, hill. 
Acmack, high — Angus. 
Aonachadh, meeting of burns — 

Annachie. 
Aran, hill. 
Ard-ar, high land. 
At/t, ford, stream. 
Bac, peat moss — Backburn. 
Bacan, dim. of bac, peat moss — 

Backie. 

Bailean, ~\ 

D ... > small town. 

Bautean, J 

Bard, meadow — Red Beard. 

Bardan, dim. of bard, meadow — 

Glenbardy. 
Bealach, road over a hill or between 

two hills — Balloch. 
Beann, bill. 

Beanntan, dim. of beann, hill. 
Beama (Irish), gap — Bairnie. 
Bearnas, gap, notch — Barns. 
Beathack, growing birches — Behitch. 
Beitheach (Irish), growing birches. 
Biorack, watery — Berryden. 
Bioraa, dim of bior, water. 
Blaigh, part. 
Boc, leap, fall — Bucksburn. 



Bog, marsh, quagmire — Bogbuie. 

Bogan, soft wet place — Bogengarrie. 

Bog/iun, small bend — Buchan. 

Braid (Irish), braigh, hill— The 
Braids. 

Braidi'ati, dim. of braid, hill. 

Braighean, dim. of braigh, hill. 

Braon, hill burn — Brawnsbog. 

Bra/man, dim. of braon, hill burn — 
Brony. 

Breacack, spotted. 

Breith, judgment. 

Brig, cairn, pile of stones. 

Brocl, point. 

Brodan, small sharp point — Brodie. 

Brog (Irish), house. 

Brogan (Irish), dim. of brog, house. 

Bruclt, hill — Brux. 

Bruchach, steep ascent. 

Bruchan, dim. of bruch, hill— Bruxie. 

Buaileag, dim. of buaile, fold — Builg. 

Buicead (Irish), knob, boss — Glen- 
bucket. 

Buidhneach, commanding a good 
prospect. 

Cabar, branch of a burn. 

Cala, \ 

~ ,, -wet meadow — Lallater. 

Valla, I 

Callar,, dim. of calla, wet meadow — 

Kittycallin. 
Camach, crooked. 
Caoch, stream, howe — Coachford. 
Car, mossy plain, fen. 
Cam, hill — Cairnhill. 
Camach, stony, hilly— Cairnie. 
Carr, sepulchral stone pillar, shelf of 

rock. 
< 'arrack, rocky hill. 
Cos, ascent — Baldyfash. 
Ca, 

Cad ha, 
Cath, 
Catha, 
Catt, 
Cotton, dim. of catt, hill road — Ard- 

chattan. 



hill road, drove road — 
Cadger Road, Glencatt. 



342 



Vocabulary of Words and Meanings. 



Ceannan, bold-faced — Benchinnan. 

Ceap, stake. 

C'eap, } plot of ground — Starna- 

Ceapach, ) keppie. 

Ceathach (Irish), showery. 

Ciomadh, combing wool. 

Ciste, stone-lined grave chamber. 

Claigeann, round dry hill. 

Claiseag, dim. of clais, howe, trench. 

Clar, open, clear. 

Cleatkan, small wattled fold. 

Clidk (Irish), assembly. 

Clidhean, dim. of clidh, assembly. 

Coill, 

Goille, 

Coillean, ~\ 

^ ,,, c dim. of coill, hill. 

toitltean, J 

Coire, corry — Corrybeg. 

Coireall, quarry — Coral Howe. 

Gonland (Irish), assembly — Conland. 

Cop, hill — Coplandhill. 

Cor, \ 

Con; J 



hill — Glaschoil. 



round hill — C'orehill. 



<~an, "1 
n-an, ) 

u 



dim. of cor and corr, round 
hill. 



stone circle. 



Coran, 

Cor 

Corl 

Corth 

Cortan, } dim. of cort and corth, 

Corthan, ) stone circle. 

Cos, fold. 

Cra, sheep-cot, fold. 

Crasg, crossing of a hill. 

Crasgan, dim. of crasg, crossing. 

Creach, mountain. 

Creag, hill — Craighill. 

Creagan, dim. of creag, hill — Craigie. 

Croile, fold. 

Crubhan, i 

r, ,, \ small fold. 

Crudnan, J 

Cruinneach, round. 

Cuid, \ 

Cuidh, I 

Cuidail, i 

Cuidhail, ) 

Cuidan, i dim. of cuid and cuidh 

Citidhan, I fold. 

Cuileachan, deep oval hollow. 

Cuiltean, dim. of cuil, nook — Cults. 

Cait, 1 

Cuith, 

Cuitail, 

Cuithail 



fold— Keith, Quithel. 



Cuilan, ~\ dim. of cuit and cuith, 

Cuithan, J fold. 

Cuingach, narrow. 

Damhaireachd, rutting of deer. 

Darach, wooded. 

Darn, ford — Darnabo. 

Darnoch, \ 

r , , ( stony, rocky. 

Dornoch, i ■" J 

Dart (Irish), herd of cattle. 

Bath, burn, blacken. 

Deimhe, darkness. 

Dei ii, den. 

Deinan, dim. of dein, den. 

Der (Irish), small. 

Dile (Irish), whortleberry. 

Dir, steep. 

Disert (Irish), deserted place. 

Dobhran, water, stream. 

Domhan, depth. 

Dorbh (Irish), grass. 

Dornoch, ~| _ 

^ , J- stony — Durno. 

Dumach, ) 

Dorsaii, dim. of dorus, door, gap. 
Draigh, thorntree. 
Drogh, drove of cattle. 
Droighnean, hawthorn. 
Druaip, dropping. 
Dual, curve in a burn. 
Dubhach, blackness, sad. 
Dubhag, little black person or thing. 
Dubhati, blackness. 
Dm; firm, strong, strength. 
Mas, burn — Asquith, Ascott, Scott. 
Easan, dim. of eas, burn — Essie. 
Easg, burn, ditch. 
Easgach, full of marshes. 
Eibhit; castrated goat — Aver Hill. 
Eidil (Irish), prayer, priest — Idle- 
stone. 
Fan, gentle slope. 

Fanach, ~\ ,. . 

v ii ,t ■ v.n "declivity, slope. 
tanadh (Irish), J 

Fanqan, \ ,. , . „ , 

„ . /- dim. of fang, fank. 

raingan, ) 

Far, land — Tillyfar. 

Faran, \ 

Farran, J- dim. of far, land. 

Fearan, J 

Fare, oak. 

Farcan (Irish), oak. 

Fasgidh (Irish), sheltered. 



Vocabulary of Words and Meanings. 



343 



(Irish), session, court. 



,, , > (Irish), land, lawn. 
l'atha \ v 

Fathan, dim. of fath — Fathie. 

Feadan, spring, burn — Inverveddie. 

Fear, heap of stones — Shampher. 

Fear-bogha, bowman, soldier. 

Fearnach, abounding in alders. 

Feit/i, moss, burn, marsh. 

Feithach, boggy. 

Fiacail, tooth. 

Fin. \ i Findon. 

Feu n, ) \ Finlarig. 

Finan, dim. of fin, hill — Finnylost. 

Fir-bhreig, false men, upright stones. 

Flaith } 

Flatha J 

Fleasc -i 

r,, - (Irish), land. 

Fleasg J v " 

Fliuchanach, watery — Lownie. 

For, in front of. 

For, land. 

Forran, dim. of for, land — BogfoiTan, 

Fosaclh (Irish), rest, staying. 

Froianeach, ferns. 

Gabhal,' \ fork between f Gaval. 

Gobhal, i burns — I Goval. 

Gabhann, ) \ Gawn. 

., ,, > cattle-fold — \ ^ 

Gobhann, \ ( Gowan. 

( ''a b/i da ch , t reacherous. 

Gad/i (Irish), danger. 

Gainneach (Irish), sandy. 

Gall (Irish), rock, pillar. 

Gallan (Irish), dim. of gall, rock — 
Gallon. 

Gamhann ) (Irish), fold — Loch na 

Gamhlann ) Gualainn. 

Garbhach, abounding in rough places. 

Gar/, ) enclosure, stone circle, river 

Garth, \ island. 

Gartan, dim. of gar t, enclosure. 

Gasg, tail, slender slip — Balnagask. 

Geadan, small spot of ground. 

Geadhail, field, park — Geddle Braes. 

Gealach, white. 

Gealadh (Irish), whiteness. 

Gealan (Irish), little white thing. 

Gearait, saint, clergyman. 

Giuhlisachan, dim. of giubhsach, pine- 
wood. 

Glais, bay. 

Glaise (Irish), brook, burn— Douglas. 



Glamac/t, noisy. 

Glamlach, chasm in a hill range. 
Glas (Irish), green. 
Gleitk, grazing, feeding. 
< il, [tin a, small grazing. 
Gliusta (Irish), slow. 
Glorack (Irish), prattling. 
Gog, fold. 
Gogan, little fold. 
Gort, gorth, same as gart, garth. 
Gortan, same as gartan — Gordon. 
Grainne, sand — Grant's Hillock. 
Grainneach, sandy. 
Grealsach (Irish), fish, grilse. 
Greann, ripple. 
Greannach, rippling. 
Grein, green. 

Gresach (Irish), common — Gressiehill. 
Grod (Irish), foam, quick. 
Grodan, dim. of grod, quick. 
Gru. } 

Grug, ] g loomv > dark - 
Guaimh, quiet. 
Igh, burn. 

Inbhir, ford, stepping-stones. 
Iochd, howe — Aucheoch. 
Iochda/i, little howe. 
Iseal (Irish), glen — Tullynessle. 
Lairig, hillside, gap, foot-road. 
Lamh, hill — Lambton. 
Lamhan, dim. of lamh, hill. 
Lamh-thir, hill land. 
Lapach, marsh. 
Lapar, ~\ 
Labhar, f '" 

Las, flame, light. 
Loilar, swamp. 
Lean, level place, links. 
Learg, slope. 

Leasg (Irish), spot of ground. 
Leitk, side, half-side. 
Linne, waterfall. 

Lios, circle, cattle-fold— Auchterless. 
Loininn, cattle lane, loaning. 
Lv. (Irish), small. 
Luachar, rushy place. 
Lite, smallness. 

Luis (Irish), drink — Lewis Well. 
Luncart, circle, fold — Auchluncart. 
Luncartan, dim. of luncart, fold — 
Luncarty. 



344 



Vocabulary of Words and Meanings. 



Luth, swift. 

Maghach, abounding in plains — 

Crirnondmogate. 
Maghan, dim. of magh, plain. 
Man, hill — Longmanhill. 
Mannan, Little hill. 
Mansaigh (Irish), settled, tame. 
Moighach (Irish), consisting of plains. 
Moine, moor, moss. 
Mobiean, dim. of moine, moss. 
Moin.se (Irish), dim. of moine, moss. 
Mongach, red. 
Mosaiche, moss. 
Muich (Irish), mist — Muick. 
Murean, dim. of mur, hill— Tech- 

muiry. 
Musach, dirty, black. 
Neach, ghost, apparition. 
Neamhaise (Irish), terrible — Newe's 

Craig. 



Netan, \ 
Nethan, I 



small burn — Nettie, Nethy. 



Nita/Rf 



\ small burn — Nittan. 



Nitkan, J ' 

Noadh (Irish), watching — Noth. 

Og, small — Hogshillock. 

Oirchios (Irish), charity. 

Omh (Irish), lonesome, deserted. 

Oth, broad water. 

Othainn, broad river. 

Our, water — Craigour. 

Ouran, dim. of our, water — Ury. 

Paisdeil, small — Tillypestle. 

Peirse (Irish), row — Percy. 

Pet or Pit, place — Pitmachie. 

Petan or Pitan, dim. of pet, place. 

Picean, little pointed hill. 

Pioste, divided into small pieces— 

Bisset. 

Plaide, plot of ground — Plaidy. 

Pleata, patch, piece. 

Pluc, round knoll. 

Pol!, burn. 

Pollan, dim. of poll, burn — Powis. 

Pouran, small stream — Powrie. 

Raffan, tall bog grass. 

Raich (Irish), elbow T , turn in a road. 

Raineach, ferny. 

Rabin, ~\ , _,. _ 

p I-point of land — The Rawn. 

Raonach, plain country. 



Rath, fort, town, stone circle. 

Rathan, dim. of rath, stone circle. 

Regh (Irish), cross, gallows — Tillery. 

Riach (Irish), grey, brindled, 

Riaehan, dim. of riach, grey. 

Rian (Irish), road, way. 

Roibeach, shaggy, bushy. 

Ron, point. 

Rot, -> 

t> f i Y hill — Rothmaise. 



Rotan, 



dim. of rot and roth. 



Rothan, J 

Ruadhan, red berry, rowan. 

Ruarach, red. 

Ruigh, slope of a hill near the 

base. 
Ruighean, dim. of ruigh, slope — 

Riggin. 
Rmt, hill— The Roost. 
Sac, willow. 

Samh (Irish), quiet, still. 
Samhachan (Irish), quiet place — 

Sauchen. 
Sat, -i 

&^,} drove ' flock - 
Sead\ 

Sed ) ( Irish )' road ' 
Seal, shiel, temporary residence. 
Sealan, shieling, summer pasture. 
Sealbhar, herd, cattle. 
Sear (Irish), dark, black — Sheriff 

Burn. 
Seis, pleasant. 
Stisan, dim. of seis, pleasant — 

Cessnie. 
Sgannag, small drove. 
Sgata (Irish), drove. 
Sgeilg (Irish), rock, hill — Skelly. 
Sgeir, rock, rocky hill. 
Siiheanach, abounding in knolls. 
Slaibhre (Irish), cattle herds — Slowrie. 
Sloe, gorge, ravine, slug, long hollow. 
Slocan, dim. of sloe, long hollow. 
Soghar, wet, "sour." 
Spardan, dim. of sparr, hill. 
Sparr, hill. 
Spin, thorn, thicket. 
Spinan, dim. of spin, thicket — 

Spensal. 
Steall, spring, ditch full of water. 
Stob, pointed hill. 



Vocabulary of Words and Meanings. 



345 



Slue, ) 

... , i r stump of a tree. 

Sugkan, sowans, wetness — Swineden. 
Sughmohr, wet — Summer Street. 
Stride, court, meeting-place. 
Sunnack (Irish), summit — Craig- 

.shannoch. 
Tain (Irish), water, burn. 
Tainan, dim. of tain, burn. 
Taip (Irish), heap. 
Taipeackan, small heap. 
Tairtbhe (Irish), circuit. 
Taithleach (Irish), quietness, pleasant 
Taotkal, resort. 



Teasach, warm — Tassach, Tassats. 

Tench, dry — Teuchar. 

Teuehan, dim. of teuch, dry. 

Togte, i 

Toghte, ) raised U P' hi S h - 

Tochar (Irish), casay. 

Tre, country, place. 

Trialh (Irish), hill — Throopmuir. 

Trcinse (Irish), trench. 

Tur, dry. 

Uidli, slow river. 

Uilleach, oily. 

Uisgeach, watery — Wishach. 

Urc, sty.